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Full text of "History of Howard and Cooper counties, Missouri : written and compiled from the most authentic official and private sources, including a history of its townships, towns, and villages : together with a condensed history of Missouri, a reliable and detailed history of Howard and Cooper counties-- its pioneer record, resources, biographical sketches of prominent citizens, general and local statistics of great value, incidents and reminiscences"

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Cornell University Library 
F 472H8 H67 

History of Howard and Cooper counties, M 

3 1924 028 846 496 
olin Overs 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

















1883. , 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1883, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

St. Louis, Mo.: 
Press of Nixon- Jones Prvn&ing Company. 


What wonderful changes a few years have wrought in 
this western country ! Less than eighty years ago not a single 
white man dwelt within the present confines of Howard and 
Cooper Counties. Their soil, had doubtless, occasionly been 
pressed by the feet of the reckless hunter and the daring ad- 
venturer, but their beautifully rolling prairies, their charming 
timber-fringed streams and enchanting groves were the homes 
of the antelope, the elk, the deer and the red man. How all 
has been changed by the hand of progress ! To-day the busy 
hum of industry everywhere resounds, and the voice of culture 
and refinement echo where once was heard the howl of the wild 
beast and the war-whoop of the Indian. 

These have been years of important events ; events fraught 
with interest to the sons and daughters from the old firesides 
of Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, Ohio and 
Indiana, and from the more distant homes beyond the Atlantic. 
The energy and bravery of these hardy pioneers and their de- 
scendants have made Howard and Cooper Counties what they 
are. Their labors have made the wilderness to "bud and 
blossom as the rose ; " and to preserve the story of this won- 
derful change and to hand it down to posterity as a link in the 
history of the great country of which these counties form an 
integral part, has been the object of this book. While the 
publishers do not arrogate to themselves a degree of accuracy 
beyond criticism, they hope to have attained a large measure 
of exactness in the compilation and arrangement of the almost 
innumerable facts and incidents which are here treated. These 
facts and incidents have been gleaned from the memory and 
notes of the old settlers ; and, although an error may here and 
there seemingly occur, the reader must not hastily conclude 
that the history is in fault, but rather test his opinion with that 
of others familiar with the facts. 


It only remains for us to tender the people of Howard and 
Cooper Counties in general, our obligations for the courtesy 
extended to us and our representatives during the preparation 
of these annals ; without their aid, this history would have 
been left buried beneath the debris of time, unwritten and un- 




The Louisiana Purchase — Brief Historical Sketch 

Descriptive and Geographical 


Geology op Missouri 

Title and Earlt Settlers 

Territorial Organization 

Admission Into the Union 

Missouri as a State 






Civil War in Missouri ..... 


Early Military Eecord op the State 

Agriculture and Mineral Wealth 

Education — The Public School System 

Religious Denominations .... 

Gov. Crittenden's Administration 
















CHAPTER I. page. 

The Pioneer — Introduction, Etc. . ... 87-100 

Events Following Early Settlement — War Clouds . . 100-107 

Territorial Laws — Organization, Etc. ..... 107-128 


Pioneer Life . ... 128-140 

County and Township Systems — Government Surveys . 140-184 

History op Boone's Lick Township ... . 148-167 

History of Franklin Township ... • 157-176 

History of Richmond Township . . . 176-204 

History of Chariton Township . . . 204-236 

History of Prairie, Moniteau, Burton, and Bonne Femme Tps. 236-243 

Bench and Bar — Criminal Record . .... 243-258 

The Press of Howard County ... ... 258-264 

Mexican War — California Emigrants — War of 1861 . . . 264-293 

Agricultural Societies — Railroads — Miscellaneous Matters . 293-307 

Political History . .... 

Physical and Geological Features 

Public Schools of the County 

Ecclesiastical History ... 

List op Howard County Officials from 1816 


Richmond Township 
Chariton Township 
Franklin Township 
Boone's Lick Township 
Moniteau Township 
Prairie Township 
Burton Township 
Bonne Femme Township 
Addendum of Howard County 



Introduction — First Settlements ... 

Customs of Early Days . . . . . . 

Organization of Cooper County — Early Courts 

History of Boonville Township .... . . 

History of Blackwater, Clark's Fork and Clear Creek Townships 








• 586-602 








History of Kelly Township . • • 687-691 


History of Lamine and Moniteau Townships • • 691-694 


History of Lebanon Township . . . • • 694-700 


History of Otterville Township . . 700-709 

History of Palestine Township . . . . 709-716 

History of Pilot Grove Township ... . 715-721 

History of Prairie Home Township ... . 721-725 

History of Saline Township .... . 725-729 

The Press and Public Schools ... ... 729-736 

Political History of Cooper County . . 736-752 

War History ... 752-775 

Bench and Bar — Crime and Suicides 775-789 

Railroads — Miscellaneous Facts . 789-801 

California Emigrants— Temperance Excitement 801-80 5 


Samuel Cole 





The purchase in 1803 of the vast territory west of the Mississippi 
River, by the United States, extending through Oregon to the Pacific 
coast and south to the Dominions of Mexico, constitutes the most im- 
portant event that ever occurred in the history of the nation. 

It gave to our- Republic additional room for that expansion and 
stupendous growth, to which it has since attained, in all that makes it 
strong and enduring, and forms the seat of an empire, from which 
will radiate an influence for good unequaled in the annals of time. In 
1763, the immense region of country, known at that time as Louisiana, 
was ceded to Spain by France. By a secret article, in the treaty of 
St. Ildefonso, concluded in 1800, Spain ceded it back to France. 
Napoleon, at that time, coveted the island of St. Domingo, not only 
because of the value of its products, but more especially because its 
location in the Gulf of Mexico would, in a military point of view, 
afford him a fine field whence he could the more effectively guard his 
newly-acquired possessions. Hence he desired this cession by Spain 
should be kept a profound secret until he succeeded in reducing St. 
Domingo to submission. In this undertaking, however, his hopes 
were blasted, and so great was his disappointment that he apparently 
became indifferent to the advantages to be secured to France from his 
purchase of Louisiana. 

In 1803 he sent out Laussat as prefect of the colony, who gave the 



people of Louisiana the first intimation they had that they had once 
more become the subjects of France. This was the occasion of great 
rejoicing among the inhabitants, who were Frenchmen m their origin, 
habits, manners, and customs. , , . . 

Mr. Jefferson, then President of the United States, on being in- 
formed of the retrocession, immediately dispatched- instructions to 
Robert Livingston, the American Minister at Paris, to make known 
to Napoleon that the occupancy of New Orleans, by his government, 
would not only endanger the friendly relations existing between the 
two nations, but, perhaps, oblige the United States to make common 
cause with England, his bitterest and most dreaded enemy : as the 
possession of the city by France would give her command of the 
Mississippi, which was the only outlet for the produce of the "West- 
ern States, and give her also control oi the Gulf of Mexico, so neces- 
sary to the protection of American commerce. Mr. Jefferson was so 
fully impressed with the idea that the occupancy of New Orleans, by 
France, would bring about a conflict of interests between the two 
nations, which would finally culminate in an open rupture, that he 
uro-ed Mr. Livingston, to not only insist upon the free navigation of 
the Mississippi, but to negotiate for the purchase of the city and the 
surrounding country. 

The questiou of this negotiation was of so grave .a character to the 
United States that the President appointed Mr. Monroe, with full 
power to act in conjunction with Mr. Livingston. Ever equal to all 
emergencies, and prompt in the cabinet, as well as in the field, Na- 
poleon came to the conclusion that, as he could not well defend his 
occupancy of New Orleans, he would dispose of it, on the best terms 
possible. Before, however, taking final action in the matter, he sum- 
moned two of his Ministers, and addressed them follows : — 

" I am fully sensible of the value of Louisiana, and it was my wish 
to repair the error of the French diplomatists who abandoned it in 
1763. I have scarcely recovered it before I run the risk of losing it: 
but if I am obliged to give it up, it shall hereafter cost more to those 
who force me to part with it, than to those to whom I shall 
yield it. The English have despoiled France of all her northern pos- 
sessions in America, and now they covet those of the South. I am 
determined that they shall not have the Mississippi. Although 
Louisiana is but a trifle compared to their vast possessions in other 
parts of the globe, yet, judging from the vexation they have mani- 
fested on seeing it return to the power of France, I am certain that 


their first object will be to gain possession of it. They will proba- 
bly commence the war in that quarter. They have twenty vessels in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and our affairs in St. Domingo are daily getting 
worse since the death of LeCIerc. The conquest of Louisiana might 
be easily made, and I have not a moment to lose in getting out of 
their reach. I am not sure but that they have already begun an at- 
tack upon it. Such a measure would be in accordance with their 
habits ; and in their place I should not wait. I am inclined, in order 
to deprive them of all prospect of ever possessing it, to cede it to the 
United States. Indeed, I can hardly say that I cede it, for I do not 
yet possess it ; and if I wait but a short time my enemies may leave 
me nothing but an empty title to grant to the Republic I wish to con- 
ciliate. I consider the whole colony as lost, and I believe that in the 
hands of this rising power it will be more useful to the political and 
even commercial interests of France than if I should attempt to retain 
it. Let me have both your opinions on the subject." 

One of his Ministers approved of the contemplated cession, but 
the other opposed it. The matter was long and earnestly, discussed 
by them, before the conference was ended. The next day, Napoleon 
sent for the Minister who had agreed with him, and said to him : — 

"The season for deliberation is over. I have determined to re- 
nounce Louisiana. I shall give up not only New Orleans, but the 
whole colony, without reservation. That I do not undervalue Louis- 
iana, I have sufficiently proved, as the object of my first treaty with 
Spain was to recover it. But though I regret parting with it, I am 
convinced it would be folly to persist in trying to keep it. I commis- 
sion you, therefore, to negotiate this affair with the envoys of the 
United States. Do not wait the arrival of Mr. Monroe, but go this 
very day and confer with Mr. Livingston. Remember, however, that 
I need ample funds for carrying on the war, and I do not wish to com- 
mence it by levying new taxes. For the last century France and Spain 
have incurred great expense in the improvement of Louisiana, for 
which her trade has never indemnified them. Large sums have been 
advanced to different companies, which have never been returned to 
the treasury. It is fair that I should require repayment for these. 
Were I to regulate my demands by the importance of this territory 
to the United States, they would be unbounded ; but, being obliged to 
part with it, I shall be moderate in my terms. Still, remember, I 
must have fifty millions of francs, and I will not consent to take less. 


I would rather make some desperate effort to preserve this fine 


That day the negotiations commenced. Mr. Monroe reached Paris 
on the 12th of April, 1803, and the two representatives of the United 
States, after holding a private interview, announced that they were 
ready to treat for the entire territory. On the 30th of April, the 
treaty was signed, and on the 21st of October, of the same year, Con- 
gress ratified the treaty. The United States were to pay $11,250,000, 
and her citizens were to be compensated for some illegal captures., 
to the amount of $3,750,000, making in the aggregate the sum of 
$15,000,000, while it was agreed that the vessels and merchandise of 
France and Spain should be admitted into all the ports ot Louisiana 
free of duty for twelve years. Bonaparte stipulated in favor of 
Louisiana, that it should be, as soon as possible, incorporated into 
the Union, and that its inhabitants should enjoy the same rights, 
privileges and immunities as other citizens of the United States, and 
the clause giving to them these benefits was drawn up by Bonaparte, 
who presented it to the plenipotentiaries with these words : — 

" Make it known to the people of Louisiana, that we regret to part 
with them ; that we have stipulated for all the advantages they could 
desire ; and that France, in giving them up, has insured to them the 
greatest of all. They could never have prospered under any Euro- 
pean government as they will when they become independent. But 
while they enjoy the privileges of liberty let them remember that they 
are French, and preserves for their mother country that affection which 
a common origin inspires." 

Complete satisfaction was given to both parties in the terms of the 
treaty. Mr. Livingston said : — 

" I consider that from this day the United States takes rank with 
the first powers of Europe, and now she has entirely escaped from the 
power of England," and Bonaparte expressed a similar sentiment when 
he said : " By this cession of territory I have secured the power of the 
United States, and given to England a maritime rival, who, at some 
future time, will humble her pride." 

These were prophetic words, for within a few years afterward the 
British met with a signal defeat, on the plains of the very territory of 
which the great Corsican had been speaking. 

From 1800, the date of the cession made by Spain, to 1803, when 
it was purchased by the United States, no change had been made by 


the French authorities in the jurisprudence of the Upper and Lower 
Louisiana, and during this period the Spanish laws remained in full 
force, as the laws of the entire province ; a fact which is of interest to 
those who would understand the legal history and some of the present 
laws of Missouri. 

On December 20th, 1803, Gens. Wilkinson and Claiborne, who 
were jointly commissioned to take possession of the territory for the 
United States, arrived in the city of New Orleans at the head of the 
American forces. Laussat, who had taken possession but twenty days 
previously as the prefect of the colony, gave up his command, and the 
star-spangled banner supplanted the tri-colored flag of France. The 
agent of France, to take possession of Upper Louisiana from the 
Spanish authorities, was Amos Stoddard, captain of artillery in the 
United States service. He was placed in possession of St. Louis on 
the 9th of March, 1804, by Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish 
commandant, and on the following day he transferred it to the United 
States. The authority of the United States in Missouri dates from 
this day. 

From that moment the interests of the people of the Mississippi 
Valley became identified. They were troubled no more with uncer- 
tainties in regard to free navigation. The great river, along whose 
banks they had planted their towns and villages, now afforded them 
a safe and easy outlet to the markets of the world. Under the pro- 
tecting aegis of a government, republican in form, and having free 
access to an almost boundless domain, embracing in its broad area the 
diversified climates of the globe, and possessing a soil unsurpassed for 
fertility, beauty of scenery and wealth of minerals, they had every 
incentive to push on their enterprises and build up the land wherein 
their lot had been cast. 

In the purchase of Louisiana, it was known that a great empire had 
been secured as a heritage to the people of our country, for all time to 
come, but its grandeur, its possibilities, its inexhaustible resources 
and the important relations it would sustain to the nation and the 
world were never dreamed of by even Mr. Jefferson and his adroit and 
accomplished diplomatists. 

The most ardent imagination never conceived of the progress which 
would mark the history of the " Great West." The adventurous 
pioneer, who fifty years ago pitched his tent upon its broad prairies, 
or threaded the dark labyrinths of its lonely forests, little thought that 
a mighty tide of physical and intellectual strength, would so rapidly 


flow on in his footsteps, to populate, build up and enrich the domain 
which he had conquered. 

Year after year, civilization has advanced further and further, until 
at length the mountains, the hills and the valleys, and even the rocks 
and the caverns, resound with the noise and din of busy millions. 

" I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown crowded nations. 
All the land was full of people, 
Restless, struggling, toiling, striving, 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes ; 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys; 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder." 

In 1804, Congress, by an act passed in April of the same year, 
divided Louisiana into two parts, the " Territory of Orleans," and 
the " District of Louisiana," known as "Upper Louisiana." This 
district included all that portion of the old province, north of " Hope 
Encampment," on the Lower Mississippi, and embraced the present 
State of Missouri, and all the western region of country to the Pacific 
Ocean, and all below the forty-ninth degree of north latitude not 
claimed by Spain. 

As a matter of convenience, on March 26th, 1804, Missouri was 
placed within the jurisdiction of the government of the Territory of 
Indiana, and its government put in motion by Gen. William H. Har- 
rison, then governor of Indiana. In this he was assisted by Judges 
Griffin, Vanderburg and Davis, who established in St. Louis what were 
called Courts of Common Pleas. The District of Louisiana was re°-u- 
larly organized into the Territory of Louisiana by Congress, March 3, 
1805, and President Jefferson appointed Gen . James Wilkinson, Gov- 
ernor, and Frederick Bates, Secretary. The Legislature of the ter- 
ritory was formed by Governor Wilkinson and Judges R. J. Meio-s 
and John B. C. Lucas. In 1807, Governor Wilkinson was succeeded 
by Captain Meriwether Lewis, who had become famous by reason of 
his having made the expedition up the Missouri with Clark. Governor 
Lewis committed suicide in 1809 and President Madison appointed 
Gen. Benjamin Howard of Lexington, Kentucky, to fill his place. 
Gen. Howard resigned October 25, 1810, to enter the war of 1812, 
and died in St. Louis, in 1814. Captain William Clark, of Lewis and 
Clark's expedition, was appointed Governor in 1810, to succeed Gen. 


Howard, and remained in office until the admission of the State into 
the Union, in 1821. 

The portions of Missouri which were settled, for the purposes of 
local government were divided into /four districts. Cape Girardeau 
was the first, and embraced the territory between Tywappity Bottom 
and Apple Creek. Ste. Genevieve, the second, embraced the terri- 
tory from Apple Creek to the Meramec River. St. Louis, the third, 
embraced the territory between the Meramec and Missouri Rivers. 
St. Charles, the fourth, included the settled territory, between the 
Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The total population of these dis- 
tricts at that time, was 8,670, including slaves. The population of 
the district of Louisiana, when ceded to the United States was 10.120. 



Name — Extent — Surface — Eivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — Popula- 
tion by Counties. 


The name Missouri is derived from the Indian tongue and signifies 


Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa (from which it is sep- 
arated for about thirty miles on the northeast, by the Des Moines 
River), and on the east by the Mississippi River, which divides it from 
Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee, and on the west by the Indian Ter- 
ritory, and the States of Kansas and Nebraska, The State lies (with 
the exception of a small projection between the St. Francis and the 
Mississippi Rivers, which extends to 36°), between 36° 30' and 40° 36' 
north latitude, and between 12° 2' and 18° 51' west longitude from 

The extreme width of the State east and west, is about 348 miles ; 
its width on its northern boundary, measured from its northeast cor- 
ner along the Iowa line, to its intersection with the Des Moines 


River, is about 210 miles ; its width on its southern boundary is about 
288 miles. Its average width is about 235 miles. 

The length of the State north and south , not including the narrow strip 
between the St. Francis and Mississippi Rivers, is about 282 miles. It 
is about 450 miles from its extreme northwest corner to its southeast 
corner, and from the northeast corner to the southwest corner, it is 
about 230 miles. These limits embrace an area of 65,350 square 
miles, or 41,824,000 acres, being nearly as large as England, and the 
States of Vermont and New Hampshire. 


North of the Missouri, the State is level or undulating, while the 
portion south of that river (the larger portion of the State) exhibits a 
greater variety of surface. In the southeastern part is an extensive 
marsh, reaching beyond the State into Arkansas. The remainder of 
this portion between the Mississippi and Osage Rivers is rolling, and 
gradually rising into a hilly and mountainous district, forming the out- 
skirts of the Ozark Mountains. 

Beyond the Osage River, at some distance, commences a vast- ex- 
panse of prairie land which stretches away towards the Rocky Moun- 
tains. The ridges forming the Ozark chain extend in a northeast and 
southwest direction, separating the waters that flow northeast into the 
Missouri from those that flow southeast into the Mississippi River. 


No State in the Union enjoys better facilities for navigation than 
Missouri. By means of the Mississippi River, which stretches along 
her entire eastern boundary, she can hold commercial intercourse with 
the most northern territory and State in the Union ; with the whole 
valley of the Ohio ; with many of the Atlantic States, and with the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

"Ay, gather Europe's royal rivers all — 
The snow-swelled Neva, with an Empire's weight 
On her broad breast, she yet may overwhelm; 
Dark Danube, hurrying, as by foe pursued, 
Through shaggy forests and by palace walls, 
To hide its terror in a sea of gloom ; 
The castled Rhine, whose vine-crowned waters flow 
The fount of fable and the source of song ; ' 

The rushing Rhone, in whose cerulean depths 
The loving sky seems wedded with the wave- 
The yellow Tiber, chok'd with Roman spoils) 


A dying miser shrinking 'neath his gold ; 

The Seine, where fashion glasses the fairest forms ; 

The Thames that bears the riches of the world; 

Gather their waters in one ocean mass, 

Our Mississippi rolling proudly on, 

Would sweep them from its path, or swallow up, 

Like Aaron's rod, these streams of fame and song." 

By the Missouri River she can extend her commerce to the Rocky 
Mountains, and receive in return the products which will come in the 
course of time, by its multitude of tributaries. 

The Missouri River coasts the northwest line of the State for abput 
250 miles, following its windings, and then flows through the State, a 
little south of east, to its junction with the Mississippi. The Mis- 
souri River receives a number of tributaries within the limits of the 
State, the principal of which are the Nodaway, Platte, Grand and 
Chariton from the north, and the Blue, Sniabar, Lamine, Osage and 
Gasconade from the south. The principal tributaries of the Missis- 
sippi within the State, are the Salt River, north, and the Meramec 
River south of the Missouri. 

The St. Francis and White Rivers, with their branches, drain 
the southeastern part of the State, and pass into Arkansas. The 
Osage is navigable for steamboats for more than 175 miles. There 
are a vast number of smaller streams, such as creeks, branches and 
rivers, which water the State in all directions. 

Timber. — Not more towering in their sublimity were the cedars of 
ancient Lebanon, nor more precious in their utility were the almug- 
trees of Ophir, than the native forests of Missouri. The river bottoms 
are covered with a luxuriant growth of oak, ash, elm, hickory, cotton- 
wood, linn, white and black walnut, and in fact, all the varieties found 
in the Atlantic and Eastern States. In the more barren districts may 
be seen the white and pin oak, and in many places a dense growth of 
pine. The crab apple, papaw and persimmon are abundant, as also 
the hazel and pecan. 

Climate. — The climate of Missouri is, in general, pleasant and 
salubrious. Like that of North America, it is changeable, and sub- 
iect to sudden and sometimes extreme changes of heat and cold ; but 
it is decidedly milder, taking the whole year through, than that of the 
same latitudes east of the mountains. While the summers are not 
more oppressive than they are in the corresponding latitudes on and 
near the Atlantic coast, the winters are shorter, and very much milder, 


except during the month of February, which has many days of pleas- 
ant sunshine. 

Prairies. — Missouri is a prairie State, especially that portion of it 
north and northwest of the Missouri River. These prairies, along the 
Water courses, abound with the thickest and most luxurious belts of 
timber, while the "rolling" prairies occupy the higher portions of 
the country, the descent generally to the forests or bottom lands being 
over only declivities. Many of these prairies, however, exhibit a grace- 
fully waving surface, swelling and sinking with an easy slope, and a 
full, rounded outline, equally avoiding the unmeaning horizontal sur- 
face and the interruption of abrupt or angular elevations. 

These prairies often embrace extensive tracts of land, and in one or 
two instances they cover an area of fifty thousand acres. During the 
spring and summer they are carpeted with a velvet of green, and 
gaily bedecked with flowers of various forms and hues, making a 
most fascinating panorama of ever-changing color and loveliness. To 
fully appreciate their great beauty and magnitude, they must be 

Soil. — The soil of Missouri is good, and of great agricultural capa- 
bilities, but the most fertile portions of the State are the river bot- 
toms, which are a rich alluvium, mixed in many cases with sand, the 
producing qualities of which are not excelled by the prolific valley of 
the famous Nile. 

South of the Missouri River there is a greater variety of soil, but 
much of it is fertile, and even in the mountains and mineral districts 
there are rich valleys, and about the sources of the White, Eleven 
Points, Current and Big Black Rivers, the soil, though unproductive, 
furnishes a valuable growth of yellow pine. 

The marshy lands in the southeastern part of the State will, by a 
system of drainage, be one of the most fertile districts in the State. 




Adair . 


Atchison . 


Barry . 


Bates . 


Bollinger . 


Buchanan . 


Caldwell . 

Callaway . 


Cape Girardeau 



Cass . 

Cedar . 


Christian . 

Clark . 

Clay . . 


Cole . 


Crawford . 

Dade . 


, DeKalb . 

Dent . 

Douglas . 


Franklin . 

Gasconade . 




Harrison . 



Holt . 



Iron . 
* Jackson 
. Jasper 

Jefferson . 


Knox . 

Laclede . 

Lafayette . 

Lawrence . 

Lewis . 

Linn . 
Livingston . 


























































































New Madrid 




Osage . 

Ozark . 


Perry . 

Pettis . 


Pike . 


Polk . 



Rails . 


Ray . 



St. Charles 

St. Clair 

St. Prancois 

Ste. Genevieve 

St. Louis 1 




Scott . 




Stone . 











City of St. Louis 



■ 9,742 






















1,721,295 1,547,030 1 2,168,804 
i St. Louis City and County separated to 1877. Population lor 1876 not given. 









Colored ' 






Classification of Rocks — Quatenary Formation — Tertiary — Cretaceous — Carbonifer- 
ous — Devonian — Silurian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — Iron — Lead — 
Copper — Zinc — Building Stone — Marble — Gypsum — Lime — Clays — Paints — 
Springs — Water Power. 

The stratified rocks of Missouri, as classified and treated of by Prof. 
G. C. Swallow, belong to the following divisions : I. Quatenary ; 
II. Tertiary; III. Cretaceous; IV. Carboniferous; V. Devonian; 
VI. Silurian ; VII. Azoic. 

" The Quatenary formations, are the most recent, and the most 
valuable to man: valuable, because they can be more readily utilized. 

The Quatenary formation in Missouri, embraces the Alluvium, 30 
feet thick ; Bottom Prairie, 30 feet thick ; Bluff, 200 feet thick ; and 
Drift, 155 feet thick. The latest deposits are those which constitute 
the Alluvium, and includes the soils, pebbles and sand, clays, vegeta- 
ble mould, bog, iron ore, marls, etc. 

The Alluvium deposits, cover an area, within the limits of Mis- 
souri, of more than four millions acres of land, which are not sur- 
passed for fertility by any region of country on the globe. 

The Bluff Prairie formation is confined to the low lands, which are 
washed by the two great rivers which course our eastern and western 
boundaries, and while it is only about half as extensive as the Allu- 
vial, it is equally as rich and productive." 

" The Bluff formation," says Prof. Swallow, " rests upon the 
ridges and river bluffs, and descends along their slopes to the lowest 
valleys, the formation capping all the Bluffs of the Missouri from 
Fort Union to its mouth, and those of the Mississippi from Dubuque 

1 Including 92 Chinese, 2 half Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeds. 


to the mouth of the Ohio. It forms the upper stratum beneath the 
soil of all the high lands, both timber and prairies, of all the counties 
north of the Osage and Missouri, and also St. Louis, and the Missis- 
sippi counties on the south. 

Its greatest development is in the counties on the Missouri River 
from the Iowa line to Boonville. In some localities it is 200 feet 
thick. At St. Joseph it is 140 ; at Boonville 100 ; and at St. Louis, 
in St. George's quarry, and the Big Mound, it is about 50 feet ; 
while its greatest observed thickness in Marion county was only 30 

The Drift formation is that which lies beneath the Bluff formation, 
having, as Prof. Swallow informs us, three distinct deposits, to wit: 
"Altered Drift, which are strata of sand and pebbles, seen in the 
banks of the Missouri, in the northwestern portion of the State. 

The Boulder formation is a heterogeneous stratum of sand, gravel 
and boulder, and water-worn fragments of the older rocks. 

Boulder Clay is a bed of bluish or brown sandy clay, through which 
pebbles are scattered in greater or less abundance. In some locali- 
ties in northern Missouri, this formation assumes a pure white, pipe- 
clay color." 

The Tertiary formation is made up of clays, shales, iron ores, sand- 
stone, and sands, scattered along the bluffs, and edges of the bottoms, 
reaching from Commerce, Scott County, to Stoddard, and south to 
the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas. 

The Cretaceous formation lies beneath the Tertiary, and is com- 
posed of variegated sandstone, bluish-brown sandy slate, whitish- 
brown impure sandstone, fine white clay mingled with spotted flint, 
purple, red and blue clays, all being in the aggregate, 158 feet in 
thickness. There are no fossils in these rocks, and nothing by which 
their age may be told. 

The Carboniferous system includes the Upper Carboniferous or 
coal-measures, and the LoWer Carboniferous or Mountain limestone. 
The coal-measures are made up of numerous strata of sandstones, 
limestones, shales, clays, marls, spathic iron ores, and coals. 

The Carboniferous formation, including coal-measures and the beds 
of iron, embrace an area in Missouri of 27,000 square miles. The 
varieties of coal found in the State are the common bituminous and 
cannel coals, and they exist in quantities inexhaustible. The fact 
that these coal-measures are full of fossils, which are always confined 


to the coal measures, enables the geologist to point them out, and the 
coal beds contained in them. 

The rocks of the Lower Carboniferous formation are varied in color, 
and are quarried in many different parts of the State, being exten- 
sively utilized for building and other purposes. 

Among the Lower Carboniferous rocks is found the Upper Archi- 
medes Limestone, 200 feet ; Ferruginous Sandstone, 195 feet ; Mid- 
dle Archimedes, 50 feet ; St. Louis Limestone, 250 feet ; Oolitic 
Limestone, 25 feet ; Lower Archimedes Limestone, 350 feet ; and 
Encrinital Limestone, 500 feet. These limestones generally contain 

The Ferruginous limestone is soft when quarried, but becomes hard 
and durable after exposure. It contains large quantities of iron, and 
is found skirting the eastern coal measures from the mouth of the 
Des Moines to McDonald county. 

The St. Louis limestone is of various hues and tints, and very hard. 
It is found in Clark, Lewis and St. Louis counties. 

The Lower Archimedes limestone includes partly the lead bearing 
rocks of Southwestern Missouri. 

The Encrinital limestone is the most extensive of the divisions of 
Carboniferous limestone, and is made up of brown, buff, gray and 
white. In these strata are found the remains of corals and mollusks. 
This formation extends from Marion county to Greene county. The 
Devonian system contains : Chemung Group, Hamilton Group, 
Onondaga limestone and Oriskany sandstone. The rocks of the 
Devonian system are found in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline 
and Ste. Genevieve counties. 

The Chemung Group has three formations, Chouteau limestone, 85 
feet; Vermicular sandstone and shales, 75 feet; Lithographic lime- 
stone, 125 feet. 

The Chouteau limestone is in two divisions, when fully developed, 
and when first quarried is soft. It is not only good for building pur- 
poses but makes an excellent cement. 

The Vermicular sandstone and shales are usually buff or yellowish 
brown, and perforated with pores. 

The Lithographic limestone is a pure, fine, compact, evenly-tex- 
tured limestone. Its color varies from light drab to buff and blue. 
It is called "pot metal," because under the hammer it gives a sharp, 
ringing sound. It bas but few fossils. 


The Hamilton Group is made up of some 40 feet of blue shales, and 
170 feet of crystalline limestone. 

Onondaga limestone is usually a coarse, gray or buff crystalline, 
thick-bedded and cherty limestone. No formation in Missouri pre- 
sents such variable and widely different lithological characters as the 

The Oriskany sandstone is a light, gray limestone. 

Of the Upper Silurian series there are the following formations : 
Lower Helderberg, 350 feet ; Niagara Group, 200 feet ; Cape Girar- 
deau limestone, 60 feet. 

The Lower Helderberg is made up of buff, gray, and reddish cherty 
and argillaceous limestone. 

Niagara Group. The Upper part of this group consists of red, 
yellow and ash-colored shales, with compact limestones, variegated 
with bands and nodules of chert. 

The Cape Girardeau limestone, on the Mississippi Eiver near Cape 
Girardeau, is a compact, bluish-gray, brittle limestone, with smooth 
fractures in layers from two to six inches in thickness, with argilla- 
ceous partings. These strata contain a great many fossils. 

The Lower Silurian has the following ten formations, to wit : Hud- 
son River Group, 220 feet ; Trenton limestone, 360 feet ; Black River 
and Bird's Eye limestone, 175 feet; first Magnesian limestone, 200 
feet; Saccharoidal sandstone, 125 feet; second Magnesian limestone, 
250 feet ; second sandstone, 115 feet ; third Magnesian limestone, 
350 feet; third sandstone, 60 feet; fourth Magnesian limestone, 350 

Hudson River Group : — There are three formations which Prof. 
Swallow refers to in this group. These formations are found in the 
bluff above and below Louisiana ; on the Grassy a few miles north- 
west of Louisiana, and in Ralls, Pike, Cape Girardeau and Ste. Gene- 
vieve Counties. 

Trenton limestone : The upper part of this formation is made up 
of thick beds of hard, compact, bluish gray and drab limestone, varie- 
gated with irregular cavities, filled with greenish materials. 

The beds are exposed between Hannibal and New London north of 
Salt River, near Glencoe, St. Louis County, and are seventy-five feet 

Black River and Bird's Eye limestone the same color as the Trenton 


The first Magnesian limestone cap the picturesque bluffs of the Osage 
in Benton and neighboring counties. 

The Saccharoidal sandstone has a wide range in the State. In a 
bluff about two miles from Warsaw, is a very striking change of thick- 
ness of this formation. 

Second Magnesian limestone, in lithological character, is like the 

The second sandstone, usually of 3^ellowish brown, sometimes 
becomes a pure white, fine-grained, soft sandstone as on Cedar Creek, 
in Washington and Franklin Counties. 

The third Magnesian limestone is exposed in the high and picturesque 
bluffs of the Niangua, in the neighborhood of Bryce's Spring. 
The third sandstone is white and has a formation in moving water. 
The fourth Magnesian limestone is seen on the Niangua and Osage 

The Azoic rocks lie below the Silurian and form a series of silicious 
and other slates which contain no remains of organic life. 


Coal. — Missouri is particularly rich in minerals. Indeed, no State 
in the Union, surpasses her in this respect. In some unknown age of 
the past — long before the existence of man — Nature, by a wise process, 
made a bountiful provision for the time, when in the order of things, 
it should be necessary 'for civilized man to take possession of these 
broad, rich prairies. As an equivalent for lack of forests, she quietly 
stored away beneath the soil those wonderful carboniferous treasures 
for the use of man. 

Geological surveys have developed the fact that the coal deposits in 
the State are almost unnumbered, embracing all varieties of the best 
bituminous coal. A large portion of the State, has been ascer- 
tained to be one continuous coal field, stretching from the mouth 
of the Des Moines River through Clark, Lewis, Scotland, Adair, 
Macon, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, 
Benton, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton and 
Jasper, into the Indian Territory, and the counties on the northwest of 
this line contain more or less coal. Coal rocks exist in Ralls, Mont- 
gomery, Warren, St. Charles, Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford and 
I Lincoln, and during the past few years, all along the lines of all the 
railroads in North Missouri, and along the western end of the Missouri 
Pacific, and on the Missouri River, between Kansas City and Sioux 



City, has systematic mining, opened up hundreds of mines in different 
localities. The area of our coal beds, on the line of the southwestern 
boundary of the State alone, embraces more than 26,000 square miles 
of regular coal measures. This will give of workable coal, if the 
average be one foot, 26,800,000,000 tons. The estimates from the 
developments already made, in the different portions of the State, will 
give 134,000,000,000 tons. 

The economical value of this coal to the State, its influence in 
domestic life, in navigation, commerce and manufactures, is beyoud 
the imagination of man to conceive. Suffice it to say, that in the pos- 
session of her developed and undeveloped coal mines, Missouri has a 
motive power, which in its influences for good, in the civilization of 
man, is more potent than the gold of California. 

Iron. — Prominent among the minerals, which increase the power 
and prosperity of a nation, is iron. Of this ore, Missouri has an inex- 
haustible quantity, and like her coal fields, it has been developed in 
many portions of the State, and of the best and purest quality. It is 
found in great abundance in the counties of Cooper, St. Clair,, Greene, 
Henry, Franklin, Benton, Dallas, Camden, Stone, Madison, Iron, 
Washington, Perry, St. Francois, Reynolds, Stoddard, Scott, Dent 
and others. The greatest deposit of iron is found in the Iron Moun- 
tain, which is two hundred feet high, and covers an area of five hun- 
dred acres, and produces a metal, which is shown by analysis, to con- 
tain from 65 to 69 per cent of metallic iron. 

The ore of Shepherd Mountain contains from 64 to 67 per cent of 
metallic iron. The ore of Pilot Knob contains from 53 to 60 per cent. 

Rich beds of iron are also found at the Big Bogy Mountain, and at 
Russell Mountain. This ore has, in its nude state, a varietv of colors, 
from the red, dark red, black, brown, to a light bluish gray. The 
red ores are found in twenty-one or more counties of the State, and 
are of great commercial value. The brown hematite iron ores extend 
over a greater range of country than all the others combined, embrac- 
ing about one hundred counties, and have been ascertained to exist in 
these in large quantities. 

Lead. — Long before any permanent settlements were made in Mis- 
souri by the whites, lead was mined within the limits of the State at 
two or three points on the Mississippi. At this time more than five 
hundred mines are opened, and many of them are being successfully 
worked. These deposits of lead cover an area, so far as developed^ 
of more than seven thousand square miles. Mines have been opened* 


in Jefferson, Washington, St. Francois, Madison, Wayne, Carter, Rey- 
nolds, Crawford, Ste. Genevieve, Perry, Cole, Cape Girardeau, Cam- 
den, Morgan, and many other counties. 

Copper and Zinc. — Several varieties of copper ore are found in 
Missouri. The copper mines of Shannon, Madison and Franklin 
Counties have been known for years, and some of these have been 
successfully worked and are now yielding good results. 

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Ben- 
ton, Maries, Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds 
and Wright Counties. 

Zinc is abundant in nearly all the lead mines in the southwestern 
part of the State, and since the completion of the A. & P. R. R. a 
market has been furnished for this ore, which will be converted into 
valuable merchandise. 

Building Stone and Marble. — There is no scarcity of good building 
stone in Missouri. Limestone, sandstone and granite exist in all 
shades of buff, blue, red and brown, and are of great beauty as build- 
ing material. 

There are many marble beds m the State, some of which furnish 
very beautiful and excellent marble. It is found in Marion, Cooper, 
St. Louis, and other counties. 

One of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the 3rd 
Magnesian limestone, on the Niangua. It is fine-grained, crystalline, 
silico-magnesian limestone, light-drab, slightly tinged with peach blos- 
som, and clouded by deep flesh-colored shades. In ornamental archi- 
tecture it is rarely surpassed. 

Gypsum and Lime. — Though no extensive beds of gypsum have 
been -discovered in Missouri, there are vast beds of the pure white 
crystalline variety on the line of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, on Kan- 
sas River, and on Gypsum Creek. It exists also in several other 
localities accessible by both rail and boat. 

All of the limestone formations in the State, from the coal measures 
to fourth Magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure car- 
bonate of pure lime. 

Clays and Paints. — Clays are found in nearly all parts of the State 
suitable for making bricks. Potters' clay and fire-clay are worked in 
many localities. 

There are several beds of purple shades in the coal measures which 
possess the properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Yel- 
low and red ochres are found in considerable quantities on the Missouri 


River. Some of these paints have been thoroughly tested and found 
fire-proof and durable. 


No State is, perhaps, better supplied with cold springs of pure water 
than Missouri. Out of the bottoms, there is scarcely a section of 
land but has one or more perennial springs of good water. Even 
where there are no springs, good water can be obtained by digging 
from twenty to forty feet. Salt springs are abundant in the central 
part of the State, and discharge their brine in Cooper, Saline, Howard, 
and adjoining counties. Considerable salt was made in Cooper and 
Howard Counties at an early day. 

Sulphur springs are also numerous throughout the State. The 
Chouteau Springs in Cooper, the Monagaw Springs in St. Clair, the 
Elk Springs in Pike, and the Cheltenham Springs in St. Louis County 
have acquired considerable reputation as salubrious waters, and have 
become popular places of resort. Many other counties have good 
sulphur springs. 

Among the Chalybeate springs the Sweet Springs on the Blaok- 
water, and the Chalybeate spring in the University campus are, perhaps, 
the most popular of the kind in the State. There are, however, other 
springs impregnated with some of the salts of iron. 

Petroleum springs are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, 
Lafayette, Bates, Vernon, and other counties. The variety called 
lubricating oil is the more common. 

The water power of the State is excellent. Large sprint are 
particularly abundant on the waters of the Meramec, Gasconade, 
Bourbeuse, Osage, Niangua, Spring, White, Sugar, and other streams 
Besides these, there are hundreds of springs sufficiently large to drive 
mills and factories, and the day is not far distant when these crystal 
fountains will be utilized, and a thousand saws will buzz to their 
dashing music. 




Title to Missouri Lands — Right of Discovery — Title of France and Spain — Cession 
to the United States — Territorial Changes — Treaties with Indians — First Settle- 
ment — Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon — St. Louis — When Incorporated — 
Potosi — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — New Madrid — St. Francois County — 
Perry — Mississippi — Loutre Island — "Boone's Lick" — Cote Sans Dessein — 
Howard County — Some First Things — Counties — When Organized. 

The title to the soil of Missouri was, of course, primarily vested in 
the original occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery 
by the whites. But the Indians, being savages, possessed but few 
rights that civilized nations considered themselves bound to respect ; 
so, therefore, when they found this country in* the possession of such 
a people they claimed it in the name of the King of France, by the 
right of discovery. It remained under the jurisdiction of France 
until 1763. 

Prior to the year 1763, the entire continent of North America was 
divided between France, England, Spain and Eussia. France held all 
that portion that now constitutes our national domain west of the 
Mississippi Eiver, except Texas, and the territory which we have 
obtained from Mexico and Eussia. The vast region, while under the 
jurisdiction of France, was known as the " Province of Louisiana," 
and embraced the present State of Missouri. At the close of the 
"Old French War," in 1763, France gave up her share of the con- 
tinent, and Spain came into the possession of the territory west of the 
Mississippi Eiver, while Great Britain retained Canada and the regions 
northward, having obtained that territory by conquest, in the war 
with France. For thirty-seven years the territory now embraced 
within the limits of Missouri, remained as a part of the possession of 
Spain, and then went back to France by the treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
October 1, 1800. On the 30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the 
United States, in consideration of receiving $11,250,000, and the 
liquidation of certain claims, held by citizens of the United States 
against France, which amounted to the further sum of $3,750,000, 
making a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be seen that France has 
twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory embracing 


Missouri, but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our Govern- 
ment an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved, 
authorizing the President to take possession of the newly acquired 
territory, and provided for it a temporary government, and another 
act, approved March 26, 1804, authorized the division of the " Louis- 
iana Purchase," as it was then called, into two separate territories. 
All that portion south of the 33d parallel of north latitude was called 
the " Territory of Orleans," and that north of the said parallel was 
known as the " District of Louisiana," and was placed under the 
jurisdiction of what was then known as " Indian Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the 
"District of Louisiana" was organized as the "Territory of Louis- 
iana," with a territorial government of its own, which went into 
operation July 4th of the same year, and it so remained till 1812. In 
this year the " Territory of Orleans " became the State of Louisiana, 
and the " Territory of Louisiana" was organized as the " Territory 
of Missouri." 

This change took place under an act of Congress, approved June 4, 
1812. In 1819, a portion of this territory was organized as "Arkan- 
sas Territory," and on August 10, 1821, the State of Missouri was 
admitted, being a part of the former " Territory of Missouri." 

In 1836, the " Platte Purchase," then being a part of the Indian 
Territory, and now composing the counties of Atchison, Andrew, 
Buchanan, Holt, Nodaway and Platte, was made by treaty with the 
Indians, and added to the State. It will be seen, then, that the soil 
of Missouri belonged : — 

1. To France, with other territory. 

2. In 1763, with other territory, it was ceded to Spain. 

3. October 1, 1800, it was ceded, with other territory from Spain, 
back to France. 

4. April 30, 1803, it was ceded, with other territory, by France to 
the United States. 

5. October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized by 
Congress for the newly acquired territory. 

6. October 1, 1804, it was included in the " District of Louisiana" 
and placed under the territorial government of Indiana. 

7. July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the " Territory of 
Louisiana," then organized with a separate territorial government. « 


8. June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the " Ter- 
ritory of Missouri." 

9. August 10, 1821, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

10. In 1836, the "Platte Purchase" was made, adding more ter- 
ritory to the State. 

The cession by France, April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United 
States, subject to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly 
the policy of the Government to recognize. Before the Government 
of the United States could vest clear title to the soil in the grantee it 
was necessary to extinguish the Indian title by purchase. This was 
done accordingly by treaties made with the Indians at different times. 


The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory now 
embraced in the State of Missouri, is not known, nor is it known at 
what precise period the first settlements were made. It is, however, 
generally agreed that they were made at Ste. Genevieve and New 
Bourbon, tradition fixing the date of the settlements in the autumn of 
1735. These towns were settled by the French from Kaskaskia and 
St. Philip in Illinois. 

St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Liguest, on the 15th of 
February, 1764. He was a native of France, and was one of the 
members of the company of Laclede Liguest, Antonio Maxant & Co., 
to whom a royal charter had been granted, confirming the privilege 
of an exclusive trade with the Indians of Missouri as far north as St. 
Peter's River. 

While in search of a trading post he ascended the Mississippi as far 
as the mouth of the Missouri, and finally returned to the present town 
site of St. Louis. After the village had been laid off he named it St. 
Louis in honor of Louis XV., of France. 

The colony thrived rapidly by accessions from Kaskaskia and other 
towns on the east side of the Mississippi, and its trade was largely in. 
creased by many of the Indian tribes, who removed a portion of their 
peltry trade from the same towns to St. Louis. It was incorporated 
as a town on the ninth day of November, 1809, "by the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas of the district of St. Louis ; the town trustees being 
Auguste Chouteau, Edward Hempstead, Jean F. Cabanne, Wm. C. 
Carr and William Christy, aud incorporated as a city December 9, 
1822. The selection of the town site on whieh St. Louis stands was 
highly judicious, the spot not only being healthful and having the ad- 


vantages of water transportation unsurpassed, but surrounded by a 
beautiful region of country, rich in soil and mineral resources. St. 
Louis has grown to be the fifth city in population in the Union, and 
is to-day the great center of internal commerce of the Missouri, th© 
Mississippi and their tributaries, and, with its railroad facilities, it is 
destined to be the greatest inland city of the American continent. 

The next settlement was made at Potosi, in Washington County, in 
1765, by Francis Breton, who, while chasing a bear, discovered the 
mine near the present town of Potosi, where he afterward located. 

One of the most prominent pioneers who settled at Potosi was 
Moses Austin, of Virginia, who, in 1795, received by grant from the 
Spanish government a league of land, now known as the "Austin Sur- 
vey." The grant was made on condition that Mr. Austin would es- 
tablish a lead mine at Potosi and work it. He built a palatial 
residence, for that day, on the brow of the hill in the little village, 
which was for many years known as " Durham Hall." At this point 
the first shot-tower and sheet-lead manufactory were erected. 

Five years after the founding of St. Louis the first settlement made 
in Northern Missouri was made near St. Charles, in St. Charles 
County, in 1769. The name given to it, and which it retained till 
1784, was Les Petites Cotes, signifying, Little Hills. The town site 
was located by Blanchette, a Frenchman, surnamed LeChasseur, who 
built the first fort in the town and established there a military post. 

Soon after the establishment of the military post at St. Charles, the 
old French village of Portage des Sioux, was located on the Missis- 
sippi, just below the mouth ot the Illinois River, and at about the 
same time a Kickapoo village was commenced at Clear Weather Lake. 
The present town site of New Madrid, in New Madrid county, was 
settled in 1781, by French Canadians, it then being occupied by Del- 
aware Indians. The place now known as Big River Mills, St. Fran- 
cois county, was settled in 1796, Andrew Baker, John Alley, Francis 
Starnater and John Andrews, each locating claims. The following 
year, a settlement was made in the same county, just below the pres° 
ent town of Farmington, by the Rev. William Murphy, a Baptist min- 
ister from East Tennessee. In 1796, settlements were made in Perry 
county by emigrants from Kentucky and Pennsylvania ; the latter lo- 
cating in the rich bottom lands of Bois Brule,"the former generally : 
settling in the " Barrens," and along the waters of Saline Creek. 

Bird's Point, in Mississippi county, opposite Cairo, Illinois; was 
settled August 6, 1800, by John Johnson, by virtue of a land-<n-ant 


from the commandant under the Spanish Government. Norfolk and 
Charleston, in the same county, were settled respectively in 1800 and 
1801. Warren county was settled in 1801. Loutre Island, below 
the present town of Hermann, in the Missouri River, was settled by a 
few American families in 1807. This little company of pioneers suf- 
fered greatly from the floods, as well as from the incursions of thieving 
and blood-thirsty Indians, and many incidents of a thrilling character 
could be related of trials and struggles, had we the time and space. 

In 1807, Nathan and Daniel M. Boone, sons of the great hunter and 
pioneer, in company with three others, went from St. Louis to 
"Boone's Lick," in Howard county, where they manufactured salt 
and formed the nucleus of a small settlement. 

Cote Sans Dessein, now called Bakersville, on the Missouri River, 
in Callaway county, was settled by the French in 1801. This little 
town was considered at that time, as the " Far West" of the new 
world. During the war of 181'2, at this place many hard-fought 
battles occurred between the whites and Indians, wherein woman's 
fortitude and" courage greatly assisted in the defence of the settle- 

In 1810, a colony of Kentuckians numbering one hundred and fifty 
families immigrated to Howard county, and settled on the Missouri 
Eiver in Cooper's Bottom near the present town of Franklin, and 
opposite Arrow Rock. 

Such, in brief, is the history of some of the early settlements of 
Missouri, covering a period of more than half a century. 

These settlements were made on the water courses ; usually along 
the banks of the two great streams, whose navigation afforded them 
transportation for their marketable commodities, and communication 
with the civilized portion of the country. 

They not only encountered the gloomy forests, settling as they did 
by the river's brink, but the hostile incursion of savage Indians, by 
whom they were for many years surrounded. 

The expedients of these brave men who first broke ground in the 
territory, have been succeeded by the permanent and tasteful improve- 
ments of their descendants. Upon the spots where they toiled, dared 
and died, are seen the comfortable farm, the beautiful village, and 
thrifty city. Churches and school houses greet the eye on every 
hand; railroads diverge in every direction, and, indeed, all the appli- 
ances of a higher civilization are profusely strewn over the smiling 
surface of the State. 


Culture's hand 
Has scattered verdure o'er the land; 
And smiles and fragrance rule serene, 
Where barren wild usurped the scene. 


The first marriage that took place in Missouri was April 20, 1766, 
in St. Louis. 

The first baptism'was performed in May, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first house of worship, (Catholic) was erected in 1775, at St. 

The first ferry established in 1805, on the Mississippi River, at St. 

The first newspaper established in St. Louis (Missouri Gazette), in 

The first postoflice was established in 1804, in St. Louis— Rufus 
Easton, post-master. 

The first Protestant church erected at Ste. Genevieve, in 1806 — 

The first bank established (Bank of St. Louis), in 1814. 

The first market house opened in 1811, in St. LouiS. 

The first steamboat on the Upper Mississippi was the General Pike, 
Capt. Jacob Reid; landed at St. Louis 1817. 

The first board of trustees for public schools appointed in 1817, St. 

The first college built (St. Louis College), in 1817. 

The first steamboat that came up the Missouri River as high as 
Franklin was the Independence, in May, 1819 ; Capt. Nelson, mas- 

The first court house erected in 1823, in St. Louis. 

The first cholera appeared in St. Louis in 1832. 

The first railroad convention held in St. Louis, April 20, 1836. 

The first telegraph lines reached East St. Louis, December 20, 

The first great fire occurred in St. Louis, 1849. 




Organization 1812 — Council — House of Representatives — William Clark first Terri- 
torial Governor— Edward Hempstead first Delegate — Spanish Grants — First 
General Assembly — Proceedings — Second Assembly — Proceedings — Population 
of Territory — Vote of Territory — Ruf us Baston — Absent Members — Third Assem- 
bly — Proceedings — Application for Admission . ' 

Congress organized Missouri as a Territory, July 4, 1812, with a 
Governor and General Assembly. The Governor, Legislative Coun- 
cil, and House of Representatives exercised the Legislative power of 
tin 1 Territory, the Governor's vetoing power being absolute. 

lie Legislative Council was composed 6f nine members, whose ten- 
ure of office lasted five years. Eighteen citizens were nominated by 
the House of Representatives to the President of the United States, 
from whom he selected, with the approval of the Senate, nine Coun- 
cillors, to compose the Legislative Council. 

The House of Representatives consisted of members chosen every 
two years by the people, the basis of representation being one mem- 
ber for every five hundred white males. The first House of Repre- 
sentatives consisted of thirteen members, and, by Act of Congress, the 
whole number of Representatives could not exceed twenty-five. 

The judicial power of the Territory, was vested in the Superior and 
Inferior Courts, and in the Justices of the Peace ; the Superior Court 
having three judges, whose term of office continued four years, hav- 
ing original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases. 

The Territory could send one delegate to Congress. Governor 
Clark issued a proclamation, October 1st, 1812, required by Congress, 
reorganizing the districts of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, 
Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid, into five counties, and fixed the 
second Monday in November following, for the election of a delegate 
to Congress, and the members of the Territorial House of Represen- 

William Clark, of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, was the first 
Territorial Governor, appointed by the President, who began his duties 

Edward Hempstead, Rufus Easton, Samuel Hammond, and Matthew 
Lyon were candidates in November for delegates to Congress. 


Edward Hempstead was elected, being the first Territorial Dele- 
gate to Congress from Missouri. He served one term, declining a 
second, and was instrumental in having Congress to pass the act of 
June 13, 1812, which he introduced, confirming the title to lands 
which were claimed by the people by virtue of Spanish grants. The 
same act confirmed to the people " for the support of schools," the 
title to village lots, out-lots or common field lots, which were held 
and enjoyed by them, at the time of the session in 1803. 

Under the act of June 4, 1812, the first General Assembly held its 
session in the house of Joseph Robidoux, in St. Louis, on the 7th of 
December, 1812. The names of the members of the House were : — 

St. Charles. — John Pitman and Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis. — David Music, Bernard G. Farrar, William C. Carr, 
and Richard Clark. 

Ste. Genevieve. — George Bullet, Richard S. Thomas, and Isaac 

Cape Girardeau. — George F. Bollinger, and Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid. — John Shrader and Samuel Phillips. 

John B. C. Lucas, one of the Territorial Judges, administered the 
oath of oflice. William C. Carr was elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott, Clerk. 

The House of Representatives proceeded to nominate eighteen per- 
sons from whom the President of the United States, with the Senate, 
was to select nine for the Council. From this number the President 
chose the following : 

St. Charles. — James Flaugherty and Benjamin Emmons. 

St. Louis. — Auguste Chouteau, Sr., and Samuel Hammond. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John Scott and James Maxwell. 

Cape Girardeau. — William Neeley and Joseph Cavenor. 

New Madrid. — Joseph Hunter. 

The Legislative Council, thus chosen by the President and Senate, 
was announced by Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting-Governor of 
the Territory, by proclamation, June 3, 1813, and fixing the first 
Monday in July following, as the time for the meeting of the Legis- 

In the meantime the duties of the executive office were assumed by 
William Clark. The Legislatiu-e accordingly met, as required by the 
Acting-Governor's* proclamation, in July, but its proceedings were 
never officially published. Consequently but little is known in refer- 
ence to the workings of the first Territorial Legislature in Missouri. 


From the imperfect account, published in the Missouri Gazette, of 
that day ; a paper which had been in existence since 1808, it is found 
that laws were passed regulating and establishing weights and meas- 
ures ; creating the office of Sheriff; providing the manner for taking 
the census ; permanently fixing the seats of Justices, and an act to 
compensate its own members. At this session, laws were also passed 
defining crimes and penalties ; laws in reference to forcible entry and 
detainer ; establishing Courts of Common Pleas ; incorporating the 
Bank of St. Louis ; and organizing a part of Ste. Genevieve county 
into the county of Washington. 

The next session of the Legislature convened in St. Louis, Decem- 
ber 6, 1813. George Bullet of Ste. Genevieve county, was speaker 
elect, and Andrew Scott, clerk, and William Sullivan, doorkeeper. 
Since the adjournment of the former Legislature, several vacancies 
had occurred, and new members had been elected to fill their places. 
Among these was Israel McCready, from the county of Washington. 

The president of the legislative council was Samuel Hammond. 
No journal of the council was officially published, but the proceedings 
of the house are found in the Gazette. 

At this session of the "Legislature many wise and useful laws were 
passed, having reference to the temporal as well as the moral and 
spiritual welfare of the -people. Laws were enacted for the suppres- 
sion of vice and immorality on the Sabbath day ; for the improve- 
ment of public roads and highways ; creating the offices of auditor, 
treasurer and county surveyor ; regulating the fiscal affairs of the 
Territory and fixing the boundary lines of New Madrid, Cape Girar- 
deau, Washington and St. Charles counties. The Legislature ad- 
journed on the 19th of January, 1814, sine die. 

The population of the Territory as shown by the United States 
census in 1810, was 20,845. The census taken by the Legislature in 
1814 gave the Territory a population of 25,000. This enumeration 
shows the county of St. Louis contained the greatest number of in- 
habitants, aud the new county of Arkansas the least — the latter hav- 
ing 827, and the former 3,149. 

The candidates for delegate to Congress were Rufus Easton, Samuel 
Hammond, Alexander McNair and Thomas F. Riddick. Rufus 
Easton and Samuel Hammond had been candidates at the preceding 
election. In all the counties, excepting Arkansas, the votes aggre- 
gated 2,599, of which number Mr. Easton received 965, Mr. Ham- 


mond 746, Mr. McNair 853, and Mr. Kiddick (who had withdrawn 
previously to the election) 35. Mr. Easton was elected. 

The census of 1814 showing a large increase in the population of 
the Territory, an appointment was made increasing the number of 
Eepresentatives in the Territorial Legislature to twenty-two. The 
General Assembly began its session in St. Louis, December 5, 1814. 
There were present on the first day twenty Eepresentatives. James 
Caldwell of Ste. Genevieve county was elected speaker, and Andrew 
Scott who had been clerk of the preceding assembly, was chosen 
clerk. The President of the Council was William Neeley, of Cape 
Girardeau county. 

It appeared that James Maxwell, the absent member of the Council, 
and Seth Emmons, member elect of the House of Representatives, 
were dead. The county of Lawrence was organized at this session, 
from the western part of New Madrid county, and the corporate 
powers of St. Louis were enlarged. In 1815 the Territorial Legisla- 
ture again began its session. Only a partial report of its proceedings 
are given in the Gazette. The county of Howard was then organized 
from St. Louis and St. Charles counties, and included all that part of 
the State lying north of the Osage and south of the dividing rid°-e 
between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. (For precise bounda- 
ries, see Chapter I. of the History of Boone County.) 

The next session of the Territorial Legislature commenced its ses- 
sion in December, 1816. During the sitting of this Legislature many 
important acts were passed. It was then that the " Bank of Mis- 
souri " was chartered and weutinto operation. In the fall of 1817 the 
"Bank of St. Louis" and the "Bank of Missouri" were issuiuo- 
bills. An act was passed chartering lottery companies, chartering 
the academy at Potosi, and incorporating a board of trustees for 
superintending the schools in the town of St. Louis. Laws were also 
passed to encourage the " killing of wolves, panthers and wild-cats." 

The Territorial Legislature met again in December, 1818, and, 
among other things, organized the counties of Pike, Cooper, Jeffer- 
son, Franklin, Wayne, Lincoln, Madison, Montgomery, and three 
counties in the Southern part of Arkansas. In 1819 the Territory of 
Arkansas was formed into a separate government of its own. 

The people of the Territory of Missouri had been, for some time 
anxious that theirTerritory should assume the duties and responsibilities 
of a sovereign State. Since 1812, the date of the organization of the 
Temtory, the population had rapidly increased, many couuties had 


been established, its commerce had grown into importance, its agri- 
cultural and mineral resources were being developed, and believing 
that its admission into the Union as a State would give fresh impetus 
to all these interests, and hasten its settlement, the Territorial Legis- 
lature of 1818-19 accordingly made application to Congress for the 
passage of an act authorizing the people of Missouri to organize a State 



Application of Missouri to be admitted into the Union — Agitation of the Slavery 
Question — "Missouri Compromise" — Constitutional Convention of 1820 — Con- 
stitution presented to Congress — Further Resistance to Admission — Mr. Clay and 
his Committee make Report — Second Compromise — Missouri Admitted. 

With the application of the Territorial Legislature of Missouri for 
her admission into the Union, commenced the real agitation of the 
slavery question in the United States. 

Not only was our National Legislature the theater of angry discus- 
sions, but everywhere throughout the length and breadth of the Re- 
public the "Missouri Question" was the al'l-absorbing theme. The 
political skies threatened, 

" In forked flashes, a commanding tempest," 

Which was liable to burst upon the nation at any moment. Through 
such a crisis our country seemed destined to pass. The question as to 
the admission of Missouri was to be the beginning of this crisis, which 
distracted the public counsels of the nation for more than forty years 

Missouri asked to be admitted into the great family of States. 
"Lower Louisiana," her twin sister Territory, had knocked at the 
door of the Union eight years previously, and was admitted as stipu- 
lated by Napoleon, to all the rights, privileges and immunities of a 
State, and in accordance with the stipulations of the same treaty, 
Missouri now sought to be clothed with the same rights, privileges 
and immunities. 

As what is known in the history of the United States as the " Mis- 
souri Compromise," of 1820, takes rank among the most prominent 


measures that had up to that day engaged the attention of our 
National Legislature, we shall enter somewhat into its details, being 
connected as they are with the annals of the State. 

February 15th, 1819. — After the House had resolved itself into a 
Committee of the Whole on the bill to authorize the admission of Mis- 
souri into the Union, and after the question of her admission had been 
discussed for some time, Mr. Tallmadge, of New York, moved to 
amend the bill, by adding to it the following proviso : — 

"And Provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involun- 
tary servitude be prohibited, except for the punishment of crime, 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, and that all chil- 
dren born within the said State, after the admission thereof into the 
Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." 

As might have been expected, this proviso precipitated the angry 
discussions which lasted nearly three years, finally culminating in "the 
Missouri Compromise. All phases of the slavery question were pre- 
sented, not in its moral and social aspects, but as a great constitu- 
tional question, affecting Missouri and the admission of future, States. 
The proviso, when submitted to a vote, was adopted — 79 to 67, and 
so reported to the House. 

Hon. John Scott, who was at that time a delegate from the Terri- 
tory of Missouri, was not permitted to vote, but as such delegate he 
had the privilege of participating in the debates which followed. On 
the 16th day of February the proviso was taken up and discussed. 
After several speeches had been made, among them one by Mr. Scott 
and one by the author of the proviso, Mr. Tallmadge, the amendment, 
or proviso, was divided into two parts, and voted upon. The first 

part of it, which included all to the word " convicted," was adopted " 

87 to 76. The remaining part was then voted upon, and also 
adopted, by 82 to 78. By a vote of 97 to 56 the bill was ordered to 
be engrossed for a third reading. 

The Senate Committee, to whom the bill was referred, reported the 
same to the Senate on the 19th of February, when that body voted 
first upon a motion to strike out of the proviso all after the word • 
" convicted," which was carried by a vote of 32 to 7. It then voted 

to strike out the first entire clause, which prevailed 22 to 16 

thereby defeating the proviso. 

The House declined to concur in the action of the Senate, and the 
bdl was again returned to that body, which in turn refused to recede 
from its position. The bill was lost and Congress adjourned This 


-was most unfortunate for the country. The people having already- 
been wrought up to fever heat over the agitation of the. question in 
the National Councils, now became intensely excited. The press 
added fuel to the flame, and the progress of events seemed rapidly 
tending to the downfall of our nationality. 

A long interval of nine months was to ensue before the meeting of 
Congress. The body indicated by its vote upon the " Missouri Ques- 
tion," that the two great sections of the country were politically 
divided upon the subject of slavery. The restrictive clause, which it 
was sought to impose upon Missouri as a condition of her admission, 
would in all probability, be one of the conditions of the admission of 
the Territory of Arkansas. The public miud was in a state of great 
doubt and uncertainty up to the meeting of Congress, which took 
place on the 6th of , December, 1819. The memorial of the Legisla- 
tive Council and House of Eepresentatives of the Missouri Territory, 
praying for admission into the Union, was presented to the Senate 
by Mr. Smith, of South Carolina. It was referred to the Judiciary 

Some three weeks having passed without any action thereon by the 
Senate, the bill was taken up and discussed by the House until the 
19th of February, when the bill from the Senate for the admission of 
Maine was considered. The bill for the admission of Maine included 
the " Missouri Question," by an amendment which read as follows : 

"And be it further enacted, That in all that territory ceded by 
France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies 
north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, north latitude (except- 
ing such part thereof as is) included within the limits of the State, 
contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, other- 
wise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been convicted, shall be and is hereby forever prohibited ; Provided, 
always, That any person escaping into the same from whom labor or 
service is lawfully claimed, in any State or Territory of the United 
States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the 
person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid." 

The Senate adopted this amendment, which formed the basis of the 
"Missouri Compromise," modified afterward by striking out the 
words, " excepting only such part thereof." 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 24 to 20. On the 2d day of 
March the House took up the bill and amendments for consideration, 
and by a vote of 134 to 42 concurred in the Senate amendment, and 


the bill being passed by the two Houses, constituted section 8, of 
"An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri Territory to form a 
Constitution and State Government, and for the admission of such 
State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, and 
to prohibit slavery in certain territory." 

This act was approved March 6, 1820. Missouri then contained fif- 
teen organized counties. By act of Congress the people of said State 
were authorized to hold an election on the first Monday, and two suc- 
ceeding days thereafter in May, 1820, to select representatives to a 
State convention. This convention met in St. Louis on the 12th of 
June, following the election in May, and concluded its labors on the 
19th of July, 1820. David Barton was its President, and Win. G. 
Pettis, Secretary. There were forty-one members of this convention, 
men of ability and statesmanship, as the admirable constitution which 
they framed amply testifies. Their names and the counties repre- 
sented by them are as follows : — 

Cape Girardeau. — Stephen B}'rd, James Evans, Richard S. 
Thomas, Alexander Buckner and Joseph McFerron. 

Cooper. — Robert P. Clark, Robert Wallace, Wm. Lillard. 

Franklin. — John G. Heath. 

Howard Nicholas S. Burkhart, Duff Green, John Ray, Jonathan 

S. Findley, Benj, H. Reeves. 

Jefferson. — Daniel Hammond. 

Lincoln. — Malcom Henry. 

Montgomery. —Jonathan Ramsey, James Talbott. 

Madison. — Nathaniel Cook. 

New Madrid. —Robert S. Dawson, Christopher G. Houts. 

Pike. — Stephen Cleaver. 

St. Charles. — Benjamin Emmons, Nathan Boone, Hiram H. Baber. 

Ste. Genevieve. —John D. Cook, Henry Dodge, John Scott, R. T. 

St. Louis. — David Barton, Edward Bates, Alexander McNair, 
Wm. Reptor, John C. Sullivan, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Bernard Pratte, 
Thomas F. Riddick. 

Washington.— 3 o\m Rice Jones, Samuel Perry, John Hutchings. 

Wayne. — Elijah Bettis. 

On the 13th of November, 1820, Congress met again, and on the . 
sixth of the same month Mr. Scott, the delegate from Missouri, pre- 
sented to the House the Constitution as framed by the convention. 


The same was referred to a select committee, who made thereon a 
favorable report. 

The admission of the State, however, ,was resisted, because it was 
claimed that its constitution sanctioned slavery, and authorized the 
Legislature to pass laws preventing free negroes and mulattoes from 
settling in the State. The report of the committee to whom was 
referred the Constitution of Missouri was accompanied by a preamble 
and resolutions, offered by Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina. The 
preamble and resolutions were stricken out. 

The application of the State for admission shared the same fate in 
the Senate. The question was referred to a select committee, who, 
on the 29th of November, reported in favor of admitting the State. 
The debate, which followed, continued for two weeks, and finally Mr. 
Eaton, of Tennessee, offered an amendment to the resolution as fol- 
lows : — 

" Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as 
to give the assent of Congress to any provision in the Constitution of 
Missouri, if any such there be, which contravenes that clause in the 
Constitution of the United States, which declares that the citizens of 
each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of 
citizens in the several States." 

The resolution, as amended, was adopted. The resolution and 
proviso were again taken up and discussed at great length, when the 
committee agreed to report the resolution to the House. 

The question on agreeing to the amendment, as reported from the 
committee of the whole, was lost in the House. A similar resolution 
afterward passed the Senate, but was again rejected in the House. 
Then it was that that great statesman and pure patriot, Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, feeling that the hour had come when angry discussions 
should cease, 

"With grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd 
A pillar of state ; deep on his front engrave* 
Deliberation sat and public care ; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shone 
Majestic" ****** 

proposed that the question of Missouri's admission be referred to a 
committee consisting of twenty-three persons (a number equal to the 
number of States then composing the Union), be appointed to act in 
conjunction with a committee of the Senate to consider and report 
whether Missouri should be admitted, etc. 


The motion prevailed ; the committee was appointed and Mr. Clay 
made its chairman. The Senate selected seven of its members to act 
with the committee of twenty-three, and on the 26th of February the 
following report was made by that committee : — 

" Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled : That Missouri shall 
be admitted into the Union, on an equal footing with the original 
States, in all respects whatever, upon the fundamental condition that 
the fourth clause, of the twenty-sixth section of the third article of 
the Constitution submitted on the part of said State to Congress, shall 
never be construed to authorize the passage of any law, and that no 
law shall be passed in conformity thereto, by which any citizen of 
either of the States in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoy- 
ment of any of the privileges and immunities to which such citizen is 
entitled, under the Constitution of the United States ; provided, That 
the Legislature of said State, by a Solemn Public Act, shall declare 
the assent of the said State, to the said fundamental condition, and 
shall transmit to the President of the United States, on or before the 
fourth Monday in November next, an authentic copy of the said act ; 
upon the receipt whereof, the President, by proclamation, shall an- 
nounce the fact; whereupon, and without any further proceeding on 
the part of Congress, the admission of the said State into the Union 
shall be considered complete." 

This resolution, after a brief debate, was adopted in the House, and 
passed the Senate on the 28th of February, 1821. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in St. Charles, in June 
following, a Solemn Public Act was adopted, giving its assent to the 
conditions of admission, as expressed in the resolution of Mr. Clay. 
August 10th, 1821, President Monroe announced by proclamation the 
admission of Missouri into the Union to be complete. 




First Election for Governor and other State Officers — Senators and Eepresentatives to 
General Assembly — Sheriffs and Coroners — U. S. Senators — Representatives in 
Congress —Supreme Court Judges — Counties Organized — Capital Moved to St. 
Charles — Official Record of Territorial and State Officers. 

By the Constitution adopted by the Convention on the 19th of July, 
1820, the General Assembly was required to meet in St. Louis on the 
third Monday in September of that year, and an election was ordered 
to be held on the 28th of August for the election of a Governor and 
other State officers, Senators and Representatives to the General 
Assembly, Sheriffs and Coroners, United States Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress. 

It will be seen that Missouri had not as yet been admitted as a 
State, but in anticipation of that event, and according to the provi- 
sions of the constitution, the election was held, and the Qeueral As- 
sembly convened. 

William Clark (who had been Governor of the Territory) and 
Alexander McNair were the candidates for Governor. McNair re- 
ceived 6,576 votes, Clark 2,556, total vote of the State 9,132. There 
were three candidates for Lieutenant-Governor, to wit : William H. 
Ashley, Nathaniel Cook and Henry Elliot. Ashley received 3,907 
votes, Cook 3,212, Elliot 931. A Representative was .to be elected 
for the residue of the Sixteenth Congress and one for the Seventeenth. 
John Scott who was at the time Territorial delegate, was elected to 
both Congresses without opposition. 

The General Assembly elected in August met on the 19th of Sep- 
tember, 1820, and organized by electing James Caldwell, of Ste. 
Genevieve, speaker, and John McArthur clerk ; William H. Ashley, 
Lieutenant-Governor, President of the Senate ; Silas Bent, President, 
pro tern. 

Mathias McGirk, John D. Cook, and John R. Jones were appointed 
Supreme Judges, each to hold office until sixty-five years of age. 

Joshua Barton was appointed Secretary of State ; Peter Didier, 
State Treasurer ; Edward Bates, Attorney-General, and William 
Christie, Auditor of Public Accounts. 



David Barton and Thomas H. Benton were elected by the General 

Assembly to the United States Senate. 

At this session of the Legislature the counties of Boone, Callaway, 
Chariton, Cole, Gasconade, Lillard, Perry, Kails, Eay and Saline 
were organized. 

We should like to give in details the meetings and proceedings of 
the different Legislatures which followed ; the elections for Govern- 
ors and other State officers ; the elections for Congressmen and United 
States Senators, but for want of space we can only present in a con- 
densed form the official record of the Territorial and State officers. 


Frederick Bates, Secretary and William Clark . « 

Acting-Governor .... 1812-13 



Alexander McNair 1820-24 

Frederick Bates 1824-26 

Abraham J. Williams, vice 

Bdtes 1825 

John Miller, vice Bates . . . 1826-28 

John Miller 1828-32 

Daniel Dunklin, (1832-36) re- 
signed; appointed Surveyor 
General of the TJ. S. Lilburn 
W. Boggs, vice Dunklin . . 1836 ' 

Lilburn W. Boggs 1836-40 

Thomas Eeynolds (died 1844), . 1840-44 
M. M. Marmaduke vice Eey- 
nolds — John 0. Edwards . 1844-48 
Austin A King . . . . 1848-52 

Sterling Price 1852-56 

Trusten Polk (resigned) . . . 1856-57 
Hancock Jackson, vice Polk . 1857 
Robert M. Stewart, vice Polk . 1857-60 
C. P. Jackson (1860), office va- 
cated by ordinance; Hamil- 
ton R. Gamble, vice Jackson ; 
Gov. Gamble died 1864. 
Willard P. Hall, vice Gamble . 1864 
Thomas C. Fletcher .... 1864-68 
Joseph W. McClurg .... 1868-70 

B. Gratz Brown 1870-72 

Silas Woodson 1872-74 

Charles H. Hardin 1 874-76 

John S. Phelps 1876-80 

Thomas T. Crittenden (now 
Governor) 1880 


William H. Ashley 

Benjamin H. Reeves 

Daniel Dunklin . . 

Lilburn W. Boggs . 

Franklin Cannon j 

M. M. Marmaduke . 

James Young . . 

Thomas L Rice. 

Wilson Brown . 

Hancock Jackson . 

Thomas C. Reynolds 

Willard P. Hall . 

George Smith . . 
Edwin O. Sianard 
Joseph J, Gravelly. 
Charles P. Johnson 
Norman J. Coleman 
Henry C. Brockmeyer 
Robert A. Campbell (present 

Secretaries of State. 

Joshua Barton 

William G. Pettis . . . \ 

Hamilton R. Gamble .... 

Spencer Pettis 

P. H. McBride ....." 

John C. Edwards (term expired 
1835, reappointed 1837, re- 
signed 1837) 

Peter G. Glover 

James L. Minor ... 


























P. H. Martin 

Ephraim B. Ewing . . .. 
John M. Richardson .... 
Benjamin P. Massey (re-elected 

1860, for four years). . . . 

Mordecai Oliver 

Francis Rodman (re-elected 1868 

for two years) 

Eugene P. Weigel, (re-elected 

1872, for two years) .... 
Michael K. McGrath (present 


State Treasurers. 

Peter Didier 

Nathaniel Simonds .... 

James Earickson 

John Walker 

Abraham McClellan .... 
Peter G. Glover 

A. W. Morrison 

George C. Bingham .... 

"William Bishop 

"William Q. Dallmeyer . . . 

Samuel Hays 

Harvey W. Salmon .... 

Joseph W. Mercer 

Elijah Gates 

Phillip E. Chappell (present in- 

Attorney- Generals. 

Edward Bates 

Bums Easton 

Eobt. "W. Wells 

William B. Naptori .... 
8. MBay 

B. F. Stringfellow 

William A. Kobards .... 
James B. Gardenhire .... 
Ephraim W. Ewing ..... 

James P. Knott 

Aikman Welch 

Thomas T. Crittenden . . . 

Robert P. Wingate 

Horace P. Johnson 

A. J. Baker 

Henry Clay Ewing ..... 
John A. Hockaday .... 

Jackson L. Smith 

D. H. Mclntire (present in- 

state government — Continued. 


















1 874-76 






















Auditors of Public Accounts. 
William Christie 1820-21 

William V. Rector 

. 1821-23 

Elias Barcroft . . . 

. 1823-33 

Henry Shurlds . . . 

. 1833-35 

Peter G. Glover . . . 

. 1835-37 

Hiram H. Baber . . 

. 1837-45 

William Monroe . . 

. 1845 

J. R. McDermon . . 

. 1845-48 

George W. Miller . . 


. 1848-49 

Wilson Brown . . . 


William H. Buffington 


William "S. Moseley . 


Alonzo Thompson . . 


Daniel M. Draper . . 


George B. Clark . . 


Thomas Holladay . . . 


187 -80 

John Walker (present incum- 




Judges of Supreme Court. 

Matthias McGirk 1822-41 

John D. Cooke 1822-23 

John R. Jones 1822-24 

Rufus Pettibone 1823-25 

Geo. Tompkins 1824-45 

Robert Wash 1825-37 

John C. Edwards 1837-39 

Wm. Scott, (appointed 1841 till 
meeting of General Assem- 
bly in place of McGirk, re- 
signed; reappointed . . . 1843 

P. H. McBride 1845 

Wm. B. Napton 1849-52 

John P. Ryland 1849-51 

John H. Birch 1849-51 

Wm. Scott, John P. Ryland, 
and Hamilton R. Gamble 
(elected by the people, for six 

years) 1851 

Gamble (resigned) 1854 

Abiel Leonard elected to fill va- 
cancy of Gamble. 
Wm. B. Napton (vacated by 

failure to file oath). 
Wm. Scott and John C. Rich- 
ardson (resigned, elected Au- 
gust, for six years) .... 1857 
E. B. Ewing, (to fill Richard- 
son's resignation) .... 1859 
Barton Bates (appointed) . . 1862 
W. V. N. Bay (appointed) . . 1862 




state government — Continued. 





■ 1874-80 

John D. S. Dryden (appointed) 1862 

Barton Bates 1863-65 

W. V. N. Bay (elected) . . . 
John D. S. Dryden (elected) . 
David Wagner (appointed) . . 
Wallace L. Lovelace (appoint- 

Nathaniel Holmes (appointed) 
Thomas J. C. Fagg (appointed) 
James Baker (appointed) . . 
David Wagner (elected) . . . 

Philemon Bliss 1868-70 

Warren Currier 1868-71 

Washington Adams (appointed 
to fill Currier's place, who re- 
signed) 1871 

Ephraim B. Ewing (elected) . 1872 
Thomas A. Sherwood (elected) 1872 
W. B. Napton (appointed in 
place of Ewing, deceased) . 
Edward A. Lewis (appointed, 
in place of Adams, resigned) 
Warwick Hough (elected) . . 
William B. Napton (elected) . 

John W.Henry 1876-86 

Robert D. Ray succeeded Wm. 

B. Napton in 1880 

Elijah H, Norton (appointed in 

1876), elected 1878 

T. A. Sherwood (re-elected) 1882 

United States Senators. 

T. H. Benton 1820-50 

D. Barton 1820-30 

Alex. Buckner 1830-33 

L. F. Linn 1833-43 

D. R. Atchison 1843-55 

H. S. Geyer 1851-57 

James S. Green 1857-61 

T. Polk 1857-63 

Waldo P. Johnson 1861 

Robert Wilson 1861 

B. Gratz Brown (for unexpired 
term of Johnson) .... 1863 

J. B. Henderson 1863-69 

Charles D. Drake 1867-70 

Carl Schurz 1869-75 

D. P. Jewett (in place of Drake, 

resigned) 1870 

P.P.Blair 1871-77 

L. V.Bogy 1873 

James Shields (elected for unex- 
pired term of Bogy) . . . 1879 

D. H. Armstrong appointed for 

unexpired term of Bogy. 

F. M. Cockrell (re-elected 1881) 1875-81 

George G. Vest 1879 

. Representatives to Congress. 

John Scott 1820-26 

Ed. Bates 1826-28 

Spencer Pettis 1828-31 

William H. Ashley .... 1831-36 

John Bull 1832-34 

Albert G. Harrison 1834-39 

John Miller 1836-42 

John Jameson (re-elected 1846 

for two years) 1839-44 

John C. Edwards 1840-42 

James M. Hughes 1842^4 

James H. Relfe 1842^6 

James B. Bowlin 1842-50 

Gustavus M. Bower .... 1842-44 

Sterling Price 1844-46 

William McDaniul 1846 

Leonard H. Sims 1844-46 

JohnS. Phelps 1844-60 

James S. Green (re-elected 

1856, resigned) 1846-50 

Will ard P. Hall 1846-53 

William V. N. Bay ... . 1848-61 

John P. Darby 1850-53 

Gilchrist Porter 1850-57 

John G. Miller 1850-56 

Alfred W. Lamb 1852-54 

Thomas H. Benton 1852-54 

Mordecai Oliver 1852-57 

James J. Lindley 1852-56 

Samuel Caruthers 1852-58 

Thomas P. Akers (to fill unex- 
pired term of J. G-. Miller, 

deceased) 1855 

Francis P. Blair, Jr. (re-elected 

1860, resigned) 1856 

Thomas L. Anderson .... 1856-60 

James Craig 1856-S0 

Samuel H. Woodson .... 1856-60 

John B. Clark, Sr 1857-61 

J. Richard Barrett 1860 

JohnW. Nool 1858-63 

James S. Rollins 1860-64 

Elijah H. Norton 1860-63 

JohnW.Reid 1860-61 

William A. Hall 1862-64 

Thomas L. Price (in place of 
Reid, expelled) 1862 





Henry T. Blow 

Sempronius T. Boyd, (elected in 

1862, and again in 1868, for 

two years.) 

Joseph W. McClurg .... 1862-66 

Austin A. King 1862-64 

Benjamin F. Loan 1862-69 

John G. Scott (in place of Noel, 

deceased) 1863 

John Hogan 1864-66 

Thomas F.Noel 1864-67 

John R. Kelsoe 1864-66 

Robert T. Van Horn . . . 1864-71 

John F. Benjamin 1864-71 

George W. Anderson .... 1864-69 

William A. Pile 1866-68 

C. A. Newcomb 1866-68 

Joseph J. Gravelly 1866-68 

James R. McCormack . . . 1866-73 
John H. Stover (in place of 

McClurg, resigned) . . . 1867 

Erastus Wells 1868-82 

G. A. Finklenburg . . . . 1868-71 

Samuel S. Burdett 1868-71 

JoelF. Asper 1868-70 

David P. Dyer 1868-70 

Harrison E. Havens .... 1870-75 

Isaac G. Parker 1870-75 

James G. Blair 1870-72 

Andrew King 1870-72 

Edwin O. Stanard 1872-74 

William H. Stone 1872-78 

Robert A. Hatcher (elected) . 1872 

Richard B. Bland 1872 

Thomas T. Crittenden . . . 1872-74 

Ira B.Hyde 1872-74 

John B. Clark, Jr. 1872-78 

John M. Glover 1872 


Aylett H. Buckner 1872 

Edward C. Kerr 1874-78 

Charles H. Morgan .... 1874 

John F. Philips 1874 

B. J. Franklin 1874 

David Rea 1874 

Rezin A. De Bolt 1874 

Anthony Ittner 1876 

Nathaniel Cole 1876 

Robert A. Hatcher 1876-78 

R. P. Bland 1876-78 

A. H. Buckner 1876-78 

J. B. Clark, Jr 1876-78 

T. T. Crittenden ..... 1876-78 

B. J. Franklin 1876-78 

John M. Glover 1876-78 

Robert A. Hatcher 1876-78 

Chas. H. Morgan 1876-78 

L. S. Metcalf 1876-78 

H.M. Pollard 1876-78 

David Rea 1876-78 

S. L. Sawyer 1878-80 

N. Ford 1878-82 

G. F. Rothwell 1878-82 

John B. Clark, Jr 1878-82 

W. H. Hatch 1878-82 

A. H. Buckner 1878-82 

M. L. Clardy 1878-82, 

R. G.Frost 1878-82 

L. H. Davis 1878-82 

R. P. Bland 1878-82 

J. R. Waddell 1878-80 

T.Allen 1880-82 

R. Hazeltine 1880-82 

T. M.Rice 1880-82 

R. T. Van Horn 1880-82 

Nicholas Ford 1880-82 

J. G. Burrows 1880-82 


Adair January 29, 1841 

Andrew January 29, 1841 

Atchison January 14, 1845 

Audrain ....December 17, 1836 

Barry January 5, 1835 

Barton December 12, 1835 

Bates January 29, 1841 

Benton January 3, 1835 

Bollinger March 1, 1851 

Boone November 16, 1820 

Buchanan February 10, 1839 

Caldwell December 26, 1836 

Callaway November 25, 1820 

Camden January 29, 1841 

Cape Girardeau October 1, 1812 

Carroll Januarys, 1833 

Carter March 10, 18')9 

Cass September 14, 1835 

Cedar February 14, 1845 

Chariton November 16, 1820 

Christian March 8, 1860 

Clark December 15, 1818 




Butler February 27, 1849 

Clay January 2, 1822 

Clinton January 15, 1833 

Cole November 16, 1820 

Cooper December 17, 1818 

Crawford January 23, 1829 

Dade .....January 29, 1841 

Dallas December 10, 1844 

Daviess December 29, 1836 

DeKalb February 25, 1845 

Dent February 10, 1851 

Douglas October 19, 1857 

1 uiklin February 14, 1845 

Franklin December 11, 1818 

Gasconade November 25, 1820 

Gentry February 12, 1841 

Greene January 2, 1833 

Grundy January 2, 1843 

Harrison February 14, 1845 

Henry '. December 13, 1834 

Hickory February 14, 1845 

Holt February 15, 1841 

Howard January 23, 1816 

Howell March 2, 1857 

Iron February 17, 1857 

Jackson December 15, 1826 

Jasper January 29, 1841 

Jefferson December 8, 1818 

Johnson December 13, 1834 

Knox February 14, 1845 

Laclede February 24, 1849 

Lafayette November 16, 1820 

Lawrence February 25, 1845 

Lewis January 2, 1833 

Lincoln December 14, 1818 

Linn January 7, 1837 

Livingston January 6, 1837 

McDonald March 3, 1849 

Macon January 6, 1837 

M adison December 14, 1818 

Maries March 2, 1855 

Marion December 23, 1826 

Mercer. February 14, 1845 

Miller February 6, 1837 

Mississippi February 14, 1845 

Moniteau February 14, 1845 | 

Monroe January 6, 1831 

Montgomery. December 14, 1818 

Morgan January 5, 1833 

New Madrid.: October 1, 1812 

Newton December 81, 1838 

Nodaway February 14, 1845 

Oregon February 14, 1845 

Osage January 29, 1841 

Ozark January 29, 1841 

Pemiscot February 19, 1861 

Perry November 16, 1820 

Pettis January 26, 1833 

Phelps November 13, 1857 

Pike December 14, 1818 

Platte December 31, 1838 

Polk March 13, 1835 

Pulaski December 15, 1818 

Putnam February 28, 1845 

Rails November 16, 1820 

Randolph January 22, 1829 

Ray. November 16, 1820 

Reynolds February 25, 1845 

Ripley January 5, 1833 

St. Charles October 1, 1812 

St. Clair January 29, 1841 

St. Francois December 19, 1821 

Ste. Genevieve October 1, 1812 

St. Louis October 1, 1812 

Saline November 25, 1820 

Schuyler .February 14, 1845 

Scotland January 29, 1841 

Scott December 28, 1821 

Shannon January 29, 1841 

Shelby January 2, 1835 

Stoddard January 2, 1835 

Stone February 10, 1851 

Sullivan February 16, 1845 

Taney January 16, 1837 

Texas February 14, 1835 

Vernon February 17, 1851 

Warren January 5, 1833 

Washington August 21, 1813 

Wayne December 11, 1818 

Webster March 3, 1855 

Worth , February 8, 1861 

Wright January 29, 1841 




Fort Sumter flred upon— Call for 75,000 men — Gov. Jackson refuses to furnish a 
man — XJ. S. Arsenal at Liberty, Mo., seized — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — 
General Order No. 7 — Legislature convenes — Camp Jackson organized — Sterling 
Price appointed Major-General — Frost's letter to Lyon — Lyon's letter to Prost — 
Surrender of Camp Jackson — Proclamation of Gen. Harney — Conference between 
Price and Harney — Harney superseded by Lyon — Second Conference — Gov. Jack- 
son burns the bridges behind him — Proclamation of Gov. Jackson — Gen. Blair 
takes possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of Lyon — Lyon at Springfield — 
State offices declared vacant — Gen. Premont assumes command — Proclamation of 
Lieut.-Gov. Eeynolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson and Gov. Jackson — Death 
of Gen. Lyon — Succeeded by Sturgis — Proclamation of McCulloch and Gamble — 
Martial law declared — Second proclamation of Jeff. Thompson — President modi- 
fies Fremont's order — Premont relieved by Hunter — Proclamation of Price — Hun- 
ter's Order of Assessment — Hunter declares Martial Law — Order relating to 
Newspapers — Halleck succeeds Hunter — Halledk's Order 81 — Similar order by 
Halleck — Boone County Standard confiscated — Execution of prisoners at Macon 
and Palmyra — Gen. Ewlng's Order No. 11 — Gen. Rosecrans takes command — Mas- 
sacre at Centralia — Death of Bill Anderson — Gen. Dodge succeeds Gen. Rose- 
crans — List of Battles. 

; " Lastly stood war — 

With visage grim, stern looks, and blackly hued, 


Ah I why will kings forget that they are men? 
And men that they are brethren? Why delight 
"mm In human sacrifice? Why burst the ties 

Of nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one soft bond of amity and love?" 

Fort Sumter was fired upon April 12, 1861. On April 15th, Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 men, from the 
the militia of the several States, to suppress combinations in the South- 
ern States therein named. Simultaneously therewith, the Secretary of 
War sent a telegram to all the governors of the States, excepting 
those mentioned in the proclamation, requesting them to detail a cer- 
tain number of militia to serve for three months, Missouri's quota 
. being four regiments. 

In response to this telegram, Gov. Jackson sent the following answer : 

Executive Department of Missouri, 
Jefferson City, April 17, 1861. 
To the Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, Washington, D. G. : 
Sir: Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for 


four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There 
can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a 
part of the President's army to make war upon the people of the 
seceded States. Your requisition, in my judgment, is illegal, unconsti- 
tutional, and can not be complied with. Not one man will the State of 
Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy war. 

C. F. Jackson, 

Governor of Missouri. 

April 21, 1861. U. S. Arsenal at Liberty was seized by order of 
Governor Jackson. 

April 22, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation convening 
the Legislature of Missouri, on May following, in extra session, to take 
into consideration the momentous issues which were presented, and 
the attitude to be assumed by the State in the impending struggle. 

On the 22nd of April, 1861, the Adjutant-General of Missouri issued 
the following military order : 

Headquarters Adjutant-General's Office, Mo., 
Jefferson City, April 22, 1861. 
{General Orders No. 7.) 

I. To attain a greater degree of efficiency and perfection in organ- 
ization and discipline, the Commanding Officers of the several Military 
districts in this State, having four or more legally organized compa- 
nies therein, whose armories are within fifteen miles of each other, will 
assemble their respective commands at some place to be by them sever- 
ally designated, on the 3rd day of May, and to go into an encampment 
for a period of six days, as provided by law. Captains of companies 
not organized into battalions will report the strength of their compa- 
nies immediately to these headquarters, and await further orders. 

II. The Quartermaster-General will procure and issue to Quarter- 
masters of Districts, for these commands not now provided for, all 
necessary tents and camp equipage, to enable the commanding officers 
thereof to carry the foregoing orders into effect. 

III. The Light Battery now attached to the Southwest Battalion, 
and one company of mounted riflemen, including all officers and sol- 
diers belonging to the First District, will proceed forthwith to St. Louis, 
and report to Gen. D. M. Frost for duty. The remaining companies 
of said battalion will be disbanded for the purpose of assisting in the 
organization of companies upon that frontier. The details in the exe- 


cution of the foregoing are intrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel John S. 
Bowen, commanding the Battalion. 

IV. The strength, organization, and equipment of the several com- 
panies in the District will be reported at once to these Headquarters, 
and District Inspectors will furnish all information which may be ser- 
viceable in ascertaining the condition of the State forces. 

By order of the Governor. 
• Warwick Hough, 

| Adjutant-General of Missouri. 

May 2, 1861. The Legislature convened in extra session. Many 
acts were passed, among which was one to authorize the Governor to 
purchase or lease David Ballentine's foundry at Boonville, for the man- 
ufacture of arms and munitions of war ; to authorize the Governor to 
appoint one Major-General; to authorize the Governor, when, in his 
opinion, the security and welfare of the State required it, to take pos- 
session of the railroad and telegraph lines of the State ; to provide for 
the organization, government, and support of the military forces ; to 
borrow one million of dollars to arm and equip the militia of the State 
to repel invasion, and protect the lives and property of the people. 
An act was also passed creating a " Military Fund," to consist of all 
the money then in the treasury or that might thereafter be received 
from the one-tenth of one per cent, on the hundred dollars, levied by 
act of NovenAer, 1857, to complete certain railroads ; also the pro- 
ceeds of a tax of fifteen cents on the hundred dollars of the assessed 
value of the taxable property of the several counties in the State, and 
the proceeds of the two-mill tax, which had been theretofore appro- 
priated for educational purposes. 

May 3, 1861. " Camp Jackson " was organized. 

May 10, 1861. Sterling Price appointed Major-General of State 

May 10, 1861. General Frost, commanding " Camp Jackson," ad- 
dressed General N. Lyon, as follows : — 

1 Headquarters Camp Jackson, Missouri Militia, May 10, 1861. 
Capt. N. Lyon, Commanding U. S. Troops in and about 8t. Louis 
Sir : I am constantly in receipt of information that you contem- 
plate an attack upon my camp, whilst I understand that you are im- 
pressed with the idea that an attack upon the Arsenal and United 
States troops is intended on the part of the Militia of Missouri. I am 


greatly at a loss to know what could justify you in attacking citizens 
of the United States, who are in lawful performance of their duties, 
devolving upon them under the Constitution in organizing and instruct- 
in o the militia of the State in obedience to her laws, and, therefore, 
have been disposed to doubt the correctness of the information I have 

I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any 
truth in the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So 
far as regards any hostility being intended toward the United States, 
or its property cr representatives by any portion of my command, or, 
as far as I can learn (and I think I am fully informed), of any other 
part of the State forces, I can positively say that the idea has never 
been entertained. On the contrary, prior to your taking command of 
the Arsenal, I proffered to Major Bell, then in command of the very 
few troops constituting its guard, the services of myself and all my 
command, and, if necessary, the whole power of the State, to protect 
the United States in the full possession of all her property. Upon 
General Harney taking command of this department, I made the same 
proffer of services to him, and authorized his Adjutant-General, Capt. 
Williams, to communicate the fact that such had been done to the 
War Department. I have had no occasion since to change any of the 
views I entertained at the time, neither of my own volition nor through 
orders of my constitutional commander. 

1 trust that after this explicit statement that we may be able, by 
fully understanding each other, to keep far from our borders the mis- 
fortunes which so unhappily affect our common country. 

This cqmmunication will be handed you by Colonel Bowen, my 
Chief of Staff, who will be able to explain anything not fully set forth 
in the foregoing. 

I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient servant. 

Brigadier-General D. M. Frost, 
Commanding Camp Jackson, M. V. M. 

May 10, 1861. Gen. Lyon sent the following to Gen. Frost: 

Headquarters United States Troops, 
St. Louis, Mo., May 10, 1861. 
Gen. D. M. Frost, Commanding Camp Jackson: 

Sir: Your command is regarded as evidently hostile toward the 
Government of the United States. 

It is, for the most part, made up of those Secessionists who have 


openly avowed their hostility to the General Government, and have 
been plotting at the seizure of its property and the overthrow of its 
authority. You are openly in communication with the so-called 
Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with the United States, 
and you are receiving at your camp, from the said Confederacy and 
under its flag, large supplies of the material of war, most of which is 
known to be the property of the United States. These extraordinary 
preparations plainly indicate none other than the well-known purpose 
of the Governor of this State, under whose orders you are acting, and 
whose communication to the Legislature has just been responded to 
by that body in the most unparalleled legislation, having in direct 
view hostilities to the General Government and co-operation with its 

In view of these considerations, and of your failure to disperse in 
obedience to the proclamation of the President, and of the imminent 
necessities of State policy and warfare, and the obligations imposed 
upon me by instructions from Washington, it is my duty to demand, 
and I do hereby demand of you an immediate surrender of your com- 
maud, with no other conditions than that all persons surrendering 
under this command shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believing 
myself prepared to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before 
doing so will be allowed for your compliance therewith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. Lyon, 
Captain Second Infantry, Commanding Troops. 

May 10, 1861. Camp Jackson surrendered and prisoners all 
released excepting Capt. Emmet McDonald, who refused to subscribe 
to the parole. 

May 12, 1861. Brigadier-General Wm. S. Harney issued a procla- 
mation to the people of Missouri, saying " he would carefully abstain 
from the exercise of any unnecessary powers," and only use "the 
military force stationed in this district in the last resort to preserve 

May 14, 1861. General Harney issued a second proclamation. 

May 21, 1861. General Harney held a conference with General 
Sterling Price, of the Missouri State Guards. 

May 31, 1861. General Harney superseded by General Lyon. 

June 11, 1861. A second conference was held between the National 
and State authorities in St. Louis, which resulted in nothing. 


June 11, 1861. Gov. Jackson left St. Louis for Jefferson City, 
burning the railroad bridges behind him, and cutting telegraph wires. 

June 12, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling 
into active service 50,000 militia, "to repel invasion, protect life," 
property," etc. 

June 15, 1861. Col. F. P. Blair took possession of the State Capi- 
tal, Gov. Jackson, Gen. Price and other officers having left on the 13th 
of June for Boonville. 

June 17, 1861. Battle of Boonville took place between the forces 
of Gen. Lyon and Col. John S. Marmaduke. 

June 18, 1861. General Lyon issued a proclamation to the people 
of Missouri. 

July 5, 1861. Battle at Carthage between the forces of Gen. Sigel 
and Gov. Jackson. 

July 6, 1861. Gen. Lyon reached Springfield. 

July 22, 1861. State convention met and declared the offices* of 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State vacated. 

July 26, 1861. Gen. John C. Fremont assumed command of the 
Western Department, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

July 3l, 1861. Lieutenant-Governor Thomas C. Eeynolds issued 
a proclamation at 'New Madrid. 

August 1, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation at 

August 2, 1861. Battle of Dug Springs, between Captain Steele's 
forces and General Raius. 

August 5, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation at New 

August 5, 1861. Battle of Athens. 

August 10, 1861. Battle of Wilson's Creek, between the forces 
under General Lyon and General McCulloch. In this engagement 
General Lyon was killed. General Sturgis succeeded General Lyon. 

August 12, 1861. McCulloch issued a proclamation, and soon left 

August 20, 1861. General Price issued a proclamation. 

August 24, 1861. Governor Gamble issued a proclamation calling 
tor 32,000 men for six months to protect the property and lives of the 
citizens of the State. 

August 30', 1861. General Fremont declared martial law, and 
declared that the slaves of all persons who should thereafter take an 
active part with the enemies of the Government should be free. 


September 2, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation 
in response to Fremont's proclamation. 

September 7, 1861. Battle at Drywood Creek. 

September 11, 1861. President Lincoln modified the clause in Gen. 
Fremont's declaration of martial law, in reference to the confiscation 
of property and liberation of slaves. 

September 12, 1861. General Price begins the attack at Lexing- 
ton on Colonel Mulligan's forces. 

September 20, 1861. Colonel Mulligan with 2,640 men surren- 

October 25, 1861. Second battle at Springfield. 

October 28, 1861. Passage by Governor Jackson's Legislature, 
at Neosho, of an ordinance'of secession. 

November 2, 1861. General Fremont succeeded by General David 

November 7, 1861. General Grant attacked Belmont. 

November 9, 1861. General Hunter succeeded by General Halleck, 
who took command on the 19th of same month, with headquarters in 
St. Louis. 

November 27, 1861. General Price issued proclamation calling for 
50,000 men, at Neosho, Missouri. 

December 12, 1861. General Hunter issued his order of assess- 
ment upon certain wealthy citizens in St. Louis, for feeding and cloth- 
ing Union refugees. 

December 23-25. Declared martial law in St. Louis and the 
country adjacent, and covering all the railroad lines. 

March 6, 1862. Battle at Pea Eidge between the forces under Gen- 
erals Curtis and Van Dorn. 

January 8, 1862. Provost Marshal Farrar, of St. Louis, issued the 
following order in reference to newspapers : 

Office of the Provost Marshal, \ 

General Department of Missouri, > 
St. Louis, January 8, 1862. ) 
(General Order No. 10.) 

It is hereby ordered that from and after this date the publishers of 
newspapers in the State of Missouri (St. Louis City papers excepted), 
furnish to this office, immediately upon publication, one copy of each 
issue, for inspection. A failure to comply with this order will render 
the newspaper liable to suppression. 


Local Provost Marshals will furnish the proprietors with copies of 
this order, and attend to its immediate enforcement. 

Bernard G. Farrar, 
Provost Marshal General. 

January 26, 1862. General Halleck issued order (No. 18) which 
forbade, among other things, the display of Secession flags in the 
hands of women or on carriages, in the vicinity of the military prison 
in McDowell's College, the carriages to be confiscated and the offend- 
ing women to be arrested. 

February 4, 1862. General Halleck issued another order similar to 
Order No. 18, to railroad companies and to the professors and direct- 
ors of the State University at Columbia, forbidding the funds of the 
institution to be used " to teach treason or to instruct traitors." 

February 20, 1862. Special Order No. 120 convened a military 
commission, which sat in Columbia, March following, and tried Ed- 
mund J. Ellis, of Columbia, editor and proprietor of " The Boone 
County Standard," for the publication of information for the benefit 
of the enemy, and encouraging resistance to the United States Gov- 
ernment. Ellis was found guilty, was banished during the war from 
Missouri, and his printing materials confiscated and sold. 

April, 1862. General Halleck left for Corinth, Mississippi, leaving 
General Schofield in command. 

June, 1862. Battle at Cherry Grove between the forces under 
Colonel Joseph C. Porter and Colonel H. S. Lipscomb. 

June, 1862. Battle at Pierce's Mill between the forces under Major 
John Y. Clopper and Colonel Porter. 

July 22, 1862. Battle at Florida. 

July 28, 1862. Battle at Moore's Mill. 

August 6, 1862. Battle near Kirksville. 

August 11, 1862. Battle at Independence. 

August 16, 1862. Battle at Lone Jack. 

September 13, 1862. Battle at Newtouia. 

September 25, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners were executed at 
Macon, by order of General Merrill. 

October 18, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners executed at Palmyra, 
by order of General McNeill. 

January 8, 1863. Battle at Springfield between the forces of Gen- 
eral Marmaduke and General E. B. Brown. 

April 26, 1863. Battle at Cape Girardeau. 


August — , 1863. General Jeff. Thompson captured at Pocahontas, 
Arkansas, with his staff. 

August 25, 1863. General Thomas Ewing issued his celebrated 
Order No. 11, at Kansas City, Missouri, which is as follows : — 

Headquarters District of the Border, ) 
Kansas City, Mo., August 25, 1863. 5 
(General Order No. 11.) 

First. — All persons living in Cass, Jackson and Bates Counties, 
Missouri, and in that part of Vernon included in this district, except 
those living within one mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's 
Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harrisonville, and except those in that part 
of Kaw Township, Jackson County, north of Brush Creek and west 
of the Big Blue, embracing Kansas City and Westport, are hereby 
ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen 
days from the date hereof. 

Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfac- 
tion of the commanding officer of the military station nearest their 
present place of residence, will receive from him certificates stating 
the fact of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses by whom it 
can be shown. All who receive such certificate will be permitted to 
remove to any military station in this district, or to any part of the 
State of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern borders of the 
State. All others shall remove out of this district. Officers com- 
manding companies and detachments serving in the counties named, 
will see that this paragraph is promptly obeyed. 

Second. — All grain and hay in the field, or under shelter, in the 
district from which the inhabitants are required to remove within reach 
of military stations, after the 9th day of September next, will be 
taken to such stations and turned over to the proper officer there, and 
report of the amount so turned over made to district headquarters, 
specifying the names of all loyal owners and the amount of such 
produce taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district 
after the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, 
will be destroyed. 

Third. — The provisions of General Order No. 10, from these 
headquarters, will at once be vigorously executed by officers com- 
manding in the parts of the district, and at the stations not subject to 
the operations of paragraph First of this Order — and especially in 
the towns of Independence. Westport and Kansas City. 



Fourth. — Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all 
who have borne arms against the Government in the district since 
August 20, 1863. 

By order of Brigadier-General Ewing : 

H. Hannahs, Adjutant. 

October 13. Battle of Marshall. 

January, 1864. General Eosecrans takes command of the Depart- 

September, 1864. Battle at Pilot Knob, Harrison and Little Mo- 
reau River. 

October 5, 1864. 

October 8, 1864. 

October 20, 1864. 

September 27, 1864. 

October 27, 1864. Captain Bill Anderson killed. 

December — , 1864. General Eosecrans relieved 
Dodge appointed to succeed him. 

Nothing occurred specially, of a military character, in the State after 
December, 1864. We have, in the main, given the facts as they 
occurred without comment or entering into details. Many of the 
minor incidents and skirmishes of the war have been omitted because 
of our limited space. 

It is utterly impossible, at this date, to give the names and dates of 
all the battles fought in Missouri during the Civil War. It will be 
found, however, that the list given below, which has been arranged for 
convenience, contains the prominent battles and skirmishes which took 
place within the State : — 

Battle at Prince's Ford and James Gordon's 

Battle at Glasgow. 
Battle at Little Blue Creek. 

Massacre at Centralia, by Captain Bill An- 

and General 

Potosi, May 14, 1661. 
Boonville, June 17, 1861. 
Carthage, July 5, 1861. 
Monroe Station, July 10, 1861. 
Overton's Run, July 17, 1861. 
Dug Spring, August 2, 1861. 
Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861. 
Athens, August 5, 1861. 
Moreton, August 20, 1861. 
Bennett's Mills, September — , 1861. 
Drywood Creek, September 7, 1861. 
Norfolk, September 10, 1861. 
Lexington, September 12-20, 1861. 

Blue Mills Landing, September 17, 1861. 
Glasgow Mistake, September 20, 1861. 
Osceola, September 25, 1861. 
Shanghai, October 13, 1861. 
Lebanon, October 13, 1861. 
Linn Creek, October 16, 1861. 
Big River Bridge, October 15, 1861. 
Fredericktown, October 21, 1861. 
Springfield, October 25, 1861. 
Belmont, November 7, 1861. 
Piketon, November 8, 1861. 
Little Blue, November 10, 1861. 
Clark's Station, November 11, 1861. 



Mt. Zion Church, December 28, 1861. 
Silver Creek, January 15, 1862. 
New Madrid, February 28, 1862. 
Pea Eidge, March 6, 1862. 
Neosho, April 22, 1862. 
Rose Hill, July 10, 1862. 
Chariton River, July 30, 1862. 
Cherry Grove, June — , 1862. 
Pierce's Mill, June — , 1862. 
Florida, July 22, 1862. 
Moore's Mill, July 28, 1862. 
Kirksville, August 6, 1862. 
Compton's Ferry, August 8, 1862. 
Yellow Creek, August 13, 1862. 
Independence, August 11, 1862. 

Lone Jack, August 16, 1862. 
Newtonia, September 13, 1862. 
Springfield, January 8, 1863. 
Cape Girardeau, April 29, 1863. 
Marshall, October 13, 1863. 
Pilot Knob, September — , 1864. 
Harrison, September — , 1864. 
Moreau River, October 7, 1864. 
Prince's Ford, October 5, 1864. 
Glasgow, October 8, 1864. 
Little Blue Creek, October 20, 1864. 
Albany, October 27, 1864. 
Near Rocheport, September 23, 1864. 
Centralia, September 27, 1864. 



Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War. 

On the fourteenth day of May, 1832, a bloody engagement took 
place between the regular forces of the United States, and a part of 
the Sacs, Foxes, and Winnebago Indians, commanded by Black 
Hawk and Keokuk, near Dixon's Ferry in Illinois. 

The Governor (John Miller) of Missouri, fearing these savages 
would invade the soil of his State, ordered Major-General Richard 
Gentry to raise one thousand volunteers for the defence of the fron- 
tier. Five companies were at once raised in Boone county, and in 
Callaway, Montgomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, Pike, Marion, Ralls, 
Clay and Monroe other companies were raised. 

Two of these companies, commanded respectively by Captain John 
Jamison of Callaway, and Captain David M. Hickman of Boone 
county, were mustered into service in Jnly for thirty days, and put 
under command of Major Thomas W. Conyers. 

This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry, arrived at Fort 
Pike on the 15th of July, 1832. Finding that the Indians had not 
crossed the Mississippi into Missouri, General Gentry returned to 
Columbia, leaving the fort in charge of Major Conyers. Thirty days 
having expired, the command under Major Conyers was relieved by two 


other companies under Captains Sinclair Kirtley, of Boone, and Patrick 
Ewing, of Callaway. This detachment was marched to Fort Pike by 
Col. Austin A. King, who conducted the two companies under Major 
Conyers home. Major Conyers was left in charge of the fort, where 
he remained till September following, at which time the Indian troub- 
les, so far as Missouri was concerned, having all subsided, the frontier 
forces were mustered out of service. 

Black Hawk continued the war in Iowa and Illinois, and was finally 
defeated and captured in 1833. 


In 1832, Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons, and the chosen 
prophet and apostle, as he claimed, of the Most High, came with 
many followers to Jackson county, Missouri, where they located and 
entered several thousand acres of land. 

The object of his coming so far West — upon the very outskirts of. 
civilization at that time — was to more securely establish his church, 
and the more effectively to instruct his followers in its peculiar tenets 
and practices. 

Upon the present town site of Independence the Mormons located 
their "Zion," and gave it the name of "The New Jerusalem." 
They published here the Evening Star, and made themselves gener- 
ally obnoxious to the Gentiles, who were then in a minority, by their 
denunciatory articles through their paper, their clanuishness and their 
polygamous practices. 

Dreading the demoralizing influence of a paper which seemed to be 
inspired only with hatred and malice toward them, the Gentiles 
threw the press and type into the Missouri Kiver, tarred and feathered 
one of their bishops, and otherwise gave the Mormons and their lead- 
ers to understand that they must conduct themselves in an entirely 
different manner if they wished to be let alone. 

After the destruction of their paper and press, they became fu- 
riously incensed, and sought many opportunities for retaliation. Mat- 
ters continued in an uncertain condition until the 31st of October, 
1833, when a deadly conflict occurred near Westport, in which two 
Gentiles and one Mormon were killed. 

On the 2d of October following the Mormons were overpowered, 
and compelled to lay down their arms and agree to leave the county 
with their families by January 1st on the condition that the owner 
would be paid for his printing press. 


Leaving Jackson county, they crossed the Missouri and located in 
Clay, Carroll, Caldwell and other counties, and selected in Caldwell 
county a town site, which they called " Far West," and where they 
entered more land for their future homes. 

Through the influence of their missionaries, who were exerting 
themselves in the East and in different portions of Europe, converts 
had constantly flocked to their standard, and " Far West," and other 
Mormon settlements, rapidly prospered. 

In 1837 they commenced the erection of a magnificent temple, but 
never finished it. As their settlements increased in numbers, they 
became bolder in their practices and deeds of lawlessness. 

During the summer of 1838 two of their leaders settled in the town 
of De Witt, on the Missouri River, having purchased the land from 
an Illinois merchant. De Witt was in Carroll county, and a good 
point from which to forward goods and immigrants to their town — 
Far West. 

Upon its being ascertained that these parties were Mormon leaders, 
the Gentiles called a public meeting, which was addressed by some of 
the prominent citizens of the county. Nothing, however, was done at 
this meeting, but at a subsequent meeting, which was held a few days 
afterward, a committee of citizens was appointed to notify Col. Hin- 
kle (one of the Mormon leaders at De Witt), what they intended to 

Col. Hinkle upon being notified by this committee became indig- 
nant, and threatened extermination to all who should attempt to molest 
him or the Saints. 

In anticipation of trouble, and believing that the Gentiles would 
attempt to force them from De Witt, Mormon recruits flocked to the 
town from every direction, and pitched their tents in and around the 
town in great numbers. 

The Gentiles, nothing daunted, planned an attack upon this en- 
campment, to take place on the 21st day of September, 1838, and, 
accordingly, one hundred and fifty men bivouacked near the town ou 
that day. A conflict ensued, but nothing serious occurred.' 

The Mormons evacuated their works and fled to some log houses, 
where they could the more successfully resist the Gentiles, who had 
in the meantime returned to their camp to await reinforcements. 
Troops from Saline, Ray and other counties came to their assist- 
ance, and increased their number to five hundred men. 

Congreve Jackson was chosen Brigadier- General ; Ebenezer Price, 


Colonel ; Singleton Vaughan, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Sarshel Woods, 
Major. After some days of discipline, this brigade prepared for an 
assault, but before the attack was commenced Judge James Earickson 
and William F. Dunnica, influential citizens of Howard county, asked 
permission of General Jackson to let them try and adjust the difficul- 
ties without any bloodshed. 

It was finally agreed that Judge Earickson should propose to the 
Mormons, that if they would pay for all the cattle they had killed be- 
longing to the citizens, and load their wagons during the night and be 
ready to move by ten o'clock next morning, and make no further 
attempt to settle in Carroll county, the citizens would purchase at 
first cost their lots in De Witt and one or two adjoining tracts of 

Col. Hinkle, the leader of the Mormons, at first refused all atteixpts 
to settle the difficulties in this way, but finally agreed to the proposi- 

In accordance therewith, the Mormons without further delay, 
loaded up their wagons for the town of Far West, in Caldwell county. 
Whether the terms of the agreement were ever carried out, on the 
part of the citizens, is not known. 

The Mormons had doubtless suffered much and in many ways — the 
result of their own acts — but their trials and sufferings were not at 
an end. 

In 1838 the discord between the citizens and Mormons became so 
great that Governor Boggs issued a proclamation ordering Major- 
General David R. Atchison to call the militia of his division to enforce 
the laws. He called out a part of the first brigade of the Missouri 
State Militia, under command of Gen. A. W. Doniphan, who pro- 
ceeded to the seat of war. Gen. John B. Clark, of Howard county, 
was placed in command of the militia. 

The Mormon forces numbered about 1,000 men, and were led by 
G. W. Hiulde. The first engagement occurred at Crooked river, 
where one Mormon was killed. The principal fight took place at 
Haughn's Mills, where eighteen Mormons were killed and the balance 
captured, some of them being killed after they had surrendered; 
Only one militiaman was wounded. 

In the month of October, 1838, Joe Smith surrendered the town of 
Far West to Gen. Doniphan, agreeing to his conditions, viz. : That 
they should deliver up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders 
for trial, and the remainder of the Mormons should, with their 


families, leave the State. Indictments were found against a number 
of these leaders, including Joe Smith, who, while being taken to 
Boone county for trial, made his escape, and was afterward, in 1844, 
killed at Carthage, Illinois, with his brother Hiram. 


In September, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on 
Governor Boggs, of Missouri, for six hundred volunteers for service 
in Florida against the Seminole Indians, with whom the Creek nation 
had made common cause under Osceola. 

The first regiment was chiefly raised in Boone county by Colonel 
Eichard Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel ; John W. Price, of 
Howard county, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Harrison H. Hughes, also of 
Howard, Major. Four companies of the second regiment were raised 
and attached to the first. Two of these companies Were composed of 
Delaware and Osage Indians. 

October 6, 1837, Col. Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the seat 
of war, stopping on the way at Jefferson barracks, where they, were 
mustered into service. 

Arriving at Jackson barracks, New Orleans, they were from thence 
transported in brigs across the Gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. Gen- 
eral Za chary Taylor, who then commanded in Florida, ordered Col. 
Gentry to inarch to Okee-cho-bee Lake, one hundred and thirty-five 
miles inland by the route traveled. Having reached the Kissemmee 
river, seventy miles distant, a bloody battle ensued, in which Col. 
Gentry was killed. The Missourians, though losing their gallant 
leader, continued the fight until the Indians were totally routed, leav- 
ing many of their dead and wounded on the field. Thei'e being no 
further service required of the Missourians, they returned to their 
homes in 1838. 


Soon after Mexico declared war, against the United States, on the 
8th and 9th of May, 1846, the battles of Palo Alto aud Resaca de la 
Palm a were fought. Great excitement prevailed throughout the 
country. In none of her sister States, however, did the fires of 
patriotism burn more intensely than in Missouri. Not waiting for the 
call for volunteers, the " St. Louis Legiou " hastened to the field of 
conflict. The " Legion " was commanded by Colonel A. R. Easton. 
During the month of May, 1846, Governor Edwards, of Missouri, 


called for volunteers to join the "Army of the West," an expedition 
to Sante Fe — under command of General Stephen W. Kearney 

Fort Leavenworth was the appointed rendezvous for the volunteers. 
By the 18th of June, the full complement of companies to compose 
the first regiment had arrived from Jackson, Lafayette, Clay, Sa- 
line, Franklin, Cole, Howard and Callaway counties. Of this regi- 
ment, A. W. Doniphan was made Colonel ; C. F. Ruff, Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and Wm. Gilpin, Major. The battalion of light artillery 
from St. Louis was commanded by Captains R. A. Weightman and 
A. W. Fischer, with Major M. L. Clark as field officer ; battalions of 
infantry from Platte and Cole counties commanded by Captains 
Murphy and W. Z. Augney respectively, and the " Laclede Rangers," 
from St. Louis, by Captain Thomas B. Hudson, aggregating all told, 
from Missouri, 1,658 men. In the summer of 1846 Hon. Sterling 
Price resigned his seat in Congress and raised one mounted regiment, 
one mounted extra battalion, and one extra battalion of Mormon in- 
fantry to reinforce the "Army of the West." Mr. Price was made 
Colonel, and D. D. Mitchell Lieutenant-Colonel. 

In August, 1847, Governor Edwards made another requisition for 
one thousand men, to consist of infantry. The regiment was raised 
at once. John Dougherty, of Clay county, was chosen Colonel, but 
before the regiment marched the President countermanded the order. 

A company of mounted volunteers was raised in Ralls county, com- 
manded by Captain Wm. T. Lafland. Conspicuous among the en- 
gagements in which the Missouri volunteers participated in Mexico 
were the battles of Bracito, Sacramento, Canada, El Embudo, Taos 
and Santa Cruz de Rosales. The forces from Missouri were mustered 
out in 1848, and will ever be remembered in the history of the Mexi- 
can war, for 

"A thousand glorious actions that might claim 
Triumphant laurels and immortal fame. 




Missouri as an Agricultural State — The Different Crops — Live Stock — Horses — 
Mules — Milch Cows — Oxen and other Cattle — Sheep — Hogs — Comparisons — 
Missouri adapted to Live Stock — Cotton — Broom-Corn and other Products — 
Fruits — Berries — Grapes — Railroads — First Neigh of the " Iron Horse " in Mis- 
souri — Names of Railroads — Manufactures — Great Bridge at St. Louis. 

Agriculture is the greatest among all the arts of man, as it is the 
first in supplying his necessities. It favors and strengthens popula- 
tion ; it creates and maintains manufactures ; gives employment to 
navigation and furnishes materials to commerce. It animates every 
species of industry, and opens to nations the safest channels of 
wealth. It is the strongest bond of well regulated society, the surest 
basis of internal peace, and the natural associate of correct morals. 
Among all the occupations and professions of life, there is none more 
honorable, none more independent, and none more conducive to health 
and happiness. 

" In ancient times the sacred plow employ'd 
The kings, and awful fathers of mankind ; 
And some, with whom compared your insect tribes 
Are but the beings of a summer's day. 

Have held the scale of empire, ruled the storm 

Of mighty war with unwearied hand, 

Disdaining little delicacies, seized 

The plow and greatly independent lived." 

As an agricultural region, Missouri is not surpassed by any State in 
the Union. It is indeed the farmer's kingdom, where he always reaps 
an abundant harvest. The soil, in many portions of the State, has 
an open, flexible' structure, quickly absorbs the most excessive rains, 
and retains moisture with great tenacity. This being the case, it is 
not so easily affected by drouth. The prairies are covered with sweet, 
luxuriant grass, equally good for grazing and hay ; grass not sur- 
passed by the Kentucky blue grass — the best of clover and timothy 
in growing and fattening cattle. This grass is now as full of life-giv- 
ing nutriment as it was when cropped by the buffalo, the elk, the an- 
telope, and the deer, and costs the herdsman nothing. 


No State or territory has a more complete and rapid system of nat- 
ural drainage, or a more abundant supply of pure, fresh water than 
Missouri. Both man and beast may slake their thirst from a thousand 
pereunial fountains, which gush in limpid streams from the hill-sides, 
and wend their way through verdant valleys and along smiling prai- 
ries, varying in size, as they onward flow, from the diminutive brooklet 
to the giant river. 

Here, nature has generously bestowed her attractions of climate, 
soil and scenery to please and gratify man while earning his bread in 
the sweat of his brow. Being thus munificently endowed, Missouri 
offers superior inducements to the farmer, and bids him enter her 
broad domain and avail himself of her varied resources. 

We present here a table showing the product of each principal crop 
in Missouri for 1878 : — 

Indian Corn 93,062,000 bushels. 

Wheat 20,196,000 " 

Rye 732,000 " 

Oats 19,584,000 " 

Buckwheat 4g 4qq « 

Potatoes 5,415,000 " 

Tobacco 23,023,000 pounds. 

Ha y •. 1,620,000 tons. 

There were 3,552,000 acres in corn; wheat, 1,836,000; rye, 
48,800 ; oats, 640,000 ; buckwheat, 2,900 ; potatoes, 72,200 ; to- 
bacco, 29,900; hay, 850,000. Value of each crop: corn, $24,196,- 
224; wheat, $13,531,320; rye, $300,120; oats, $3,325,120; buck- 
wheat, $24,128; potatoes, $2,057,700; tobacco, $1,151,150; hay, 

Average cash value of crops per acre, $7.69 ; average yield of corn 
per acre, 26 bushels ; wheat, 11 bushels. 

Next in importance to the corn crop in value is live stock. The fol- 
lowing table shows the number of horses, mules, and milch cows in 
the different States for 1879 : — 




Maine , 

New Hampshire 



Rhode Island 


New York 

New Jersey 





North Carolina 

South Carolina 


Florida ... 







West Virginia 






Wisconsin , 








Nevada, Colorado, and Territories 

















































































' 416,900 

It will be seen from the above table, that Missouri is the fifth State 
in the number of horses ; fifth in number of milch cows, and the 
leading State in number of mules, having 11,700 more than Texas, 
which produces the next largest number. Of oxen and other cattle, 
Missouri produced in 1879, 1,632,000, which was more than any other 
State produced excepting Texas, which had 4,800,00. In 1879 Mis- 
souri raised 2,817,600 hogs, which was more than any other State 
produced, excepting Iowa. The number of sheep was 1,296,400. 
The number of hogs packed in 1879, by the different States, is as 
follows : — 

























From the above it will be seen that Missouri annually packs more 
hogs than any other State excepting Illinois, and that she ranks third 
in the average weight. 

We see no reason why Missouri should not be the foremost stock- 
raising State of the Union. In addition to the enormous yield of 
corn and oats upon which the stock is largely dependent, the climate 
is well adapted to their growth and health. Water is not only inex- 
haustible, but everywhere convenient. The ranges of stock are 
boundless, affording for nine months of the year, excellent pasturage 
of nutritious wild grasses, which grow in great luxuriance upon the 
thousand prairies. 

Cotton is grown successfully in many counties of the southeastern 
portions of the State, especially in Stoddard, Scott, Pemiscot, Butler, 
New Madrid, Lawrence and Mississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are produced in abundance and are not only sure 
but profitable. 

Broom corn, sorghum, castor beans, white beans, peas, hops, thrive 
well, and ail kinds of garden vegetables, are produced in great abun- 
dance and are found in the markets during all seasons of the year. 
Fruits of every variety, including the apple, pear, peach, cherries, 
apricots and nectarines, are cultivated with great success, as are also, 
the strawberry, gooseberry, currant, raspberry and blackberry. 

The grape has not been produced with that success that was at first 
anticipated, yet the yield of wine for the year 1879, was nearly half a 
million gallons. Grapes do well in Kansas, and we see no reason 
why they should not be as surely and profitably grown in a similar 
climate and soil in Missouri, and particularly in many of the counties 
north and east of the Missouri Eiver. 


^ Twenty-nine years ago, the neigh of the " iron horse " was heard 
for the first time, within the broad domain of Missouri. His coming 
presaged the dawn of a brighter and grander era in the history of the 


State. Her fertile prairies, and more prolific valleys would soon be 
of easy access to the oncoming tide of immigration, and the ores and 
minerals of her hills and mountains would be developed, and utilized 
in her manufacturing and industrial enterprises. 

Additional facilities would be opened to the marts of trade and 
commerce ; transportation from the interior of the State would be se- 
cured : a fresh impetus would be given to the growth of her towns 
and cities, and new hopes and inspirations would be imparted to all 
her people. 

Since 1852, the initial period of railroad building in Missouri, be- 
tween four and five thousand miles of track have been laid ; addi- 
tional roads are now being constructed, and many others in contem- 
plation. The State is already well supplied with railroads which 
thread her surface in all directions, bringing her remotest districts 
into close connection with St. Louis, that great center of western 
railroads and inland commerce. These roads have k capital stock ag- 
gregating more than one hundred millions of dollars, and a funded 
debt of about the same amount. 

The lines of roads which are operated in the State are the follow- 

Missouri Pacific — chartered May 10th, 1850; The St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern Railroad, which is a consolidation of the Arkan- 
sas Branch ; The Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Railroad ; The Cairo & 
Fulton Railroad; The Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway ; St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railway ; The Chicago, Alton & St. Louis 
Railroad ; The Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad : The Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas Railroad ; The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs 
Railroad ; The Keokuk & Kansas City Railway Company ; Tne St. 
Louis, Salem & Little Rock Railroad Company ; The Missouri & 
Western ; The St. Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern Railroad ; The St. 
Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad ; The Missouri, Iowa & Nebraska 
Railway ; The Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad ; The Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railway ; The Burlington & Southwestern 


The natural resources of Missouri especially fit her for a great man- 
ufacturing State. She is rich in soil ; rich in all the elements which 
supply the furnace, the machine shop and the planing mill ; rich in 
the multitude and variety of her gigantic forests ; rich in her marble, 
stone and granite quarries ; rich in her mines of iron, coal, lead and 


zinc ; rich in strong arms and willing hands to apply the force ; rich 
in water power and river navigation ; and rich in her numerous and 
well-built railroads, whose numberless engines thunder along their 
multiplied track-ways. 

Missouri contains over fourteen thousand manufacturing establish- 
ments, 1,965 of which are using steam and give employment to 
80,000 hands. The capital employed is about $100,000,000, the 
material annually used and worked up, amounts to"over $150,000,- 
000, and the value of the products put upon the markets $250,000,000, 
while the wages paid are more than $40,000,000. 

The leading manufacturing counties of the State, are St. Louis, 
Jackson, Buchanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Greene, Lafay- 
ette, Platte, Cape Girardeau, and Boone. Three-fourths, however, of 
the manufacturing is done in St. Louis, which is now about the second 
manufacturing city in the Union. Flouring mills produce annually 
about $38,194,000 ; carpentering $18,763,000 ; meat-packing $16,- 
769,000 ; tobacco $12,496,000 ; iron and castings $12,000,000 ; liquors 
$11,245,000; clothing $10,022,000; lumber $8,652,000; bagging 
and bags $6,914,000, and many other smaller industries in propor- 


Of the many public improvements which do honor to the State and 
reflect great credit upon the genius of their projectors, we have space 
only, to mention the great bridge at St. Louis. 

This truly wonderful construction is built of tubular steel, total 
length of which, with its approaches, is 6,277 feet, at a cost of nearly 
$8,000,000. The bridge spans the Mississippi from the Illinois to 
the Missouri shore, and has separate railroad tracks, roadways, and 
foot paths. In durability, architectural beauty and practical utilitv, 
there is, perhaps, n6 similar piece of workmanship that approximates 

The structure of Darius upon the Bosphorus ; of Xerxes upon the 
Hellespont ; of Csesar upon the Rhine ; and Trajan upon the Danube, 
famous in ancient history, were built for military purposes, that over 
them might pass invading armies with their munitions of war, to de- 'i 
stroy commerce, to lay in waste the provinces, and to slaughter the 5 

But the erection of this was for a higher and nobler purpose. Over 
it are coming the trade and merchandise of the opulent East, and 
thence are passing the untold riches of the West. Over it are crowd- 


ing legions of men, armed not with the weapons of war, but with the 
implements of peace and industry ; men who are skilled in all the arts 
of agriculture, of manufacture and of mining; men who will hasten 
the day when St. Louis shall rank in population and importance, sec- 
ond to no city on the continent, and'when Missouri shall proudly fill 
the measure of greatness, to which she is naturally so justly entitled. 



Tublic School System — Public School System of Missouri — Lincoln Institute — Offi- 
cers of Public School System — Certificates of Teachers — University of Missouri — 
Schools — Colleges — Institutions of Learning — Location — Libraries — Newspa- 
pers and Periodicals — No. of School Children — Amount expended — Value of 
Grounds and Buildings — " The Press." 

The first constitution of Missouri provided that "one school or more 
shall be established in each township, as soon as practicable and neces- 
sary, where the poor shall be taught gratis." 

It will be seen that even at that early day (1820) the framers of the 
constitution made provision for at least a primary education for the 
poorest and the humblest, taking it for granted that those who were 
able would avail themselves of educational advantages which were not 

The establishment of the public-school system, in its essential fea- 
tures, was not perfected until 1839, during the administration of Gov- 
ernor Boggs, and since that period the system has slowly grown into 
favor, not only in Missouri, but throughout the United States. The 
idea of a free or public school for all classes was not at first a popular 
one, especially among those who had the means to patronize private 
institutions of learning. In upholding and maintaining public schools 
the opponents of the system felt that they were not only compromis- 
ing their own standing among their more wealthy neighbors, but that 
they were, to some extent, bringing opprobrium upon their children. 
Entertaining such prejudices, they naturally thought that the training 
received at public schools could not be otherwise than defective ; hence 
many years of probation passed before the popular mind was prepared 


to appreciate the benefits and blessings which spring from these insti- 

Every year only adds to their popularity, and commends them the 
more earnestly to the fostering care of our State and National Legis- 
latures, and to the esteem and favor of all classes of our people. 

We can hardly conceive of two grander or more potent promoters of 
civilization than the free school and free press. They would indeed 
seem to constitute all that was necessary to the attainment of the hap- 
piness and intellectual growth of the Eepublic, aud all that was neces- 
sary to broaden, to liberalize and instruct. 

" Tis education forms the common mind; 


For noble youth there is nothing so meet 
As learning is, to know the good from ill ; 
To know the tongues, and perfectly indite, 
And of the laws to have a perfect skill, 
Things to reform as right and justice will; 
For honor is ordained for no cause 
But to see right maintained by the laws." 

All- the States of the Union have in practical operation the public- 
school system, governed in the main by similar laws, and not differing 
materially in the manuer and methods by which they are taught : but 
none have a wiser, a more liberal and comprehensive machinery of 
instruction than Missouri. Her school laws, since 1839, have under- 
gone many changes, and always for the better, keeping pace with the 
most enlightened and advanced theories of the most experienced edu- 
cators in the land. But not until 1875, when the new constitution was 
adopted, did her present admirable system of public instruction <*o 
into effect. 

Provisions were made not only for white, but for children of African 
descent, and are a part of the organic law, not subject to the caprices 
of unfriendly legislatures, or the whims of political parties. The Lin- 
coln Institute, located at Jefferson City, for the education of col- 
ored teachers, receives an annual appropriation from the General 

For the support of the public schools, in addition to the annual 
income derived from the public school fund, which is set apart by law, 
not less than twenty-five per cent, of the State revenue, exclusive of 
the interest and sinking fund, is annually applied to this purpose. 

The officers having in charge the public school interests are the State 
" Board of Education," the State Superintendent, County Commission- 


ers, County Clerk and Treasurer, Board of Directors, City and' Town 
School Board, and Teacher. The State Board of Education is composed 
of the State Superintendent, the Governor, Secretary of State, and the 
Attorney-General, the executive officer of this Board being the State Su- 
perintendent, who is chosen by the people every four years. His duties 
are numerous. He renders decisions concerning the local application of 
school law ; keeps a record of the school funds and annually distributes 
the same to the counties ; supervises the work of county school officers ; 
delivers lectures ; visits schools ; distributes educational information ; 
grants certificates of higher qualifications, and makes an annual report 
to the General Assembly of the condition of the schools. 

The County Commissioners are also elected by the people for two 
years. Their work is to examine teachers, to distribute blanks, and 
make reports. County clerks receive estimates from the local direct- 
ors and extend them upon the tax-books. In addition to this, they 
keep the general records of the county and township school funds, and 
return an annual report of the financial condition of the schools of 
their county to the State Superintendent. School taxes are gathered 
with other taxes by the county collector. The custodian of the school 
funds belonging to the schools of the counties is the county treasurer, 
except in counties adopting the township organization, in which case 
the township trustee discharges these duties. 

Districts organized under the special law for cities and towns are 
governed by a board of six directors, two of whom are selected annu- 
ally, on the second Saturday in September, and hold their office for 
three years. 

One director is elected to serve for three years in each school dis- 
trict, at the annual meeting. These directors may levy a tax not 
exceeding forty cents on the one hundred dollars' valuation, pro- 
vided such annual rates for school purposes may be increased in dis- 
tricts formed of cities and towns, to an amount not exceeding one 
dollar on the hundred dollars' valuation, and in other districts to an 
amount not to exceed sixty-five cents on the one hundred dollars' val- 
uation, on the condition that a majority of the voters who are tax-pay- 
ers, voting at an election held to decide the question, vote for said 
increase. For the purpose of erecting public buildings in school dis- 
tricts, the rates of taxation thus limited may be increased when the 
rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended shall 
have been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the 


qualified voters of such school district voting at such election shall 
vote therefor. 

Local directors may direct the management of the school in respect 
to the choice of teachers and other details, but in the discharge of 
all important business, such as the erection of a school house or the 
extension of a term of school beyond the constitutional period, they 
simply execute the will of the people. The clerk of this board may 
be a director. He keeps a record of the names of all the children and 
youth in the district between the ages of five and twenty-one ; records 
all business proceedings of the district, and reports to the annual 
meeting, to the County Clerk and County Commissioners. 

Teachers must hold a certificate from the State Superintendent or 
County Commissioner of the county where they teach. State certifi- 
cates are granted upon personal written examination in the common 
branches, together with the natural sciences and higher mathematics. 
The holder of such certificate may teach in any public school of the 
State without further examination. Certificates granted by County 
Commissioners are of two classes, with two grades in each class. Those 
issued for a longer term than one year, belong to the first class and are 
susceptible of two grades, differing both as to length of time and attain- 
ments. Those issued for one year may represent two grades, marked by 
qualification alone. The township school fund arises from a grant of 
land by the General Government, consisting of section sixteen in each 
congressional township. The annual income of the township fund is ap- 
propriated to the various townships, according to their respective 
proprietary claims. The support from the permanent funds is supple- 
mented by direct taxation laid upon the taxable property of each dis- 
trict. The greatest limit of taxation for the current expenses is one 
per cent ; the tax permitted for school house building cannot exceed 
the same amount. 

Among the institutions of learning and ranking, perhaps, the first 
in importance, is the State University located at Columbia, JJoone 
County. When the State was admitted into the Union, Congress 
granted to it one entire township of land (46,080 acres) for the sup- 
port of "A Seminary of Learning." The lands secured for this pur- 
pose are among the best and most valuable in the State. These 
lands were put into the market in 1832 and brought $75,000, which 
amount was invested in the stock of the old bank of the State of Mis- 
souri, where it remained and increased by accumulation to the sum of 
$100,000. In 1839, by an act of the General Assembly, five commis- 


sioners were appointed to select a site for the State University, the 
site to contain at least fifty acres of land in a compact form, within 
two miles of the county seat of Cole, Cooper, Howard, Boone, Calla- 
way or Saline. Bids were let among the counties named, and the 
county of Boone having subscribed the sum of $117,921, some 
$18,000 more than any other county, the State University was located 
in that county, and on the 4th of July, 1840, the corner-stone was 
laid with imposing ceremonies. 

The present annual income of the University is nearly $65,000. 
The donations to the institutions connected therewith amount to 
nearly $400,000. This University with its different departments, 
is open to both male and female, and both sexes enjoy alike its 
rights and privileges. Among the professional schools, which form a 
part of the University, are the Normal, or College of Instruction in 
Teaching ; Agricultural and Mechanical College ; the School of Mines 
and Metallurgy ; the College of Law ; the Medical College ; and the 
Department of Analytical and Applied Chemistry. Other departments 
are contemplated and will be added as necessity requires. 

The following will show the names and locations of the schools and 
institutions of the State, as reported by the Commissioner of Education 
in 1875: — 


Christian University ....Canton. 

St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau 

University of Missouri Columbia! 

Central College Fayette. 

"Westminster College .....Fulton. 

Lewis College ZZZZZ.Glasgow. 

Pritchett School Institute Glasgow. 

Lincoln College .*.l'ZZZZZZ"Greenwoo& 

Hannibal College Hannibal. 

Woodland College Independence. 

Thayer College Kidder . 

La Grange College La Grange. 

William Jewell College Liberty. 

Baptist College .Z.".\!"ZZZZZZ'.Loukiana! 

St. Joseph College st j osep h. 

College of Christian Brothers gk Louis. 

St. Louis University St. Louis. 

Washington University g t Louis. 

Drury College Springfield. 

Central Wesleyan College Warrenton. 


St. Joseph Female Seminary St j osep b. 

Christian College Columbia. 


Stephens' College Columbia. 

Howard College .Fayette. 

Independence Female College Independence. 

Central Female College Lexington. 

Clay Seminaiy. Liberty. 

Ingleside Female College Palmyra. 

Lindenwood College for Young Ladies St. Charles. 

Mary Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis. 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis. 


Arcadia College Arcadia. 

St Vincent's Academy Gape Girardeau. 

Chillicothe Academy Chillicothe. 

Grand Eiver College Edinburgh. 

Marionville Collegiate Institute '. Marionville. 

Palmyra Seminary Palmyra. 

St. Paul's College Palmyra. 

Van Rensselaer Academy Rensselaer. 

Shelby High School Shelbyville. 

StewartsviUe Male and Female Seminary Stewartsville. 


Missouri Agricultural and Mechanical College (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Schools of Mines and Metallurgy (University of Missouri) Rolla. 

Polytechnic Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 


St. Vincent's College (Theological Department) Cape Girardeau. 

Westminster College (Theological School) Fulton. 

Vardeman School of Theology (William Jewell College) Liberty. 

Concordia College St. Louis. 


Law School of the University of Missouri Columbia. 

Law School of the Washington University. St. Louis. 


Medical College, University of Missouri Columbia 

College of Physicians and Surgeons St. Joseph. 

Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons Kansas City. 

Hospital Medical College St. Joseph. 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis. 

Northwestern Medical College St. Joseph. 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louis. 

Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri St. Louis. 

Missouri School of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children St. Louis. 

Missouri Central College St. Louis. 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy St. Louis. 





St Vincent's College 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School 

University of Missouri 

Athenian Society 

Union Literary Society 

Law College, 

Westminster College 

Lewis College 

Mercantile Library 

Library Association 

Pruitland Normal Institute 

State Library 

Fetterman's Circulating Library 

Law Library. 

Whittemore's Circulating Library 

North Missouri State Normal School 

William Jewell College 

St. Paul's College , 

Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy 

St. Charles Catholic Library 

Carl Prielling's Library 

Law Library 

Public School Library , 

Walworth & Colt's Circulating Library 

Academy of Science 

Academy of Visitation 

College of the Christian Brothers 

Deutsche Institute 

German Evangelical Lutheran, Concordia Colle^i ■ 

Law Library Association 

Missouri Medical College 

Mrs. Cuthbert's Seminary (Young Ladies) 

Odd Fellow's Library 

Public School Library 

St Louis Medical College 

St. Louis Mercantile Library 

. St. Louis Seminary 

St. Louis Turn Verein r. 

St. Louis University 

St. Louis University Society Libraries 

Ursuline Academy 

Washington University 

St. Louis Law School." 

Young Men's Sodality 

Library Association 

Public School Library 

Drury College 


Cape Girardeau. 
Cape Girardeau. 







Hannibal , 

Independeni ■■ 


Jefferson Cily. ... 

Kansas City 

Kansas Cuy 

Kansas City 





St. Charlie 

St. Joseph 

St. Joseph 

St. Joseph 

St. Joseph 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Loui* 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St Louis 

St Louis.. 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

St Louis 










' 17,000 

in 1880. 

Newspapers and Periodicals 481 


State Asylum for Deaf and Dumb 

St. Bridget's Institution for Deaf and Dumb 

Institution for the Education of the Bliml 

State Asylum for Insane 

State Asylum for the Insane 


..St. Louis. 
..St Louis. 


.St Louis. 



Normal Institute , Bolivar. 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School Cape Girardeau. 

Normal School (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson. 

Lincoln Institute (for colored) Jefferson City. 

City Normal School St. Louis. 

Missouri State Normal School Warrensburg. 

in 1880. 
Number of school children 

in 1878. 

Estimated value of school property $8,321,399 

Total receipts for public schools.....*. 4,207,617 

Total expenditures 2,406,139 


Male teachers 6.239; average monthly pny $36.36 

Female teachers 5,060; average monthly pay 28.09 

The fact that Missouri supports and maintains four hundred and 

seventy-one newspapers and periodicals, shows that her inhabitants 

are not only a reading and reflecting people, but that they appreciate 

" The Press," and its wonderful influence as an educator. The poet 

has well said : — 

But mightiest of the mighty means, 
On which the arm of progress leans, 
Man's noblest mission to advance, 
His woes assuage, his weal enhance, 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress — 
Mightiest of mighty is the Press. 



Baptist Church — Its History — Congregational — When Founded — Its History — 
Christian Church — Its History — Cumberland Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Methodist Episcopal Church — Its History — Presbyterian Church — Its History — 
Protestant Episcopal Church — Its History — United Presbyterian Church — Its 
History — Unitarian Church — Its History — Roman Catholic Church — Its History. 

The first representatives of religious thought and training, who 
penetrated the Missouri and Mississippi Valleys, were Pere Marquette, 
La Salle, and others of Catholic persuasion, who performed missionary 


labor among the Indians. A century afterward came the Protestants. 

At that early period 

" A church In every grove that spread 
Its living roof above their heads," 

constituted for a time their only house of worship, and yet to them 

" No Temple built with hands could vie 
In glory with its majesty." 

In the course of time, the seeds of Protestantism were scattered 
along the shores of the two great rivers which form the eastern and 
western boundaries of the State, and still a" little later they were sown 
upon her hill-sides and broad prairies, where they have since bloomed 
and blossomed as the rose. 


The earliest anti-Catholic religious denomination, of which there is 
any record, was organized in Cape Girardeau county in 1806, through 
the efforts of Rev. David Green, a Baptist, and a native of Virginia. 
In 1816, the first association of Missouri Baptists was formed, which 
was composed of seven churches, all of which were located in the 
southeastern part of the State. In 1817 a second association of 
churches was formed, called the Missouri Association, the name being 
afterwards changed to St. Louis Association. In 1834 a general con- 
vention of all the churches of this denomination, was held in Howard 
county, for the purpose of effecting a central organization, at which 
time was commenced what is now known as the " General Association • 
of Missouri Baptists." 

To this body is committed the State mission work, denominational 
education, foreign missions and the circulation of religious literature. 
The Baptist Church has under its control a number of schools and 
colleges, the most important of which is William Jewell College, 
located at Liberty, Clay county. As shown by the annual report for 
1875, there were in Missouri, at that date, sixty-one associations, one 
thousand four hundred churches, eight hundred and twenty-four min- 
isters and eighty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty church members. 


The Congregationalists inaugurated their missionary labors in the 
State in 1814. Rev. Samuel J. Mills, of Torringford, Connecticut, 
and Eev. Daniel Smith, of Bennington, Vermont, were sent west by 
the Massachusetts Congregational Home Missionary Society during 


that year, and in November, 1814, they preached the first regular 
Protestant sermons in St. Louis. Rev. Samuel Giddings, sent out 
under the auspices of the Connecticut Congregational Missionary 
Society, organized the first Protestant church in the city, consisting 
of ten members, constituted Presbyterian. The churches organized 
by Mr. Giddings were all Presbyterian in their order. 

No exclusively Congregational Church was founded until 1852, 
when the " First Trinitarian Congregational Church of St. Louis " 
was organized. The next church of this denomination was organized 
at Hannibal in 1859. Then followed a Welsh church in New Cambria 
in 1864, and after the close of the war, fifteen churches of the same 
order were formed in different parts of the State. In 1866, Pilgrim 
Church, St. L ou i s > was organized. The General Conference of 
Churches of Missouri was formed in 1865, which was changed in 1868, 
to General Association. In 1866, Hannibal, Kidder, and St. Louis 
District Associations were formed, and following these were the Kan- 
sas City and Springfield District Associations. This denomination in 
1875, had 70 churches, 41 ministers, 3,363 church members, and had 
also several schools and colleges and one monthly newspaper. 


The earliest churches of this denomination were organized in Cal- 
laway, Boone and Howard Counties, some time previously to 1829. 
The first church was formed in St. Louis in 1836 by Elder R. B. 
Fife. The first State Sunday School Convention of the Christian 
Church, was held in Mexico in 1876. Besides a number of private 
institutions, this denomination has three State Institutions, all of 
which have an able corps of professors and have a good attendance o'f 
pupils. It has one religious paper published in St. Louis, " Tlie Chris- 
tian," which is a weekly publication and well patronized. The mem- 
bership of this church now numbers nearly one hundred thousand in 
the State and is increasing rapidly. It has more than five hundred 
organized churches, the greater portion of which are north of the 
Missouri River. 


In the spring of 1820, the first Presbytery of this denomination 
west of the Mississippi, was organized in Pike County. This Pres- 
bytery included all the territory of Missouri, western Illinois and 
Arkansas and numbered only four ministers, two of whom resided at 


that time in Missouri. There are now in the State, twelve Presby- 
teries, three Synods, nearly three hundred ministers and over twenty 
thousand members. The Board of Missions is located at St. Louis. 
They have a number of High Schools and two monthly papers pub- 
lished at St. Louis. 


In 1806, Rev. John Travis, a young Methodist minister, was sent 
out to the " Western Conference," which then embraced the Missis- 
sippi Valley, from Green County, Tennessee. During that year Mr. 
Travis organized a number of small churches. At the close of his 
conference year, he reported the result of his labors to the Western 
Conference, which was held at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1870, and showed 
an aggregate of one hundred and six members and two circuits, one 
called Missouri and the other Meramec. In 1808, two circuits had 
been formed, and at each succeeding year the number of circuits and 
members constantly increased, until 1812, when what was called the 
Western Conference was divided into the Ohio and Tennessee Confer- 
ences, Missouri falling into the Tennessee Conference. In 1816, 
there was another division when the Missouri Annual Conference was 
formed. In 1810, there were four traveling preachers and in 1820, fif- 
teen travelling preachers, with over 2,000 members. In 1836, the terri- 
tory of the Missouri Conference was again divided when the Missouri 
Conference included only the State. In 1840 there were 72 traveling 
preachers, 177 local ministers and 13,992 church members. Between 
1840 and 1850, the church was divided by the organization of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1850, the membership of the 
M. E. Church was over 25,000, and during the succeeding ten years 
the church prospered rapidly. In 1875, the M. E. Church reported 
274 church edifices and 34,156 members ; the M. E. Church South, 
reported 443 church edifices and 49,588 members. This denomina- 
tion has under its control several schools and colleges and two weekly 


The Presbyterian Church dates the beginning of its missionary 
efforts in the State as far back as 1814, but the first Presbyterian 
Church was not organized until 1816 at Bellevue settlement, eight 
miles from St. Louis. The next churches were formed in 1816 and 
1817 at Bonhomme, Pike County. The First Presbyterian Church 
was organized in St. Louis in 1817, by Rev. Salmon Gidding. The 


first Presbytery was organized in 1817 by the Synod of Tennessee 
with four ministers and four churches. The first Presbyterian house 
of worship (which was the first Protestant) was commenced in 1819 
and completed in 1826. In 1820 a mission was formed among the 
Osage Indians. In 1831, the Presbytery was divided into three: 
Missouri, St. Louis, and St. Charles. These were erected with a 
Synod comprising eighteen ministers and twenty-three churches. 

The church was divided in 1838, throughout the United States. In 
1860 the rolls of the Old and New School Synod together showed 109 
ministers and 146 churches. In 1866 the Old School Synod was di- 
vided on political questions springing out of the war — a part form- 
ing the Old School, or Independent Synod of Missouri, who are con- 
nected with the General Assembly South. In 1870, the Old and New 
School Presbyterians united, since which time this Synod has steadily 
increased until it now numbers more than 12,000 members with more 
than 220 churches and 150 ministers. 

This Synod is composed of six Presbyteries and has under its con- 
trol one or two institutions of learning and one or two newspapers. 
That part of the original Synod which withdrew from the Geueral 
Assembly remained an independent body until 1874 when it united 
with the Southern Presbyterian Church. The Synod in 1875 num- 
bered 80 ministers, 140 churches and 9,000 members. It has under 
its control several male and female institutions of a high order. The 
St. Louis Presbyterian, a weekly paper, is the recognized organ of 
the Synod. 


The missionary enterprises of this church began in the State in 
1819, when a parish was organized in the City of St. Louis. In 1828, 
an agent of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, visited the 
city, who reported the condition of things so favorably that Eev. 
Thomas Horrell was sent out as a missionary and in 1825, he began 
his labors in St. Louis. A church edifice was completed in 1830. In 
1836, there were five clergymen of this denomination in Missouri, 
who had organized congregations in Boonville, Fayette, St. Charles, 
Hannibal, and other places. In 1840, the clergy and laity met in 
convention, a diocese was formed, a constitution, and canons adopted, 
and in 1844 a Bishop was chosen, he being the Rev. Cicero S. 
Hawks. Through the efforts of Bishop Kemper, Kemper College was 
founded near St. Louis, but was afterward given up on account of 


pecuniary troubles. In 1847, the Clark Mission began and in 1849 
the Orphans' Home, a charitable institution, was founded. In 1865, 
St. Luke's Hospital was established. In 1875, there were in the city 
of St. Louis, twelve parishes and missions and twelve clergymen. 
This denoinuation has several schools and colleges, and one newspaper. 


This denomination is made up of the members of the Associate and 
Associate Reformed churches of the Northern States, which two 
bodies united in 1858, taking the name of the United Presbyterian 
Church of North America. Its members were generally bitterly 
opposed to the institution of slavery. The first congregation was 
organized at Warrensburg, Johnson County, in 1867. It rapidly 
increased in numbers, and had, in 1875, ten ministers and five hundred 


This church was formed in 1834, by the Rev. W. G. Eliot, in St. 
Louis. The churches are few in number throughout the State, the 
membership being probably less than 300, all told. It has a mission 
house and free school, for poor children, supported by donations. 


The earliest written record of the Catholic Church in Missouri snows 
that Father Watrin performed ministerial services in Ste. Genevieve, 
in 1760, and in St. Louis in 1766. In 1770, Father Menrin erected a 
small log church in St. Louis. In 1818, there were in the State four 
chapels, and for Upper Louisiana seven priests. A college and semi- 
nary were opened in Perry County about this period, for the 
education of the young, being the first college west of the Mississippi 
River. In 1824, a college was opened in St. Louis, which is now 
known as the St. Louis University. In 1826, Father Rosatti was 
appointed Bishop of St. Louis, and through his instrumentality the 
Sisters of Charity, Sisters of St. Joseph and of the Visitation were 
founded, besides other benevolent and charitable institutions. In 
1834 he completed the present Cathedral Church. Churches were 
built in different portions of the State. In 1847 St. Louis was created 
an arch-diocese, with Bishop Kenrick, Archbishop. 

In Kansas City there were five parish churches, a hospital, a con- 
vent and several parish schools. In 1868 the northwestern portion of 
the State was erected into a separate diocese, with its seat at St.Joseph, 


and Right-Reverend John J. Hogan appointed Bishop. There were, 
in 1875, in the city of St. Louis, 34 churches, 27 schools, 5 hospitals, 
3 colleges, 7 orphan asylums and 3 female protectorates. There were 
also 105 priests, 7 male and 13 female orders, and 20 conferences of 
St. Vincent de Paul, numbering 1,100 members. In the diocese, out- 
side of St. Louis, there is a college, a male protectorate, 9 convents, 
about 120 priests, 150 churches and 30 stations. In the diocese of 
St. Joseph there were, in 1875, 21 priests, 29 churches, 24 stations, 
1 college, 1 monastery, 5 convents and 14 parish schools : 

Number of Sunday Schools in 1S78 . . 2,067 

Number of Teachers in 1878 ... . v . . 18,010 

Number of Pupils in 1878 . 139,578 


Instruction preparatory to ministerial work is given in connection 
with collegiate study, or in special theological courses, at: 

Central College (M. E. South) . Fayette. 

Central Wesleyan College (M. E. Church) . Warrenton. 

Christian University (Christian) . . Canton. 

Concordia College Seminary CEvangelical Lutheran) ... .St. Louis. 

Lewis College (M. E. Church) Glasgow. 

St. Vincent College (Roman Catholic) Cape Girardeau. 

Vardeman School of Theology (Baptist) . Liberty. 

The last is connected with William Jewell College. 



Nomination and election of Thomas T. Crittenden — Personal Mention^Marmaduke's 
candidacy — Stirring events — Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad — Death of Jesse 
James — The Fords — Pardon of the Gamblers. 

It is the purpose in this chapter to outline the more important 
events of Governor Crittenden's unfinished administration, stating 
briefly the facts in the case, leaving comment and criticism entirely to 
the reader, the historian having no judgment to express or prejudice 
to vent. 

Thomas T. Crittenden, of Johnson county, received the Demo- 
cratic nomination for Governor of Missouri at the convention at Jeffer- 


son City, July 22d, 1880. Democratic nomination for a State office in 
Missouri is always equivalent to election, and the entire State ticket 
was duly elected in November. Crittenden's competitors before the 
convention were Gen. John S. Marmaduke, of St. Louis, and John 
A. Hockaday, of Callaway county. Before the assembling of the 
convention many persons who favored Marmaduke, both personally 
and politically, thought the nomination of an ex-Confederate might 
prejudice the prospects of the National Democracy, and therefore, as 
a matter of policy, supported Crittenden. 

His name, and the fame of his family in Kentucky — Thomas T. 
being a scion of the Crittendens of that State, caused the Democracy 
of Missouri to expect great things from their new Governor. This, 
together with the important events which followed his inauguration, 
caused some people to overrate him, while it prejudiced others against 
him. The measures advocated by the Governor in his inaugural 
address were such as, perhaps, the entire Democracy could endorse, 
especially that of refunding, at a low interest, all that part of the State 
debt that can be so refunded ; the adoption of measures to relieve the 
Supreme Court docket ; a compromise of the indebtedness of some of 
the counties, and his views concerning repudiation, which he con- 


By a series of legislative acts, beginning with the act approved 
February 22, 1851, and ending with that of March 26, 1881, the 
State of Missouri aided with great liberality in the construction of a 
system of railroads in this State. 

Among the enterprises thus largely assisted was the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph Kailroad, for the construction of which the bonds of the 
State, to the amount of $3,000,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per 
annum, payable semi-annually, were issued. One half of this amount 
was issued under the act of 1851, and the remainder under the act of 
1855. The bonds issued under the former act were to run twenty 
years, and those under the latter act were to run thirty years. Some 
of the bonds have since been funded and renewed. Coupons for the 
interest of the entire $3,000,000 were executed and made payable in 
New York. These acts contain numerous provisions intended to 
secure the State against loss and to require the railroad company to 
pay the interest and principal at maturity. It was made the duty of 
the railroad company to save and keep the State from all loss on 
account of said bonds and coupons. The Treasurer of the State was 


to be exonerated from any advance of money to meet either principal 
or interest. The State contracted with the railroad company for com- 
plete indemnity. She was required to assign her statutory mortgage 
lien only upon payment into the treasury of a sum of money equal to 
all indebtedness due or owing by said company to the State by reason 
of having issued her bonds and loaned them to the company. 

In June, 1881, the railroad, through its attorney, Geo. W. Easley, 
Esq., paid to Phil. E. Chappell, State Treasurer, the sum of $3,000,- 
000, and asked for a receipt in full of all dues of the road to the 
State. The Treasurer refused to give such a receipt, but instead gave 
a receipt for the sum " on account." The debt was not yet due, but 
the authorities of the road sought to discharge their obligation pre- 
maturely, in order to save interest and other expenses. The railroad 
company then demanded its bonds of the State, which demand the 
State refused. The company then demanded that the $3,000,000 be 
paid back, and this demand was also refused. 

The railroad company then brought suit in the United States Court 
for an equitable adjustment of the matters in controversy. The $3, 
000,000 had been deposited by the State in one of the banks, and was 
drawing interest only at the rate of one-fourth of one per cent. It 
was demanded that this sum should be so invested that a larger rate 
of interest might be obtained, which sum of interest should be allowed 
to the company as a credit in case any sum should be found due from 
it to the State. Justice Miller, of the United States Supreme Court, 
who heard the case upon preliminary injunction in the spring of 1882, 
decided that the unpaid and unmatured coupons constituted a liability 
of the State and a debt owing, though not due, and until these were 
provided for the State was not bound to assign her lien upon the road. 

Another question which was mooted, but not decided, was this: 
That, if any, what account is the State to render for the use of the 
$3,000,000 paid into the treasury by the complainants on the 20th of 
June? Can she hold that large sum of money, refusing to make any 
account of it, and still insist upon full payment by the railroad 
company of all outstanding coupons? 

Upon this subject Mr. Justice Miller, in the course of his opinion, 
said : "lam of the opinion that the State,, having accepted or got this 
money into her possession, is under a moral obligation (and I do not 
pretend to commit anybody as to how far its legal obligation goes) to 
so use that money as, so far as possible, to protect the parties who 
have paid it against the loss of the interest which it might accumulate, 


and which would go to extinguish the interest on the State's obliga- 

March 26, 1881, the Legislature, in response to a special message of 
Gov. Crittenden, dated February 25, 1881, in which he informed 
the Legislature of the purpose of the Hannibal and St. Joseph com- 
pany to discharge the full amount of what it claims is its present 
indebtedness as to the State, and advised that provision be made 
for the " profitable disposal" of the sum when paid, passed an act, 
the second section of which provided. 

" Sec. 2. Whenever there is sufficient money in the sinkiug fund to 
redeem or purchase one or more of the bonds of the State of Missouri, 
such sum is hereby appropriated for such purpose, and the Fund 
Commissioners shall immediately call in for payment a like amount 
of the option bonds of the State, known as the " 5-20 bonds," 
provided, that if there are no option bonds which can be called in for 
payment, they may invest such money in the purchase of any of the 
bonds of the State, or bonds of the United States, the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph railroad bonds excepted." 

On the 1st of January, 1882, the regular semi-annual payment of 
interest on the railroad bonds became due, but the road refused to 
pay, claiming that it had already discharged the principal, and of 
course was not liable for the interest. Thereupon, according to the 
provisions of the aiding act of 1855, Gov. Crittenden advertised the 
road for sale in default of the payment of interest. The company 
then brought suit before U. S. Circuit Judge McCrary at Keokuk, 
Iowa, to enjoin the State from selling the road, and for such other 
and further relief as the court might see fit and proper to orant. 
August 8, 1882, Judge McCrary delivered his opinion and judgment, 
as follows : 

"First. That the payment by complainants into the treasury of the 
State of the sum of $3,000,000 on the 26th of June, 1881, did not 
satisfy the claim of the State in full, nor entitle complainants to an 
assignment of the State's statutory mortgage. 

"Second. That the State was bound to invest the principal sum 
of $3,000,000 so paid by the complainants without unnecessary delay 
in the securities named iu the act of March 26, 1881, or some of 
them, and so as to save to the State as large a sum as possible, 
which sum so saved would have constituted as between the State and 
complainants a credit pro tanto upon the unmatured coupons now in 


"Third. That the rights and equity of the parties are to be deter- 
mined upon the foregoing principles, and the State must stand 
charged with what would have been realized if the act of March, 
1881, had been complied with. It only remains to consider what the 
rights of the parties are upon the principles here stated. 

" In order to save the State from loss on account of the default of 
the railroad company, a further sum must be paid. In order to deter- 
mine what that further sum is an accounting must be had. The ques- 
tion to be settled by the accounting is, how much would the State 
have lost if the provisions of the act of March, 1881, had been 
complied with ? * * * * I think a perfectly fair basis of settle- 
ment would be to hold the State liable for whatever could have been 
saved by the prompt execution of said act by taking up such 5-20 
option bonds of the State as were subject to call when the money was 
paid to the State, and investing the remainder of the fund in the 
bonds of the United States at the market rates. 

" Upon this basis a calculation can be made and the exact sum still to 
be paid by the complainant ill order to fully indemnify and protect the 
State can be ascertained. For the purpose of stating an account 
upon this basis and of determining the sum to be paid by the com- 
plainants to the State, the cause will be referred to John K. Cravens, 
oue of the masters of this court. In determining the time when the 
investment should have been made under the act of March, 1881, the 
master will allow a reasonable period for the time of the receipt of the 
said sum of $3,000,000 by the Treasurer of the State — that is to say, 
such time as would have been required for that purpose had the offi- 
cers charged with the duty of making said investment used reason- 
able diligence in its discharge. 

" The Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad is advertised for sale for the 
amount of the instalment of interest due January 1, 1882, which 
instalment amounts to less than the sum which the company must pay 
in order to discbarge its liabilities to the State upon the theory of this 
opinion. The order will, therefore, be that an injunction be granted 
to enjoin the sale of the road upon the payment of the said instal- 
ment of interest, due January 1, 1882, and if such payment is made 
the master will take it into account in making the computation above 


The occurrence during the present Governor's administration which, 
did most to place his name in everybody's mouth, and even to herald 


it abroad, causing the European press to teem with leaders announcing 
the fact to the continental world, was the " removal" of the famous 
Missouri brigand, Jesse W. James. The career of the James boys, 
and the banditti of whom they were the acknowledged leaders, is too 
well-known and too fully set forth in works of a more sensational 
character, to deserve further detail in these pages ; and the " removal " 
of Jesse will be dealt with only in its relation to the Governor. 

It had been long conceded that neither of the Jameses would ever be 
taken alive. That experiment had been frequently and vainly tried, 
to the sorrow of good citizens of this and other States. It seems to 
have been one of the purposes of Gov. Crittenden to break up this 
band at any cost, by cutting off its leaders. Soon after the Winston 
train robbery, on July 15, 1881, the railroads combined in empower- 
ing the Governor, by placing the money at his disposal, to offer heavy 
rewards for the capture of the two James brothers. This was ac- 
cordingly done by proclamation, and, naturally, many persons were 
on the lookout to secure the large rewards. Gov. Crittenden worked 
quietly, but determinedly, after offering the rewards, and by some 
means learned of the availability of the two Ford boys, young men 
from Ray county, who had been tutored as juvenile robbers by the 
skillful Jesse. An understanding was had, when the Fords declared 
they could find Jesse — that they were to "turn him in." Robert 
Ford and brother seem to have been thoroughly in the confidence of 
James, who then (startling as it was to the entire State) resided in 
the city of St. Joseph, with "his wife and two children ! The Fords 
went there, and when the robber's back was turned, Robert shot him 
dead in the back of the head! The Fords told their story to the 
authorities of the city, who at once arrested them on a charge of mur- 
der, and they, when arraigned , plead guilty to the charge. Promptly, 
however, came a full, free and unconditional pardon from Gov. Crit- 
tenden, and the Fords were released. In regard to the Governor's 
course in ridding the State of this notorious outlaw, people were 
divided in sentiment, some placing him in the category with the Ford 
boys and bitterly condemning his action, while others — the majority 
of law-abiding people, indeed,— though deprecating the harsh meas- 
ures which James' course had rendered necessary, still upheld the 
Governor for the part he played. As it was, the » Terror of Mis- 
souri " was effectually and finally " removed," and people were glad 
that he was dead. Robert Ford, the pupil of the dead Jesse, had 


been selected, and of all was the most fit tool to use in the extermina- 
tion of his preceptor in crime. 

The killing of James would never have made Crittenden many ene- 
mies among the better class bf citizens of this State ; but, when it 
came to his 


The case was different. Under the new law making gaminghouse- 
keeping a felony, several St. Louis gamblers, with Eobert C. Pate at 
their head, were convicted and sentenced to prison. The Governor, 
much to the surprise of the more rigid moral element of the State, 
soon granted the gamblers a pardon. This was followed by other 
pardons to similar offenders, which began to render the Governor quite 
unpopular which one element of citizens, and to call forth from some 
of them the most bitter denunciations. The worst feature of the case, 
perhaps, is the lack of explanation, or the setting forth of sufficient 
reasons, as is customary in issuing pardons, This, at least, is the bur- 
den of complaint with the faction that opposes him. However, it 
must be borne in mind that his term of office, at this writing, is but 
half expired, and that a full record can not, therefore, be given. Like 
all mere men, Gov. Crittenden has his good and his bad, is liked by 
some and disliked by others. The purpose of history is to set forth 
the facts and leave others to sit in judgment ; this the historian has 
tried faithfully to do, le,aving all comments to those who may see fit to 
make them. 





The Pioneer — Introduction — Early Adventurers — First Settlements — When and where 
made — Daniel Boone and others — Lewis and Clark — Col. Benjamin Cooper — 
Names of Pioneers who came in 1810 — Preparation for Living — Wild Game — Emi- 
gration of 181 1 and 1812 — Old Settlers Erect Forts — Organizing Military Companies — 
Number of Men Bearing Arms — Number of Men and Boys in Each Fort — Popula- 
lation of Boone's Lick Country in 1812 — Settlers came to Stay. 


"In the heart of the grand old forest, 

A thousand miles to the west. 
Where a stream gushed out from the hill-side, 

They halted at last for rest : 
And the silence of ages listened, 

To the ax-stroke loud and clear, 
Divining a kingly presence 

In the tread of the pioneer. 

" He formed of the prostrate branches 

A home that was strong and good ; 
The roof 1 was of reeds from the streamlet, 

The chimney he built of wood. 
And there by the winter fireside, 

While the flame up the chimney roared, 
He spoke of the good time coming, 

When plenty should crown his board : — 

" When the forest should fade like a vision, 

And over the hillside and plain, 
The orchard would spring in its beauty, 

And the fields of golden grain. 
And to-night he sits by the fireside, 

In a mansion quaint and old, 
With his children's children round him. 

Having reaped a thousand fold." 



History, we are told, " is but a record of the life and career of 
peoples and nations." The historian, in rescuing from oblivion the 
life of a nation, or a particular people, should "nothing extenuate, 
nor set down aught in malice." Myths, however beautiful, are but 
fanciful ; traditions, however pleasing, are uncertain, and legends, 
though the very essence of poesy and song, are unauthentic. The 
novelist will take the most fragile thread of romance, and from it 
weave a fabric of surpassing beauty. But the historian should put 
his feet upon the solid rock of truth, and turning a deaf ear to the 
allurements of fancy, he should sift with careful scrutiny, the evidence 
brought before him, from which he is to give the record of what has 

Standing down the stream of time, far removed from its source, 
he must retrace with patience and care, its meanderings, guided by 
the relics of the past which lie upon its shores, growing fainter, and 
still more faint and uncertain as he nears its fountain, oftimes con- 
cealed in the debris of ages, and the mists of impenetrable darkness. 
Written records grow less and less explicit, and finally fail altogether 
as he approaches the beginning of the community, whose lives he is 
seeking to rescue from the gloom of a rapidly receding past. 

Memory, wonderful as are its powers, is yet frequently at fault, 
and only by a comparison of its many aggregations, can he be satis- 
fied that he is pursuing stable-footed truth in his researches amid the 
early paths of his subject. It cannot then be unimportant 
or uninteresting to trace the progress of Howard and Cooper 
counties, from their crude beginnings to their present proud position 
among their sister counties. To this end, therefore, we have en- 
deavored to gather the scattered and loosening threads of the past 
into a compact web of the present, trusting that the harmony and 
perfectness of the work may speak with no uncertain sound to the 
future. Eecords have been traced as far as they have yielded infor- 
mation sought for; the memories of the pioneers have been laid 
under tribute, and every available source has been called into requi- 
sition from which we could obtain reliable material, out of which 
we could construct a truthful and faithful history of these counties. 

The French settled Canada and the northwestern part of the 


United States, as well as the country about the mouths of the Missis- 
sippi river. They came into the upper Mississippi and Missouri 
valleys in 1764, under the lead of Pierre Laclede Liguest, who held 
a charter from the French government, giving him the exclusive right 
of trade with the Indians in all the country as far north as St. Peter's 
river. Laclede established his colony in St. Louis in 1764, and from 
this point they immediately began their trading and trapping excur- 
sions into the unbroken wilderness. Their method of proceeding was 
to penetrate into the interior and establish small local posts for trad- 
ing with the Indians, whence the trappers and hunters were outfitted 
and sent out into the adjacent woods. In this way, the country west 
and northwest of St. Louis was traversed and explored at a very 
early day, as far west as the Rocky mountains. But of the extent of 
their operations, but little has been recorded ; hence, but little is 
known of the posts established by them. 

That these daring Frenchmen had explored that portion of Howard 
county lying contiguous to the Missouri river, even prior to the year 
1800, there can be no doubt ; that there existed within the present 
limits of the county a trading post, for several years before its settle- 
ment proper, there can be no doubt. The names of the streams, such 
as Bonne Femme, Moniteau, etc., attest the fact that they were of 
French origin, and had been seen and named by the French pioneers. 

Levens and Drake, in their condensed but carefully prepared his- 
tory of Cooper county, say : " While Nash and his companions were 
iu Howard county (1804), they visited Barclay's and Boone's Licks, 
also a trading post situated about two miles northwest of Old Frank- 
lin, kept by a white man by the name of Prewitt. The existence of 
this trading post, and the fact that 'Barclay's and Boone's Licks' 
had already received their names from the white persons who visited 
them, show conclusively that this portion of the country had been 
explored, even before this, by Americans. But no history mentions 
this trading post, nor does any give the name of Prewitt ; hence, we 
are unable to determine when he came to the Boone's Lick country, 
how long he remained, and where he went ; he evidently left before 
the year 1808, as Benjamin Cooper, who moved to Howard county in 
that year, said there was then no settlement in this part of the state." 
Boone's Lick, from which this region of country took its name, is sit- 
uated about eight miles northwest of New Franklin, iu Boone's Lick 
township, on section 4, T. 49, R. 17, on land owned by William N. 
Marshall. This place was visited by Daniel Boone at an early date, — 


the time not known. Here he found several salt springs, and as such 
places were frequented by deer aiid other game, he not only often 
hunted in the neighborhood, but, according to John M. Peck, who 
visited the old hunter at his home in St. Charles county, a few years 
prior to his death, pitched his camp there for one winter and put up 
a cabin. Mr. Peck does not give the date. The presumption is that 
he got his information from the lips of the old hunter himself, and 
we would further suppose that he camped there between the years 
1795 and 1807 ; nearer the former than the latter date, for the reason 
that he was at that time younger and more robust, and more inclined 
to enjoy sylvan sports. The first authentic record we have upon 
the subject of a settlement, in what is now known as Howard county, 
dates back to the year 1800 (see first deed, chap. Ill, this book), 
when Joseph Marie deeded a tract of laud described by survey to Asa 
Morgan. Joseph Marie settled upon said land in the year 1800, 
where he made improvements. This land was situated near what is 
known as " Eagle's Nest," about one mile southwest of where Fort 
Kincaid was afterwards erected, in what is now Franklin township. 
In 1800, Charles Dehault Delassus, lieutenant-governor of Upper 
Louisiana, granted Ira P. Nash a large tract of land in the present 
limits of Howard county. This land was surveyed on the 26th of 
January, 1804, and certified to on the 15th day of February, of that 

The next Americans, of whom we have any definite knowledge, 
as to the date of their coming to Howard county, were Ira P. Nash, 
above named, a deputy United States surveyor, Stephen Hancock 
and Stephen Jackson, who came up the Missouri river in the month 
of February, 1804. These men located a claim on the public lauds 
of Howard county, nearly opposite to the mouth of the La Mine river. 
They remained there until the month of March, in the same year, 
employing their time in surveying, hunting, and fishing ; and during 
that month they returned to their homes, which were situated on the 
Missouri river, about twenty-five miles above St. Charles. 

In July, 1804, Ira P. Nash, in company with William Nash, 
James H. Whitesides, William Clark, and Daniel Hubbard, again 
came into what is now Howard county, and surveyed a tract of land 
near the present site of Old Franklin. On this second trip, Mr. Nash 
claimed, when he came up the river the February before, he had left 
a compass in a certain hollow tree, and started out with two compan- 
ions to find it, agreeing to meet the remainder of the company the 


next day at Barclay's Lick, which he did, bringing the compass with 
him, thus proving, beyond a doubt, that he had visited the country 

Lewis and Clarke, on their exploring expedition across the Rock}' 
mountains, and down the Columbia river to the Pacific ocean, arrived 
at the mouth of the Bonne Femme, in Howard county, on the 7th 
day of June, 1804, and camped for the night. When they arrived at 
the mouth of the " Big Moniteau creek," they found a point of rocks 
covered with hieroglyphic paintings, but the large number of rattle- 
snakes, which they found there, prevented a close examination of the 
place. Continuing their way up the river, they arrived at the mouth 
of the Lamine on the 8th of the same month, and on the 9th at 
Arrow Rock. 

When they returned from their journey in 1806, after having 
successfully accomplished all the objects for which they were sent out, 
they passed down the Missouri river, and camped, on the 18th of 
September, in Howard county, opposite to the mouth of the La Mine 
river. And, as they journeyed down the river on that day, they 
must have passed the present site of Boonville and Franklin early on 
the morning of the 19th of September, 1806. 

The next evidence we have of any white persons being in the 
Boone's Lick country, is the following : — 

In 1807, Nathan and Daniel M. Boone, sons of old Daniel Boone, 
who lived with their father in what is now St. Charles county, about 
twenty-five miles west of the city of St. Charles, on the Femme Osage 
creek, came up the Missouri river and manufactured salt at Boone's 
Lick, in Howard county. After they had manufactured a considera- 
ble amount, they shipped it down the river to St. Louis, where they 
sold it. It is thought by many that this was the first instance of salt 
being manufactured in what was at that time a part of the territory 
of Louisiana, now the state of Missouri. Though soon after, salt was 
manufactured in large quantities — "salt licks" being discovered in 
many parts of the state. Although these were the first white persons 
who remained for any length of time in the Boone's Lick country, 
they were not permanent settlers, as they only came to make salt, 
and left as soon as they had finished. 

Previous to the year 1808, every white American who came to 
the Boone's Lick country, came with the intention of only remaining 
there a short time. Three parties had entered it while on exploring 
and surveying expeditions ; two parties had been to its fine salt licks 


to make salt ; and, no doubt, many of the adventurous settlers living 
in the eastern part of this state, had often, on their hunting expedi- 
tions, pierced the trackless forest to the Boone's Lick country ; but, 
of course, there is no record of these, hence, those expeditions of 
which there is a record, are placed as being the first to this part of 
the country, when, in reality, they may not be. 

But in 1808, in the spring, one adventurous spirit determined to 
forsake what appeared to him to be the too thickly settled portion of 
the state, and move farther west to the more pleasant solitudes of the 
uninhabited forest. In the spring of that year, Colonel Benjamin 
Cooper and his family, consisting of his wife and five sons, moved to 
the Boone's Lick country, and located in what is now Howard county, 
about two miles south west of Boone's Lick, in the Missouri river 
bottom. Here he built him a cabin, cleared a piece of ground, and 
commenced arrangements to make a permanent settlement at that 
place. But he was not permitted to remain long at his new home. 
Governor Merriwether Lewis, at that time governor of the territory, 
issued an order directing him to return below the mouth of the Gas- 
conade river, as he was so far advanced into the Indian countay, and 
so far away from protection, that in case of an Indian war he would 
be unable to protect him. So he returned to Loutre island, about 
four miles south of the Gasconade river, where he remained until the 
year 1810. 

The rich territory, however, was not destined to be left forever 
to the reign of wild beasts and savage Indians. Aside from the fact 
that the character of the men of the early days caused them contin- 
ually to revolt against living in thickly settled communities, the 
Boone's Lick country presented advantages, which those seeking a 
home where they could find the richest of lands and the most health- 
ful of climate, could not, and did not, fail to perceive. Its fertile soil 
promised, with little labor, the most abundant harvests. Its forests 
were filled with every variety of game, and its streams with all kinds 
of fish. Is it a wonder, then, that those seeking homes where these 
things could be found, should select and settle first the rich lands of 
Cooper and Howard counties, risking all the dangers from the 
Indians, who lived in great numbers close around them? Two years 
after the settlement of Benjamin Cooper, and his removal to Loutre 
island, the first lasting settlement was made in the Boone's Lick 
country, and this party was but the forerunner of many others, who 
soon followed, and in little more than one-half of a century, have 



thickly settled one of the richest and most attractive parts of the state 
of Missouri. 

The names of the parties who settled north of the river, in How- 
ard county, were : 

From Madison County, Ky. : — 

Lieut.-Col. Benjamin Cooper 

Francis Cooper. 

William Cooper. 

Daniel Cooper. 

John Cooper. 

Capt. Sarshall Cooper. 

Braxton Cooper, Sr. 

Joseph Cooper. 

Stephen Cooper. 

Braxton Cooper, Jr. 

Robert Cooper. 

James Hancock. 

Albert Hancock. 

William Berry. 

From Estill County, Ky, 
Amos Ashcraft. 
Otho Ashcraft. 

From Tennessee : — 
John Ferrell. 
Henrv Ferrell. 

John Berry. 
Robert Erwin. 
Robert Brown. 
Joseph Wolfskill. 
William Thorp. 
John Thorp. 
Josiah Thorp. 
James Thorp. 
Gilead Rupe. 
James Jones. 
John Peak. 
W T illiam Wolfskill. 
Adam W'oods. 

Jesse Ashcraft. 
James Alexander. 

Robert Hancock. 

From Virginia : — James Kile. 

From South Carolina: — Gray Bynum. 

From Georgia: — Stephen Jackson. 

From Ste. Genevieve : — Peter Popineau. 

Previous Residence Unknown : — 
John Busby. Middletown Anderson. 

James Anderson. William Anderson. 

The women belonging to these families did not arrive until the 
following July or August. We do not pretend to say these men 
were all of the early settlers who came in 1810. There were, per- 
liaps, a few others, but the names we have given embrace nearly the 


entire number who emigrated in the colony with Colonel Benjamin 
Cooper, in the spring of that year. After their arrival in this " land 
of promise," they immediately began the erection of their houses, all 
of which were single or double log cabins, and to prepare for farming 
by clearing and fencing small "patches" of ground. As a general 
thing, they settled in and near the Missouri river bottom. They 
knew that the country was full of Indians, and that these were liable 
at any time to begin their murderous assaults upon the whites, hence, 
they located in neighborhoods, where, in case of danger, they could 
render each other timely aid. That portion of Howard county, which 
is now embraced in Franklin and Boone's Lick townships, was the 
first settled. 

When the settlers first came to this county, wild game of all 
kinds was very abundant, and so tame as not to be easily frightened 
at the approach of white men. This game furnished the settlers with 
all their meat, and, in fact, with all the provisions they used, for 
most of the time, they had but little else than meat. There were 
large numbers of deer, turkeys, elk, and other large animals, and, to 
use the expression of an old settler, " they could be killed as easily 
as sheep are now killed in our pastures." The settlers spent most of 
their time in hunting and fishing, as it was no use to plant crops to 
be destroyed by wild game. Small game, such as squirrels, rabbits, 
partridges, etc., swarmed around the homes of the frontiersmen in 
such numbers that when they did attempt to raise a crop of any 
kind, in order to save a part of it, they were forced to kill them in 
large numbers. 

Not only were the settlers and their families thus well provided with 
food by nature, but also their animals were furnished with everything 
necessary to their well being. The range was so good during the 
whole year, that their stock lived without being fed by their owners. 
Even when the ground was covered with snow, the animals, taught 
by instinct, would in a few minutes paw from under the snow enough 
grass to last them all day. Their only use of corn, of which they 
planted very little, was to make bread, and bread made of corn was 
the only kind they ever had. 

During the two succeeding years (1811 and 1812), quite a number 
of emigrants had taken up their line of march for the Boone's Lick 
country. Many of these included families of wealth, culture, and re- 
finement, who left their well furnished homes and life-long friends in 
the east, to take up their abode among the savages and wild beasts of 
the western wilderness. Scarcely, however, had they reached their 


destination, when they heard the dim mutterings which foreshadowed 
a long and bloody conflict with the Indians, who had been induced by 
the emissaries of the British government to unite with Great Britain 
in her attempt to defeat the United States of America. 


Being fully convinced that the Indians were making preparations 
to attack the settlements along the Missouri river, they determined to 
be ready to receive them properly when they did appear, and to this 
end, began the erection of three forts in Howard county, bearing the 
names respectively, of Fort Cooper, Fort Hempstead, and Fort Kin- 
caid. Fort Cooper was located about two miles southwest of Boone's 
Lick. Fort Kincaid was east southeast, about nine miles distant, 
and about one mile north of the present Boouville railroad bridge. 
Fort Hempstead was about one and a half miles north of Fort Kin- 
caid. Each fort was a series of log houses, built together around an 
enclosure. In each house lived a family, and the stock was corraled, 
and the property of the settlers secured at night in the enclosure. 
There were other smaller forts, but the above were the most important. 
Immediately after the erection of these forts, the pioneers organized 
themselves into a military company, with Sarshall Cooper as captain ; 
first lieutenant, William McMahon ; second lieutenant, John Monroe ; 
ensign, Benjamin Cooper, Jr. 



John McMurray. 4th. 

Davis Todd. 


Samuel McMahan. 5th. 

John Mathis. 


Adam Woods. 



Andrew Smith. 4th. 

John Busby. 


Thomas Vaughan. 5th. 

James Barnes. 


James McMahan. 6th. 

Jesse Ashcraft. 

The above were the officers chosen by their comrades and neigh- 
bors, to command the company, which consisted of 112 men, who 
were able to bear arms. The following list comprises all the men. 
and boys who were in the different forts : — 


James Alexander. Frederick Hyatt. 

James Anderson. Robert Irvine. 

Middleton Anderson. David Jones. 



William Anderson. 
Gray Bynum. 
John Busby. 
Bobert Brown. 
Samuel Brown. 
Benjamin Cooper. 
Sarshall Cooper. 
Frank Cooper. 
William Cooper. 
David Cooper. 
John Cooper. 
Braxton Cooper. 
Joseph Cooper. 
Stephen Cooper. 
Robert Cooper. 
Henly Cooper. 
Patrick Cooper. 
Jesse Cox. 
Solomon Cox. 
John Ferrill. 
Henry Ferrill. 
Edward Good. 
Harmon Gregg. 
William Gregg. 
David Gregg. 
Robert Heath. 
Robert Hancock. 
Abbott Hancock. 
Josiah Higgins. 

George Alcorn. 
James Alcorn. 
William Allen. 
John Arnold. 
Price Arnold. 
Joseph Austin. 
John Austin. 
Robert Austin. 
William Baxter. 
Big Berry. 

John Jones. 
Jesse Jones. 
George Jackson. 
Stephen Jackson. 
James Jackson. 
Samuel McMahan. 
Thomas McMahan. 
James McMahan. 
William McMahan. 
John O'Bannon. 
Thomas O'Bannon. 
Judiah Osmond. 
Samuel Perry. 
William Read. 
Beuoni Sappington. 
John Sappington. 
James Sappington. 
Daniel Tillman. 
John Thorp. 
William Thorp. 
Samuel Turley. 
Stephen Turley. 
Ezekiel Williams. 
Thomas Wasson. 
Joseph Wasson. 
Adam Woods. 
William Wolfskill. 
Joseph Wolfskill. 
William Wolfskill, Jr. 


William Grooms. 
Alfred Head. 
Moses Head. 
Robert Hinkson. 
John James. 
James Jones. 
Abner Johnson. 
Noah Katew. 
Joseph McLane. 
William McLane. 



John Berry. 

William Berry. 

David Boggs. 

Joseph Boggs. 

Muke Box. 

Joseph Boyers. 

Robert Brown. 

Samuel Brown. 

William Brown. 

Townsend Brown. 

Christopher Brown. 

Christopher Burckhartt. 

Nicholas S. Burckhartt. 

Andrew Carson. 

Lindsay Carson (father of Kit 

Carson ) . 
Moses Carson. 
Charles Cauole. 
William Canole. 
Isaac Clark. 
Joseph Cooley. 
James Cooley. 
Ferrin Cooley. 
Braxton Cooper, Jr. 
James Cockrell. 
Thomas Chandler. 
James Creason. 
John Creason. 
Peter Creason. 
William Creason. 
Daniel Crump. 
Harper Davis. 
James Douglas. 
Dauiel Durbin. 
John Elliott. 
Braxton Fugate. 
Hiram Fugate. 
Reuben Fugate.- 
Sarshall Fugate. 
Simeon Fugate. 
Reuben Gentry. 

Ewing McLane. 

David McQuitly. 

William Monroe (called Long 

Joseph Moody. 
Susan Mullens. 
Thompson Mullens. 
John Peak. 
William Pipes. 
Michael Poage. 
Robert Poage. 
Joseph Poage. 
Christopher Richardson. 
Jesse Richardson. 
James Richardson. 
Silas Richardson. 
John Rupe. 
Henry Simmons. 
Reuben Smith. 
Andrew Smith. 
Thomas Smith . 
John Snethan. 
James Snethan. 
Joseph Still. 
John Stinson. 
Nathan Teague. 
Solomon Teters. 
David Teters. 
John Teters. 
Isaac Thornton. 
John Thornton. 
Davis Todd. 
Elisha Todd. 
Jonathan Todd. 
Levi Todd. 
James Turner. 
Philip Turner. 
Jesse Turner. 
Thomas Vaughan. 
Robert Wilds. 
William Wadkins. 



Samuel Gibbs. 
Abner Grooms. 
John Grooms. 

Amos Ashcraft. 
Jesse Ashcraft. 
Otho Ashcraft. 
Amos Barnes. 
Aquilla Barnes. 
Abraham Barnes. 
James Barnes. 
John Barnes. 
Shadrach Barnes. 
Robert Barclay. 
Francis Berry. 
Campbell Bolen. 
Delany Bolen. 
William Brazil. 
David Burris. 
Henry Burris. 
Eeuben Cornelius. 
Pryor Duncan. 
Stephen Fields. 
John Fields. 
Cornelius Gooch. 
Thomas Gray. 
John Hines. 
Daniel Hubbard. 
Asaph Hubbard. 

James Whitley. 
Benjamin Young. 
John Yarnell. 


Eusebius Hubbard. 
Joseph Jolly. 
David Kincaid. 
Matthew Kincaid. 
John Kincaid. 
John McMurray. 
Adam McCord. 
Daniel Monroe. 
John Monroe. 
John Mathis. 
William Nash . 
John Pursley. 
William Eidgeway. 
William Robertson. 
Edward Robertson. 
Gilead Rupe. 
Enoch Taylor. 
Isaac Taylor. 
William Taylor. 
Enoch Turner. 
Giles Williams. 
Britton Williams. 
Francis Wood. 
Henry Weeden. 

Life in the forts was not one of idleness and ease. It was one of 
vigilance and activity for two or three years. The settlers were de- 
prived of many of the comforts and pleasures which are enjoyed by 
the people of to-day. They had but little labor-saving machinery, 
and what they had was imperfect and inefficient. School was taught, 
and religious services were held in the forts. The forts were also 
supplied with mills and looms. The first cog-wheel horse-mill 
erected in the county was at Fort Kincaid in 1815 ; the next one was 
put up at Fort Hempstead. After the Indian troubles were over, 
people came twenty miles to these mills. The first cloth made in 



the county (in the forts) was manufactured from a poisonous plant, 
which was indigenous to the country, and known as the nettle, which 
was covered with sharp, brittle hairs. This cloth was used for pants 
and shirts for summer wear. In the winter, buckskin hunting-shirts 
and pants were worn. 

The low flats along the river, creeks and branches were covered 
with a thick growth of nettles about three feet high, sometimes stand- 
ing in patches of twenty acres or more. These were permitted to 
remain standing until they became decayed in the winter, when they 
were gathered. They were then broken up, spun into long strings, 
and woven into cloth, from which the garments were made. This 
would be a very tedious job at the present day, when a lady's dress 
requires from twenty to thirty yards of cloth ; but in those old times 
five or six yards was as much as was ever put into a dress. Little 
children usually wore a long leathern shirt over their tow shirt. For 
several years during the early settlement of this country, the men 
and women wore garments made out of the same kind^of material. 
The first dry goods were sold by.Eobert Morris, at the forts, in 1815. 
The number of men, as we have already stated, able to bear arms, 
was 112, which represented a population of between 500 and 600, who 
were then living within the present limits of Howard county. A few, 
perhaps, had returned to their former homes, or had moved further 
down the river in the direction of Loutre island and St. Louis, upon 
the eve of the anticipated Indian hostilities, but the great majority of 
the pioneers, had come to stay, and not a few of these attested their 
devotion to their new found homes by the sacrifice of their property 
and their lives to the cupidity and ferocity of savage foes. 


What Treated of in Preceding Chapter — This Chapter — The War Clouds — Indians — 
First Victims— James Cole and James Davis Sent on Scouting Expedition— Summer 
of 1812 — Campbell Killed by Indians — Colonel Benjamin Cooper and General 
Dodge — Spring of 1813 — Killing of Braxton Cooper — Joseph Still — William 
McLane — Captain Sarshall Cooper — Joe — Peace. 

In the preceding chapter, we attempted to trace the early history 
of that portion of the Boone's Lick country, now known as Howard 
county. We began with the date of the coming of the earliest adven- 
turer of whom any history makes mention ; we spoke of the first 
settlements, giving the names of the earliest pioneers, and their 
former residences ; of their attempt to prepare for living in the west- 
ern wilds, during the two years that followed their arrival ; of their 
building forts, and of their taking possession of these with their fam- 
ilies, their goods, and their chattels. 

It is now our province, as a historian, to relate in chronological 
order as nearly as we can, the events that followed, which, if I mis- 
take not, will constitute one of the saddest, yet brightest chapters in 
the history of Howard county. It will be the saddest, because it will 
tell of arson, of plunder, of butchery, and of that merciless mode of 
warfare to which the cunning savage was so well adapted, and in 
which he was so well skilled. It will be the brightest, because it will 
tell of deeds of noble daring, of fidelity to duty, and the final 
triumph of those who were immured for three long years within the 
narrow limits of their beleaguered forts. 

In the spring of 1812, the war clouds which had hitherto given 
every indication of the coming storm, had at length unfurled their 
black banners in every part of the political sky. Great Britain had 
again " loosed her dogs of war," and with gigantic strides, was at- 
tempting to trample upon the most sacred rights of a free people. 
Calling to her aid, in the war against the American colonies, the hire- 
ling Hessian, she now inspired the blood-thirsty savage to espouse her 
cause against the unprotected whites, who were then dwelling upon 
the extreme frontier of the great west. These hostile Indians began 
their work of death in the spring of 1812, and were mostly Sacs and 
Foxes, Kickapoos and Pottawatomies. 


Their first victims in the Boone's Lick country, were Jonathan 
Todd and Thomas Smith, who were living at the time in Fort Hemp- 
stead, but had gone down the river to hunt a stray horse, which had 
escaped from the fort. While upon their errand the Indians attacked 
them, not far from the present line between Howard and Boone 
counties, near Thrall's prairie, and after a long struggle, in which 
several Indians were killed, Todd and Smith were slain. The savages, 
after killing them, cut off their heads and cut out their hearts, and 
placed them by the side of the road on poles . 

As soon as the news of the killing of Todd and Smith was 
brought to the fort, a party of men started out to get their bodies. 
After they had gone several miles, they captured an Indian warrior, 
who seemed to be watching their movements, and started to take him 
to the fort alive, in order to get information from him. As they 
returned after finding the bodies of the settlers, and when they 
arrived within two miles of the fort, the Indian prisoner suddenly 
broke away from them and attempted to escape. The settlers pur- 
sued him about one-half of a mile, when, finding they could not over- 
take him and capture him alive, they shot him, killing him instantly. 

Immediately after the killing of Todd and Smith, the settlers 
living on both sides of the Missouri river, being desirous of finding 
out the true state of affairs, sent out James Cole and James Davis on 
a scouting expedition, to see whether or not the Indians were really 
upon the warpath. After looking around for sometime, and not being 
able to hear anything of the plans of the savages, they were prepar- 
ing to return to the fort, when they discovered a large band of In- 
dians in pursuit of them, and directly between them and the fort, in 
which were their families and their friends, unconscious of their 

As retreat to the fort was cut off, and they could not withstand 
the attack of the large body of Indians in the open woods, they 
started for what was then called Johnson's factory, a trading post 
kept by a man named Johnson ; it was situated on the Moniteau 
creek, in what is now Moniteau county, about two hundred yards 
from the Missouri river. They reached the factory that afternoon, 
and the Indians immediately surrounded the place. As Cole and 
Davis knew their friends at the different forts would fall an easy prey 
to the savages, if not warned of their danger in time to prepare for 
the attack, which they seemed certain to make upon the fort, the 
hardy rangers determined, at all hazards, to escape and bear the 
tidings to them. But here the main difficulty presented itself. As 


long as they remained at the trading post, they were safe from the 
shots of the enemy ; but as soon as they left that protection, they 
believed they would be slain. 

But knowing the imminent danger of their families and friends, 
they resolved to make a desperate effort to reach them. So at 12 
o'clock that night, they took up a plank from the floor of the "fac- 
tory," reached the creek, and finding a canoe, floated down to the 
river. Just as they reached the river, an unlucky stroke of the 
paddle against the side of the canoe, discovered them to the Indians, 
who started in pursuit of them in canoes. They pursued the settlers 
to Big Lick, now in Cooper county, where, being closely pressed, 
Cole and Davis turned, and each killed an Indian. The Indians then 
left off pursuit, and the two men reached Cole's fort in safety, to 
announce to the settlers that they were indeed on thS verge of a long 
and bloody war. From there the melancholy tidings were conveyed 
to the other forts, and filled the hearts of the settlers with dismay, as 
they considered how few of them there were, to withstand the attacks 
of the whole of the Indian nations living around them. 

In July, 1812, some Quapa Indians, disguised as Sauks and 
Foxes, killed a man named Campbell — commonly called "Potter," 
from his trade — about five miles northwest of Boonville, in 
Howard county, under the following circumstances : He and a man 
named Adam McCord, went from Kincaid's fort to Campbell's 
home, at the above mentioned place, to tie some flax, which they had 
been forced to leave longer than they wished, through fear of an 
attack by the Indians. While they were at work they discovered 
moccasin tracks around the farm, as though a party of Indians were 
watching them and seeking a favorable opportunity to slay them. So 
they started around to see if they had injured anything. While they 
were seai-ching for them, the savages, who were concealed in some 
underbrush, fired upon the party, and shot Campbell through the 
body, killing him almost instantly, but he ran about one hundred 
yards, climbed a fence, and fell into the top of a tree which had 
blown down, and the Indians, though they hunted for his body, never 
succeeded in finding it. Adam McCord escaped without injury, and 
going to the fort, reported the death of Campbell, and the circum- 
stances under which he was killed. 

Immediately upon his arrival, Colonel Benjamin Cooper and 
General Dodge, with a company of about five hundred men, composed 
of frontiersmen and regular soldiers, started in pursuit of the Indians, 
who numbered one hundred and eighty. The Indians, not being able 



to re-cross the river, threw up breastworks in order to repel the 
attack of the soldiers. When Cooper and Dodge appeared before the 
intrenchments, the Indians, after some parley, surrendered themselves 
as prisoners of war. 

After the Indians had surrendered, Colonel Cooper and General 
Dodge had their memorable quarrel in regard to the disposal of the 
prisoners. Colonel Cooper insisted, that although they had surren- 
dered as prisoners of war, they, as the murderers of Campbell, were 
not entitled to protection, and, in accordance with a long established 
custom of the western country, they should all be hung. But Gen- 
eral Dodge insisted that as they had surrendered to him, he, being 
the superior officer, they were entitled to his protection. So fiercely 
did they quarrel, that at one time the two forces (Cooper commanded 
the frontiersmen and Dodge the regulars) came very near having a 
fight in order to settle the controversy. Finally a peaceful disposi- 
tion of .the matter was made, by General Dodge being permitted to 
take the prisoners to St. Louis. 

In the spring of 1813, not having seen any signs of Indians for 
about three months, and being desirous of raising crops during that 
year, as they had failed the year before, many of the settlers returned 
to their farms, but in order to be advised of the approach of an en- 
emy, they stationed a guard at each corner of the field in which they 
were at work. 

During the following two or three years they were kept continu- 
ally on the watch against the savages, for every month or two, some 

, small band of Indians would suddenly attack and slay some unsus- 
pecting settler, who had for the moment forgotten his usual caution, 
or who, feeling secure from attack because the Indians had not ap- 
peared for some time, suffered this severe penalty for his negligence. 
The Indians, never after this, marched a large band against these set- 

t tlements, but came in small scouting parties, the members of which 
had only sufficient courage to shoot down some unsuspecting man, or 
murder unprotected women and children. They never, except in 
overwhelming numbers, and then very seldom, made an open attack 
upon even a lone farm-house, but stealing up in the darkness of the 
night, they would set fire to the house, and slay the inmates as they 
rushed from their burning dwelling ; or as in the case of the killing 
ot Sarshall Cooper, shoot the dreaded enemy of their race as he sat 
in the midst of his family. 

Is it any wonder, in view of these facts, that when an Indian was 
captured, it was not many minutes before his lifeless body would be 


hanging from the nearest bough ? After all their treachery, woe to 
the savage who fell into the vengeful hands of the settlers, for they 
would make short work of him ; and they knew they were justified in 
doing this, for they acted only in self-defence. 

Braxton Cooper, Jr., was killed two miles northeast of the pres- 
ent site of New Franklin, in September, 1813. The Indians attacked 
him as he was cutting logs to build a house. As he was well armed 
and a very courageous man, they had a long struggle before the In- 
dians succeeded in killing him. The broken bushes and marks upon 
the ground showed that the struggle had been very fierce. The set- 
tlers who first arrived to take away the body of Cooper, found an In- 
dian's shirt which had two bullet holes in the breast of it, but whether 
the Indian died they never knew. They followed the trail of the In- 
dians for a short distance, but soon lost it, and were forced to abandon 
the pursuit. 

Joseph Still was killed on the Chariton river, in October, 1813, 
but the circumstances attending his killing are unknown. 

William McLane was killed by the Indians near the present site 
of Fayette, in October, 1813, under the following circumstances: 
He, Ewing McLane, and four other men, went from McLane' s fort to 
select a piece of land on which some one of them expected to settle. 
When they arrived at a short distance southwest of the present site 
of Fayette they were attacked by a band of about one hundred and 
fifty Indians. As soon as McLane and his companions saw them, 
they retreated towards the fort, and just as they were ascending a 
slant from a long, deep ravine leading to Moniteau creek, the In- 
dians fired a volley at them. One shot struck William McLane in the 
back of the head, and he dropped dead from his horse. After satisfying 
themselves that he was dead, his remaining companions left his body 
and continued their retreat to the fort, which they reached in safety. 
The Indians scalped McLane, cut out his heart, and literally hacked 
him to pieces. As soon as possible a large party of settlers started 
out to recover his body, and, if possible, to avenge his death; but 
they found that the Indians had retreated, and left no trace of the di- 
rection which they had taken. From the cleared place around the 
body, and the beaten appearance of the earth near, it was supposed 
that the Indians had, in accordance with their custom, danced their 
"war dance" there to celebrate their victory. After getting the 
body they returned sorrowfully to the fort. 

Of the many murders committed during the war, none excited so 
much feeling or caused such a cry of vengeance in the hearts of the 


frontiersmen as the tragic death of Captain Sarshall Cooper, who was 
the acknowledged leader of the settlers north of the Missouri river. 
On a dark and stormy night on the 14th day of April, 1814, as Cap- 
tain Cooper was sitting by his fireside with his family, his youngest 
child upon his lap, the others playing at different games around the 
room, and his wife sitting by his side sewing, an Indian warrior crept 
up to the side of his cabin and picked a hole between the logs just 
sufficient to admit the muzzle of his gun, the noise of his work being 
drowned by the storm without. He shot Captain Cooper, who fell 
from his chair to the floor, among his horror stricken family, a lifeless 
corpse. His powers and skill were well known to the Indians whom 
he had often foiled. He was kind and generous to his neighbors, 
whom he was always ready to assist in any of their undertakings. 
Therefore, his loss was deeply felt by the settlers, whose homes he 
had defended and whose prosperity was due largely to his advice and 
counsel. Joseph Cooper, in his letter to Colonel Newton G. Elliott, 
' in January, 1874, in speaking of the death of Captain Cooper, his 
father, said: "We had taken a keel boat from some Frenchmen, 
who were attempting to take it up the river loaded with whiskey, 
powder and lead for the Indians. We first stopped them and ordered 
them back ; keeping watch the next night and the night following, 
we caught them in a second attempt to pass up the river, and took 
the boat from them. I think one of this party killed my father. We 
kept the keel boat and its cargo untouched for two or three years, 
until peace had been made, and no one applied for it." 

A negro man named Joe, belonging to Samuel Brown, of Howard 
county, was killed by the Indians near Mr. Burckhartt's farm , about 
three-fourths of a mile east of Estill station, on the Missouri, Kansas 
. and Texas railroad. 

The above embraces all the names of the men, of whom we have 

any record, who were killed in the Boone's Lick country during the 

f Indian war from 1812 to 1815. The peculiar atrocities attending the 

.killing of some of them, make the stoutest shudder. But these 

I atrocities were so common in those days that the settlers did not fear 

to remain here, although they knew these things might happen to 

them at any time. 


For three long years, had the settler's lives been a constant 

vigil. Their savage foes were crafty and heartless, and they knew 

I that any remissness of duty upon their part would result in the in- 


stantaneous slaughter of themselves, their wives, and their little ones. 
This beautiful country to which, they had come, was soon, however,' 
to be put under tribute to the plow and the harrow, and the soft 
wings of peace were to again overshadow it. Indeed, peace had al- 
ready been declared, and they had entered upon the enjoyment of 
that delightful era of which the poet speaks — 

The trumpets sleep, while cheerful horns are blown, 
And arms employed on birds and beasts alone. 


Territorial Laws — Districts and Counties — Organization of Howard County — 
Boundary — Counties which have been taken from Howard — Its Original Area — 
Gen. Benj. Howard — Settlers Executed their own Laws — First Circuit Court — 
Grand Jury — Attorneys — First Licensed Ferry — First Licensed Tavern — First 
Road — Indictments — Elections — Incidents — Kate of Taxation — Early Suit — 
First Recorded Deed — First Marriages — Old Franklin — -Location of County 
Seat — Land Office — Memoirs of Dr. Peck — The First Newspaper — Arrival of 
the First Steamboat — Newspaper Comments — Dinner and Toasts — First 
County Court. 


The territorial laws were not extended over this part of the country 
until the year 1816. Until this time, they had no government or 
laws except such as they themselves made for their own protection, 
and which, of course, had no effect outside of the boundaries of their 
narrow territory. With them, the single distinction was between 
right and wrong, and they had no medium ground. As the result 
shows, they really needed no laws or executive officers, for it is a 
well known fact, that during the early period of this settlement there 
were no serious crimes committed within its limits. As the men each 
depended upon the other, and knew that in time of attack by the 
Indians their only safety lay in union, each endeavored to preserve the 
good will of his neighbor, and, as the best way to obtain the good 
wishes and assistance of a man, is to act honestly and friendly with 
him, each did this, and in this way they needed no law, except their 
own judgments. During the early period of the colony they never 
had any occasion to punish any one under their law, which was an 
unwritten one. Although 'tis true, some few crimes were committed, 
(the nature of man has not entirely changed since then), yet they 
were uniformly of such a trivial character, as hardly to be worthy to 
be classed as crimes. 

Another reason of the almost entire freedom from crime, was the 
certainty of punishment. Then there were no " legal technicalities " 
by which a prisoner could escape. No sooner was the criminal caught 
and his guilt established — no matter what his crime — than the law- 
makers took the matter into their own hands, and hung him to the 
nearest tree. 




From 1804, until October 1, 1812, the territory of Missouri was 
divided into four districts. At that date (October 1, 1812) Governor 
Clark issued a proclamation, in accordance with an act of Congress 
requiring him to do so, reorganizing the four districts into the five 
following counties : St. Charles, St. Louis, St. Genevieve, Cape 
Girardeau and New Madrid. In 1813, the county of Washington 
was created', from a part of St. Genevieve. In 1814, the county of 
Arkansas was formed, and during the winter of 1814 and 1815, the 
county of Lawrence was organized from the western portion of New 
Madrid. Under an act of tne general assembly, approved January 13, 
1816, the county of Howard was created, being the ninth organized 
county in the territory, and was taken out of the counties of St. 
Louis and St. Charles. 

Its boundaries when created, were established as follows: " Be- 
ginning at the mouth of the Osage river, which is about ten miles 
below the city of Jefferson and opposite to the village of Barkesrville 
in Callawajr county ; the boundary pursued the circuitous course of 
said stream to the Osage boundary line, meaning thereby the eastern 
boundary of the Osage Indian territory, or to the northeast corner 
of Vernon county, where the Osage river, two miles east of the 
present town of Schell City, runs near said corner ; thence north 
(along the western line of St. Clair, Henry, Johnson and Lafayette 
counties), to the Missouri river, striking that stream west of and 
very near Napoleon ; thence up said river to the mouth of the Kansas 
river (where Kansas City is now located), thence with the Indian 
boundary line (as desribed in the proclamation of Gov. William Clark 
issued the 9th day of March, 1815,) northwardly along the eastern 
boundary of the " Platte purchase " 140 miles, or to a point about 
thirty-six miles north and within the present county of Adams, 
in the state of Iowa, near the town of Corning in said county, 
on thfc Burlington and Missouri river railroad ; thence eastward with 
the said line to the main dividing ridge of high ground, to the main 
fork of the river Cedar (which is the line between Boone and Calla- 
way counties in Missouri) ; thence down said river to the Missouri; 
thence down the river Missouri and in the middle of the main channel 
thereof, to the mouth of the Great Osage river, the place of begin- 


Iii order that the reader may have a more definite idea of the area 
of Howard county when originally organized, we will name the 
counties which have since been taken from its territoiy, and which 
were at first a part of Howard : — Boone, Cole, north part of Miller, 
Morgan, north parts of Benton and St. Clair, Henry, Johnson, 
Lafayette, Pettis, Cooper, Moniteau, Saline, Clay, Clinton, DeKalb., 
Gentry, Worth, Harrison, Daviess, Caldwell, Kay, Carroll, Livingston, 
Grundy, Mercer, Putnam, Sullivan, Linn, Chariton, Randolph, Macon, 
Adair, and possibly parts of Shelby, Monroe and Audrain; also the 
following counties in Iowa : parts of Taylor and Adams, Union, Ring- 
gold, Clarke, Decatur and Wayne, and probably parts of Lucas, 
Monroe and Appanoose. 

Although we have named the counties and parts of counties, 
which originally constituted Howard county, yet a still more perfect 
idea of its extent, may be formed, when we say that it was an em- 
pire, presenting an area of nearly 22,000 square miles. It was one 
third as large as the present State of Missouri and larger than Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, Delaware and Rhode Island. Missouri, at that 
time, had not been admitted into the sisterhood of states. The most 
prominent denizens who inhabited this vast empire, out of which 
Howard county was erected, were the buffalo, the antelope, the elk, 
the deer, and the scarcely less wild Indian, who continued to occupy 
some portions of it for many years thereafter. 

By an act of the legislature, approved Februaryl6, 1825, Howard 
county was reduced to its present limits, its boundary being defined 
as follows : " Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the 
Missouri river, opposite the mouth of Monitau creek ; thence up said 
creek to the line between townships 48 and 49 ; thence 
in a direct line to the northeast corner of township 51, of range 
14, west ; thence in a direct line to a point one and a half miles 
west of the northeast corner of township 52, of range 17, 
west; thence in a direct line to a point in the middle of the 
main channel of the Missouri river, where the line between sections 
17, and 20, township 51, range 17, west, intersects the 
same, and thence down the same, in the middle of the 
main channel thereof (varying, however, if necessary, so as to include 
the first island below the city of Boonville) to place of beginning. 

The area of the county having been reduced from 22,000 to 463 

square miles, it would seem to the casual reader that it had been 

shorn of much of its power and influence, and that its preseut limits 

were too insignificant to furnish materials for the compilation of an 



important history. It must be remembered, however, that the most 
noted events in ancient or modern times transpired within the smallest 
territorial compass. It must also be borne in mind, that sixty-seven 
years have passed since Howard county began its political existence, 
affording, therefore, ample time in which to make a history and leave 
to busy chroniclers an abundant harvest of facts and incidents. 


Previous to January 23, 1816, the settlers of this part of the coun- 
try had made their own laws and executed them rigorously when oc- 
casion demanded, which was very seldom. Although the eastern 
portion of the State had been organized into counties, and the terri- 
torial laws, by means of the territorial courts, had been extended over 
them, still the "Boone's Lick country" had not been sufficiently 
settled to justify its organization and the expense of holding terms of 
court within its limits. 

But even during the war with the Indians the country adjacent to 
the forts was settled very rapidly, although few ventured to locate, ex- 
cept near enough to reach the fort at the first approach of danger. 
So that, at the time of the organization of Howard county, it con- 
tained a considerable number of settlers, although they lived in what 
was then called " neighborhoods," so as to be of protection to one 
another in times of danger from their savage foes. 


The first circuit court of Howard county was held at the house of 
Joseph Jolly, in Hannah Cole's fort, in what is now known as Cooper 
county, on the 8th day of July, 1816. Hon. David Barton was the 
presiding judge, Nicholas T. Burckhartt the sheriff, and Gray Bynum. 
clerk. The following named persons composed the first 


Stephen Jackson, foreman, George Tompkins, 

Adam Woods, Sr. , Isaac Drake, 

Asaph Hubbard, Wm. Anderson, 

John Pusley, Samuel Brown, 

Robert Wilds, Ezekiel Williams, 

Davis Todd, Wm. Monroe, Jr., 

Wm. Brown, John O'Banon, 

Robert Brown, James Alexander, 

John Snethan, Muke Box. 


The attorneys in attendance were Edward Bates, Chas. Lucas, 
Joshua Barton and Lucius Easton. 


The first regularly established ferry by law in the county was 
kept by Hannah Cole, who obtained a license at this term of the 
court. The charges fixed by the court as ferriage were as follows : — 
For man and horse . . . . . $ .50 

Foot passengers, each . . . ... .25 

Single horse and cattle, per head . . . . .25 

Each hog, sheep, goat or other four-footed animal . . .12 Vi 
All other articles, per 100 pounds .... .06 Vi 

Each loaded wagon and team of four horses or more, deduct- 
ing 25c for each horse under four .... 4.00 

For each empty wagon and team of four horses, deducting 
25c for each horse under four ..... 3.00 

Each loaded cart and team . . . . . .2.00 

Empty cart and team . . . . . . .1.00 

Sleds, sleighs and two-wheeled pleasure carriages, exclusive 
of horse . . . . , . . . . .75 

Four-wheel pleasure carriage, exclusive of horse . . 1.00 

The first licensed tavern was kept by Harper C. Davis, in Kin- 
caid fort. 


The first road laid out by authority of the court in the county 
was a route from Cole's fort, on the Missouri river, to intersect the 
road from Potosi, in Washington county, at the Osage river. Stephen 
Cole, James Cole and Humphrey Gibson were appointed viewers to 
make this road. 


The two first bills (criminal actions) returned by the grand jury 
were " United States vs. Samuel Herrall," " United States vs. James 
Cockrell," indorsed " A true bill." 


The first elections held in the county were held at Head's fort r 
McLain's fort, Fort Cooper and Cole's fort. The first civil action 
was styled " Davis Todd vs. Joseph Boggs." 


During this term of court Maj. Stephen Cole was fined by Judge 


Barton for profane swearing in the presence of the court. Cole 
objected to paying the fine, but, supposing that he would be able to 
retaliate sometime in the future, at last paid it. And his time for 
retaliation came sooner than he expected. That afternoon Cole, who 
was a jnstice of the peace, organized his court on a log in front of 
the fort. As Judge Barton was returning from dinner, he stopped in 
front of Cole and leaned against a tree, watching the proceedings of 
the justice, and smoking his pipe. Cole looked up and, assuming 
the stern look of insulted dignity, said : " Judge Barton, I fine you 
one dollar for contempt of my court, for smoking in its presence." 
Judge Barton smilingly paid his fine and went to open his own court, 
acknowledging that he had been beaten at his own game. 


The following order made by the circuit court in 1816, shows 
the rate of taxation at that time : — 

" Ordered by the court that the following rates of taxation for 
county purposes for the year 1816 be established in the county of 
Howard, to wit : 
On each horse, mare, mule or ass above 3 years old . . . .25 

On all neat cattle above 3 years old 06 V4 

On each and every stud-horse, the sum for which he stands the 

season 06 V4 

On every negro or mulatto slave between the ages of 16 and 

45 years 50 

For each billiard-table ' $25.00 

On every able-bodied single man of 21 years old or upwards 

not being possessed of property of the value of $200 . .50 

On water, grist-mills, and saw-mills, horse-mills, tan-yards and 
distilleries in actual operation 40 cents on every $100 valuation." 


Among the early suits we find the following, which we copy, be- 
cause of the peculiar and ancient contract upon which the suit was 
instituted : — 

Wesley G. Martin } 

vs. C In debt. 

Ezekiel Williams, Braxton Cooper and Morris May. } 

The defendant, by M. McGirk, their attorney, comes into court 
and defends the wrong and injury, and craves oyer of the said writ- 
ing obligatory mentioned in the said plaintiff's declaration, which was 
read to them in the following words, to- wit: 

"July 24th, 1814. 
"On our arrival at the post of Arkansas, we, or either of us, 
" promise to pay, or cause to be paid unto Fraceway Licklier or his 


" assigns, the just and full sum of three hundred dollars, it being for 
" his services to the above place, as witness our hands and seals. 

Ezekiel Williams, [seal.] 
Braxton Cooper, [seal.] 

Morris May." [seal.] 

first deed recorded. 

The following was the first deed placed on record in Howard 
county : — 

Know all men by these presents that I, Joseph Marie, of the 
county and town of St. Charles, and territory of Missouri, have this 
day given, granted, bargained, sold and possession delivered unto 
Asa Morgan, of the county of Howard, and territory aforesaid, all 
the right, title, claim, interest, and property that I the said Joseph 
Marie have or may possess or am in anywise legally or equitably en- 
titled to in a certain settlement right on the north side of the Mis- 
souri river, in the aforesaid county of Howard, near a certain place 
known and called by the name of Eagle's Nest, and lying about one 
mile, a little west of south from Kincaid's Fort, in the said county of 
Howard, which said settlement was made by me sometime in the year 
1800, for and consideration of value by me received, the receipt 
whereof, is hereby acknowledged, and him the said Asa Morgan for- 
ever discharged and acquitted. And I do by these presents, sell, 
transfer, convey and quit-claim to the aforesaid Asa Morgan all the 
claims and interest which I might be entitled to either in law or 
equity from the aforesaid improvement or settlement right, together 
with all and singular, all the appurtenances unto the same belonging, 
or in anywise appertaining to have and to hold free from me, or any 
person claiming by or through me. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal, the 
13th day of April, 1816. Jh. Marie, [seal.] 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of Urh. I. Devore, A. 

•second deed. 

" To all to whom these presence shall come greeting : — Know ye 
that we, Risdon H. Price, and Mar} r , his wife, both of the town and 
county of St. Louis, and territory of Missouri, for and in considera- 
tion of the sum of four thousand eight hundred dollars, lawful money 
of the United States to us in hand before the delivery of these presents 
well and fully paid by Elias Eector, of the same place, the receipt 
whereof is hereby acknowledged and thereof, we do hereby acquit and 
discharge the said Elias Eector, his heirs and assigns forever. Have 
given, granted, bargained, and sold, and do hereby give, grant, bar- 
gain, and sell unto the said Elias Rector, his heirs and assigns forever, 
subject to the conditions hereinafter expressed, one certain tract and 
parcel of land, containing one thousand six hundred arpens, situate in 
the county of Howard, in the territory of Missouri, granted origin- 


ally by the late Lieutenant-Governor Charles Dehault one 
Ira Nash, on the 18th day of January, 1800, surveyed the 26th day of 
January, 1804, and certified on the 15th day of February, of the same 
year, reference being had to the record of said claim in the office of 
the recorder of land titles for the territory of Missouri, for the con- 
cession and forthe boundaries thereof as set forth in and upon the said 
certificate or plat of survey thereof will more fully, certainly and at 
large appear, and which said survey is hereto annexed and makes part 
and parcel of this deed, and being the same tract of land which the 
said Eisdon H. Price claims as assigned of the sheriff of the county 
of St. Charles, who sold the same as the property of said Ira Nash, as 
by deed thereof dated the 5th day of October, 1815, reference thereto 
being had will more fully and at large appear. 

To have the said granted aud bargained premises with the appur- 
tenances and privileges thereon, and thereunto belonging unto him, 
the said Elias Rector, his heirs aud assigns forever. And it is hereby 
declared to be the agreement, understanding and intention of the 
parties aforesaid, that should the said tract of laud be finally rejected 
by the United States within three 3rears from this date, or should the 
same not be sanctioned and confirmed by the government of the 
United States, at or before the period last mentioned, or in case the 
said Elias Rector, his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns shall 
by due process and judgment at law, be evicted, dispossessed and 
definitely deprived of said tract of land, then and in that case, the said 
Risdon H. Price, his heirs, executors, or administrators, shall only pay 
or cause to be paid to the said Elias Rector, his heirs, executors, adminis- 
trators or assigns, the said sum of four thousand eight hundred dollars, 
lawful money of the United States, with the lawful interest thereon, 
at the rate of six per centum per annum, from the date of this deed, 
until the time of such rejection, not being sanctioned as aforesaid, or 
until such eviction as aforesaid, with the legal costs upon such suit or 
suits at law, and which shall be in full of all damages under any cov- 
enants in this dead, and if such claim shall be rejected as aforesaid or 
not confirmed as aforesaid, or in case the said Elias Rector, his heirs, 
executors, or assigns, shall be evicted therefrom as aforesaid, that 
then, and in either of these cases, the said Elias Rector, his heirs, 
executors or assigns, shall by proper deed of release and quit-claim, 
transfer to said Risdon H, Price, his heirs, executors, administrators 
and assigns, the claim of said Elias Rector, his heirs, executors and 
assigns to the said premises at the time of receiving the said consid- 
eration money, interest, and costs aforesaid. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals, 
this 22d day of June, 1816. 

Risdon H. Price, [seal.] 
MaryG. Price, [seal.] 

Elias Rector. [seal.] 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of Jerh. Connor, M. P- 

The above deed was acknowledged before Mary Philip Leduc, 


clerk of the circuit court within and for the county of St. Louis. It 
is quite an ancient deed and quite a lengthy one, and the old Spanish 
phraseology is used — the wordarpents in the description of the laud. 


Below will be found verbatim copies of some of the earliest cer- 
tificates of marriages that occurred in Howard county. In the names 
of the parties assuming the marital relations, some one or more of our 
readers, may recognize their maternal or paternal ancestors: — 

Territory of Missouri, ) , .. 

County of Howard. S 

Be it remembered to all whom it may concern, that on the 10th 
day of May, 1816, by virtue of the power and authority vested in me 
by law, a preacher of the gospel, etc., I joined in the holy state of 
matrimony Judiah Osmon and Rosella Busby, of the said territory 
and county, as man and wife. Witness my hand, this 3d day of July 
1816. William Thorp. 

I hereby certify, that on the second day of June last passed, I 
celebrated the rights of matrimony between John Cooley and Eliza- 
beth White, both of the county of Howard and territory of Missouri. 

Given under my hand, this tenth day of June, 1816. 

James Alcorn. J. P. 

I do hereby certify, than on the 27th day of March last, I cele- 
brated the rights of matrimony between Elijah Creason and Elizabeth 
Lowell, both of the county of Howard and territory of Missouri. 

Given under my hand, this 12th day of April, 1816. 

James Alcorn, J. P. 

Territory of Missouri, > . .. 

Howard County. 5 

Be it known, to whom it may concern, that on the 26th of April, 
1816, by virtue of the power and authority vested in me by law, a 
preacher of the Gospel, I joined in the holy state of matrimony Abra- 
ham Barnes, and Gracy Jones of the said territory and county, as 
man and wife, satisfactory proof having been given of the legal notice 
as requested by law and parents' consent obtained. 

Witness my hand, the 2 2d of April 1816. 

David McClain. 

The marriages above mentioned occurred sixty-seven years ago. 
In those primitive days, among the early settlers, marriages were 
the result of love. There was not only a union of hands, but a union 


of hearts. The pioneer maiden made the faithful wife, and the sturdy 
backwoodsman the fond and trusted husband. 

Prom that day forth, in peace and joyous bliss, 

They lived together long without debate ; 
Nor private jars, nor spite of enemies, 

Could shake the safe assurance of their state. 

Eleven marriage certificates were recorded in the year 1816. 
One hundered and sixty-two marriages were recorded in 1882. 


The town of Old Franklin was laid off opposite the present site 
of Boonville, in " Cooper's bottom," in the fall of 1816. It was lo- 
cated on a tract containing 100 acres. Benjamin Estill, David Jones, 
David Kincaid, William Head, aud Stephen Cole were appointed com- 
missioners to locate the county seat, which was first located at Hannah 
Cole's fort, as stated above. On June 16, 1817, the commissioners 
settled upon Old Franklin as the most suitable place for the location 
of the county seat, and to that place the records, documents, etc., 
were removed on the second Monday in November, 1817, the court 
being opened by the sheriff on that day at 2 o'clock p. m. 

The land office for the district of Missouri was located at Old 
Franklin in 1818. Gen. Thomas A. Smith was appointed receiver 
and Charles Carroll register. The land sales occurred in the same 
year, November 18, 1818. The crowd in attendance upon these sales 
was said to have numbered thousands of well-dressed and intelligent 
men from all parts of the east and south. 


Wishing to give our readers the benefit of all the facts we have 
collated, in reference to that early period (1818 and 1819) in the his- 
tory of Howard county, we here insert some extracts from the memoirs 
of James M. Peck, D. D., a pioneer Baptist minister who visited 
this portion of the Missouri territory at the period mentioned. What 
he says was written from his personal observation, and is therefore 
not only reliable but deeply interesting : — 

* * * On Monday, December 22, 1818, I rode through the coun- 
try to Franklin, found a Baptist family by the name of Wiseman, 
where I had been directed to call. A hasty "appointment was circu- 
lated, and I preached to a roomful of people. 

Franklin is a village of seventy families. It is situated on the 


left bank of the Missouri, and on the border of an extensive tract of 
rich, alluvial bottom land, covered with a heavy forest, except where 
the axe and fires had destroyed the undergrowth, "deadened" the 
timber, and prepared the fields for the largest crops of corn. 

If any one wishes to find the site of this flourishing towu, as it 
then appeared to promise, he must examine the bed of the river di- 
rectly opposite Boonville. Repeated floods, many years since, drove 
the inhabitants to the bluff, with such of their houses as could be re- 
moved, where New Franklin now stands. At the period of our 
visit no town west of St. Louis gave better promise for rapid 
growth than Franklin. There was no church formed in the village, 
but I found fourteen Baptists there. 

The country on the north side of the Missouri, above the 
Cedar, a small stream on the western border of the present county 
of Callaway, was known as Boone's Lick from an early period. 
Also under the same cognomen was the county designated on the 
south side and west of the Osage river. The particular salt- 
lick to which this appellation was first given was ten ,or twelve 
miles above Old Franklin, and about two miles back from the river. 
Tradition told that this spot, in a secluded place among the bluffs, 
was occupied by the old pioneer, the veritable Daniel Boone, for 
his hunting camp. But the name came from the late Maj. Nathan 
Boone, who in company with the Messrs. Morrisons, of St. Charles, 
manufactured salt at the spring in 1806-7. About the same time 
a settlement was made on the Loutre and on Loutre Island. This 
settlement, except Gate Sans Dessein, was the veritable " far west " 
until 1810. 

During the spring of 1810 several families from Loutre settle- 
ment, and a large number then recently from Kentucky, moved 
westward and planted themselves in the Boone's Lick country, 
then reported as the El Dorado of all new counties. Off from 
the river bottoms the land was undulating, the prairies small, the 
soil rich, and the timber in variety and of a fine quality. Deer, 
bears, elk, and other game were in abundance, and furnished pro- 
visions, and, in many instances, clothing, until the people could 
raise crops. 

There were in all about one hundred and fifty families that came 
into the Boone's Lick country in 1810-11, when the Indian war stopped 
further immigration until 1815 or 1816. Twelve families settled on 
the south side of the river, not far from the present site of Boonville, 
and several more formed a settlement south of the Missouri, some 
ten or fifteen miles above Old Franklin. 

Amongst the emigrants, both from Loutre and Kentucky, were 
not afew Baptist families and two or three preachers. A church had 
been organized in the Loutre settlement, a majority of which, with 
their, church records, were amongst the emigrants, and became re- 
organized, and I think took the name of Mount Zion. 

Soon the hostile Indians broke into these remote frontier settle- 
ments. It was in July, 1810, that a hostile band of Pottawatomies 


came stealthily into the settlement on the Loutre, nearly opposite the 
mouth of the Gasconade river, and stole a number of horses. A 
volunteer company was raised, consisting of Stephen Cole, ffm. T. 
Cole, Messrs. Brown, Gooch, Patton and one other person, 
to follow them. They followed the trail across Grand prairie 
to Boone Lick, a branch of Salt river, where they discovered 
eight Indians who threw off their packs of plunder and scattered in 
the woods. Night coming on, the party disregarded the advice of 
their leader, Stephen Cole, an experienced man with Indians. He 
advised setting a guard, but the majority exclaimed against it, and 
cried " cowardice." About midnight the Indian yell and the death- 
dealing bullet aroused them from sleep. Stephen Cole had taken his 
station at the foot of a tree, and if he slept it was with one eye open. 
He killed four Indians and wounded the fifth, though severely 
wounded himself. Wm. T. Cole, his brother, was killed at the com- 
mencement of the fight, with two other persons. Next morning the 
survivors reached the settlement and told the dreadful tidings, and a 
party returned to the spot, buried the dead, but found the Indians 

This was the first of a series of depredations, murders and robber- 
ies in these remote settlements that continued five years. The dis- 
trict of St. Charles had the Cedar for its western boundary. The 
Boone's Lick country was not recognized as within the organized ter- 
ritory of Missouri. The people were " a law unto themselves." and 
had to do their own fighting. Every male inhabitant of the settle- 
ment, who was capable of bearing arms, enrolled and equipped him- 
self for defence. Each one pledged himself to fight, to labor on the 
forts, to go on scouting expeditions, or to raise corn for the commu- 
nity, as danger or necessity required. By the common consent of 
all these volunteer parties, Col. Benjamin Cooper, a Baptist from 
Madison county, Ky., was chosen commander-in-chief. 

Col. Cooper was one ofKentucky's noblest pioneers. He had also 
been a prominent man in the war with Indians in that district, pos- 
sessed real courage, cool and deliberate, with great skill and sagacity 
in judgment. He had also been an efficient man in the affairs of 
civil and political life, and a man of firmness and correctness as a 
member of the church. 

Among the principal officers who occupied subaltern positions as 
the commanders of forts and partisan leaders for detached field ser- 
vice, were Capt. Sarshall Cooper (a brother of the colonel), William 
Head and Stephen Cole. 

To guard against surprise, the people, under the direction of 
their leader, erected five stockade forts : 

1. Cooper's fort was at the residence of the colonel, on a bot- 
tom prairie. 

2. McLain's fort (called Ft. Hempstead afterward) was on the 
bluff, about one mile from New Franklin. 

3. Kincaid's fort was near the river, and about one and a half 
miles above the site of Old Franklin. 


4. Head's fort was on the Moniteau, near the old Boone's Lick 
trace from St. Charles. 

5. Cole's fort was on the south side of the Missouri, about a 
mile below Boonville. Here the widow of W. T. Cole, who was slain 
by the Indians on Boone's Lick, with her children, settled soon after 
the murder of her husband. 

These forts were a refuge to the families when danger threatened, 
but the defenders of the country did not reside in them only as 
threatened danger required. Scouting parties were almost constantly 
engaged in scouting the woods, in the rear of the settlements, watch- 
ing for Indian signs, and protecting their stock from depredations. 

With all their vigilance during the war, about three hundred 
horses were stolen, many cattle and nearly all their hogs were killed. 
Bear meat and raccoon bacon became a substitute, and even were en- 
gaged in contracts for trade. They cultivated the fields nearest to the 
stockade forts, which could be cultivated in corn with comparative se- 
curity, but not enough to supply the amount necessary for consump- 

Parties were detailed to cultivate fields more distant. These 
were divided into plowmen and sentinels. The one party followed 
the plows, and the other, with rifles loaded and ready, scouted 
around the field on every side, stealthily watching lest the wily foe 
should form an ambuscade. Often the plowman walked over the 
field, guiding his horses and pulverizing the earth, with his loaded 
rifle slung at his back. 

With all these precautions, few men but would tread stealthily 
along the furrows. As he approached the end of the corn-rows, 
where the adjacent woodland might conceal an enemy, his anxiety was 
at its height. When these detachments were in the cornfield, if the 
enemy threatened the fort, the sound of the horn gave the alarm, 
and all rushed to the rescue. 

It was in the autumnal season of corn-gathering that a party of 
these farming soldiers were hard pressed by a party of savages. A 
negro servant drove the team with a load of corn. He knew nothing 
of chariot races among the ancients, but he put the lash on the horses, 
and drove through the large double gateway without touching either 
post as had been too often his unlucky habit. The Indians were on 
the opposite side of the clearing, saw their prey had escaped, raised 
their accustomed yell, and disappeared in the woods. " Oh, Sam !" 
said the captain, whose servant he was, "you've saved your scalp 
this time by accurate and energetic driving." 

" Yes, massa, I tink so, " at the same time scratching his wool 
as if he would make sure that the useful appendage was not missing. 
" De way I done miss dose gate-posts was no red man's business. I 
never drove trew afore without I hit one side, and sometimes bose of 

These pioneer Boone's Lick settlers deserve to be known and 
held in remembrance by the present generation in that populous and 


rich district of the State. I regret exceedingly, now it is too late, 
that I did not gather many more facts, and record the names of the 
principal families. They suffered as many privations as any frontier 
settlement in western history. The men were all heroes and the 
women heroines, and successfully and skillfully defended their families 
and the country about three years without the least aid from the na- 
tional or territorial government. Throughout the war but ten per- 
sons were killed by Indians in all the settlements about Boone's Lick. 
Several other persons, besides those already mentioned, were killed 
in the Loutre settlements and below. 

Those killed in the Boone's Lick country were Sarshall Cooper, 
Jonathan Todd, Wm. Campbell, Thomas Smith, Samuel McMahan, 
Wm. Gregg, John Smith, James Busby, Joseph W. Still, and a negro 
man. Capt. Sarshall Cooper came to his tragic end at Cooper's fort, 
where his family resided. It was a dark night ; the wind howled through 
the forest, and the rain fell in fitful gusts, and the watchful sentinel 
could not discern an object six feet from the stockade. Capt. Cooper's 
residence formed one of the angles of the fort. He had previously 
run up a long account with the red-skins. They dreaded both his 
strategy and his prowess in Indian warfare. A single brave crept 
stealthily in the darkness and. storm to the logs of the cabin, and made 
an opening in the clay between the logs barely sufficient to admit the 
muzzle of his gun, which he discharged with fatal effect. The assas- 
sin escaped and left the family and every settler in mourning. Among 
a large circle of relatives and friends, the impressions of their loss 
were vivid at the period of our first visit. 

After nearly three years of hard fighting and severe suffering, 
congress made provision for raising several companies of' 4 rangers " — 
men who furnished their own horses, equipments, forage and provi- 
sions, and received one dollar per day for guarding the frontier set- 
tlements — when a detachment was sent to the relief of the people of 
Boone's Lick, under command of Gen. Henry S. Dodge, then major 
of the battalion. The mounted rangers included the" companies of 
Capt. John Thompsou, of St. Louis; Capt. Daugherty, of Cape Gir- 
ardeau, and Capt. Cooper, of the Boone's Lick. An expedition under 
command of Capt. Edward Hempstead, was sent in boats up the 
Missouri. In the companies were fifty Delawares and Shawnees, 
and two hundred and fifty Americans. On the south bank of the 
Missouri, at a place now known as Miami, was an Indian town of four 
hundred, including women and children, who had migrated from the 
Wabash country a few years previous. They were friendly and 
peaceable ; but bad Indians would report bad tales of them, and 
Maj. Dodge under instructions, guarded them back to the Wabash 


Scarcely had the pioneers emerged from their forts, wherein they 
had been immured for three years, before they began in earnest to 
establish schools and to set up in their midst the printing press. 


On the 23d of April, 1819, Nathaniel Patten and Benjamin Holli- 
day, two enterprising citizens, issued the first number of the Missouri 
Intelligencer in Franklin. This was the first newspaper published 
west of St. Louis. A full account of this paper is given in the 
chapter entitled "The Press." 


Perhaps one of the greatest events that occurred in the year 
1819, in the then brief history of Howard county, was the arrival of 
the steamer Independence, Capt. John Nelson — the first steamboat 
that had ever attempted the navigation of the Missouri river. The 
Independence had been chartered by Col. Elias Hector and others of 
St. Louis, to ascend the Missouri as high as Chariton, two miles above 
Glasgow. She left St. Louis, May 15, 1819, and reached Franklin, 
in Howard county, on May 28. Among the passengers were Col. 
Elias Eector, Stephen Eector, Capt. Desha, J. C. Mitchell, Dr. 
Stewart, J. Wanton and Major J. D. Wilcox. 

Upon the arrival of the Independence, a public dinner was given 
the passengers and officers. A public meeting was held, of which Asa 
Morgan, was chosen president and Dr. N. Hutchinson, vice-presi- 

The Franklin Intelligencer, May 28, 1819, in speaking of that event 
said : — 


With no ordinary sensations of pride and pleasure, we announce 
the arrival this morning, at this place, of the elegant steamboat 
Independence, Captain Nelson, in seven sailing days, (but thirteen 
from the time of her departure) from St. Louis, with passengers and 
a cargo of flour, whiskey, sugar, iron, castings, etc., being the first 
steamboat that ever attempted ascending the Missouri. She was 
joyfully met by the inhabitants of Franklin, and saluted by the firing 
of cannon, which was returned by the Independence. 

The grand desideratum, the important fact, is now ascertained 
that steamboats can safely navigate the Missouri river. 

A respectable gentleman, a passenger in the Independence, who 
has for a number of years traveled the great western waters, informs 
us that it is his opinion, that with a little precaution in keeping clear 
ofsandbars, the Missouri may be navigated with as much facility as the 
Mississippi or Ohio. 

Missourians may hail this era, from which to date the growing 
importance of this section of country ; when they view with what 
facility (by the aid of steam) boats may ascend the turbulent waters 
of the Missouri, to bring to this part of the country the articles requi- 


site to its supply, and return laden with the various products of this 
fertile region. At no distant period may we see the industrious 
cultivator making his way as high as the Yellowstone, and offering 
to the enterprising merchant and trader a surplus worthy of the fertile 
banks of the Missouri, yielding wealth to industry and enterprise. 

f From the Franklin Intelligencer, June 4, 1819.~\ 



On Friday last, the 28th ult., the citizens of Franklin, with the 
most lively emotions of pleasure, witnessed the arrival of this beauti- 
ful boat, owned and commanded by Capt. Nelson, of Louisville. Her 
approach to the landing was greeted by a Federal salute, accompanied 
with the acclamations of au admiring crowd, who had assembled 
on the bank of the river for the purpose of viewing this novel 
and interesting sight. We may truly regard this event as highly 
important, not only to the commercial but agricultural interests of 
the country. The practicability of steamboat navigation, being now 
clearly demonstrated by experiment, we shall be brought nearer to 
the Atlantic, West India and European markets, and the abundant 
resources of our fertile and extensive region will be quickly devel- 
oped. This interesting section of country, so highly favored by 
nature, will at no distant period, with the aid of science and en- 
terprise assume a dignified station amongst the great agricultural 
states of the west. 

The enterprise of Capt. Nelson cannot be too highly appreci- 
ated by the citizens of Missouri. He is the first individual who 
has attempted the navigation of the Missouri by steam power, a 
river that has hitherto borne the character of being very difficult 
and eminently dangerous in its navigation, but we are happy to 
state that his progress thus far has not been impeded by any acci- 
dent. Among the passengers were Col. Elias Rector, Mr. Stephen 
Rector, Capt. Desha, J. C. Mitchell, Esq., Dr. Stewart, Mr. J., 
Wanton, Maj. J. D. Wilcox. 


The clay after the arrival of the Independence, Capt. Nel- 
son and the passengers partook of a dinner, given by the citizens 
of Franklin, in honor of the occasion. After the cloth was re- 
moved, Capt. Asa Morgan was called to the chair, and Dr. N. 
Hutchinson acted as vice-president, when the following toasts were 
drank : — 

1st. The Missouri River. — Its last wave will roll the abundant 
tribute of our region to the Mexican gulf in reference to the auspices 
of this day. 

2d. The- Memory of Robert Fulton. — One of the, most distin- 


guished artists of his age'. The Missouri river now bears upon her 
bosom the first effect of his geuius for steam navigation. 

3d. The Memory of Franklin, the Philosopher and States- 
man. — In anticipation of his country's greatness, he never imagined 
that a boat at this time would be propelled by steam so far westward, 
to a town bearing his name, on the Missouri. 

4th. Capt. ISTelson. — The proprietor of the steamboat Inde- 
pendence. The imaginary dangers of the Missouri vanished before 
his enterprising genius. 

5th. Louisville, Franklin and Chariton. — They became neigh- 
bors by steam navigation. 

6th. The Republican Government of the United States. — By 
facilitating the intercourse between distant points, its benign influ- 
ence may be diffused over the continent of North America. 

7th. The' Policy. — Resulting in the expedition to the Yellowstone. 

8th. South America. — May an early day witness the navigation 
of the Amazon and LaPlata by steam power, under the auspices of an 
independent government. 

9th. International Improvement. — The New York canal, an im- 
perishable monument of the patriotism and genius of its projector. 

10th. The Missouri Territory. — Desirous to be numbered with 
states on constitutional principles, but determined never to submit 
to Congressional usurpation. 

11th. James Monroe. — President of the United States. 

12th. The Purchase of the Floridas. — A hard bargain. 

13th. The American Fair. 


By Col. Elias Rector. — The memory of my departed friend, Gen. 
Benjamin Howard ; he was a man of worth. 

By Gen. Duff Green. — The Union — It is dear to us, but liberty 
is dearer. 

By Capt. Nelson — I will ever bear in grateful remembrance the 
liberality and hospitality of the citizens of Franklin. 

By Dr. James H.Benson — The territory of Missouri — May 
she emerge from her present degraded condition. 

By J. C. Mitchell, Esq. — Gen. T. A. Smith, the Cincinnatus of 

By Major Thompson Douglas. — The citizens of Franklin. 
Characterized by hospitality and generosity. 

By Stephen Rector, Esq. — May the Missourians defend their 
rights, if necessary, even at the expense of blood, against the unprec- 
edented restriction which was attempted to be imposed on them by 
the congress of the United States. 

By L. W. Boggs, Esq. — Major-Gen. Andrew Jackson. 

By John W. Scudder, Esq. — Our Guests — The passengers who 
iiucended the Missouri in the Independence ; they have the honor to 


be the first to witness the successful experiment of steam navigation 
on our noble river. 

By Benjamin Holliday — The 28th of May, 1819. Franklin will 
long remember it, and the Independence and her commander will be 
immortalized in history. 

By Dr. Dawson — The next Congress — May they be men con- 
sistent in their construction of the Constitution ; and when they admit 
new states into the union, be actuated less by a spirit of compromise, 
than the just rights of the people. 

By Augustus Storrs, Esq. — The memory of Captain Lawrence, 
late of the navy — by the conduct of such men, may our national 
character be formed.' 

By N. Patton, Jr. — The Missouri territory — Its future pros- 
perity and greatness cannot be checked by the caprice of a few men 
in congress, while it possesses a soil of inexhaustible fertility, abun- 
dant resources, and a body of intelligent, enterprising, independent 

By Maj. J. D. Wilcox — The citizens of Missouri — May they 
never become a member of the union, under the restriction relative 
to slavery. 

By Mr. L. W. Jordan — The towns on the Missouri river — May 
they flourish in commerce, and, like those on the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi, witness the daily arrival or departure of some steamboat, 
ascending or descending this majestic stream. 

By Mr. J. B. Howard — Robert Fulton — May his name and the 
effects of his genius, be transmitted to the latest posterity. 

By Dr. J. J. Lowry — (After the president had retired) — The 
president of the day. 

By Maj. R. Gentry — (After the vice-president had retired) 
The vice-president of the day. 

The Independence continued her voyage to Chariton. 


The government of the United States projected the celebrated 
Yellowstone expedition in 1818, the objects of which were to ascer- 
tain whether the Missouri river was navigable by steamboats, and to 
establish a line of forts from its .mouth to the Yellowstone. This 
expedition started from Plattsburg, New York, in 1818, under com- 
mand of Colonel Henry Atkinson. General Nathan Ranney, a well 
known citizen of St. Louis, was an attache of this expedition, also 
Captain Win. D. Hnbbell now a citizen of Columbia. It arrived :it 
Pittsburg in the spring of 1819, where Colonel Stephen H. Long, of 
the topographical engineers of the United States army, had con- 
structed the Western Engineer, a small steamboat to be used by 
him and his scientific corps in pioneering the expedition to the mouth 


of the Yellowstone. The vessel reached St. Louis, June 9, 1819, and 
proceeding on the voyage, arrived at Franklin, July 13, same year. 
The following gentlemen were on board: Major S. H. Long, com- 
mander; Major Thomas Biddle (who was killed August 27, 1831, in 
a duel with Spencer Pettis, on Bloody Island, and after whom, 
Biddle street, St. Louis, was named) ; Lieutenants Graham and Swift, 
Major Benj. O'Fallon, Indian agent; Mr. Daugherty, assistant agent 
and interpreter ; Dr. Wm. Baldwin, botanist;* Thomas Say, zoolo- 
gist; Mr. Jessup, geologist; Mr. Seymore, landscape painter; and 
Mr. Peale, assistant naturalist. 

On Monday, July 19, the vessel proceeded on its voyage up the 
Missouri and reached Council Bluffs on the 17th of September, where 
it remained for the winter. 

Owing to the peculiar construction of the Western Engineer, 
as well as to the fact that a water craft of any kind, and especially one 
propelled by steam, was a novel spectacle, its progress up the river 
excited the greatest wonder among the Indians, many of whom nocked 
to the river banks to see it, while others fled in fear to the forests or 
prairies, thinking it an evil spirit, a very devil with serpent's head, 
and breath of fire and steam. The St. Louis Enquirer, of June 16, 
1819, contains this description of it : — 


The bow of the vessel exhibits the form of a huge serpent, black 
and scaly, rising out of the water from under the boat, his head as 
high as the deck, darted forward, his mouth open, vomiting smoke, 
and apparently carrying the boat on his back. From under the boat, 
at its stern issues a stream of foaming water, dashing violently along. 
All the machinery is hid. Three small brass field pieces, mounted on 
wheel carriages, stand on the deck ; the boat is ascending the rapid 
stream at the rate of three miles an hour. Neither wind, nor human 
hands are seen to help her ; and to the eye of ignorance the illusion 
is complete, that a monster of the deep carries her on his back 
smoking with fatigue, and lashing the waves with violent exertion. 


During the first ten years of the settlement of the Boone's 
Lick country, there were scarcely any mail facilities and in fact, 
there was not a post-oflice within the present limits of Howard 
county, until in 1821. The news was carried by the traveller or 

* Owing to illness Dr. Baldwin abandoned the expedition at Franklin, and died, 
there, September 1, 1819. 


special courier, from one settlement to another, but sometimes weeks 
and months would intervene before the pioneers could hear from 
their former homes or from their more immediate neighbors. It was 
with great pleasure, that the Intelligencer, of April 23, 1819, announced 
the following hit of news : — 

It is contemplated, we understand, shortly to commence running 
a stage from St. Louis to Franklin. Such an undertaking, would, 
no doubt, liberally renumerate the enterprising and meritorious indi- 
viduals engaged, and be of immense benefit to the public, who would, 
doubtless, prefer this to any other mode of travelling. A stage has 
been running from St. Louis to St. Charles three times a week for 
several months past. Another from the town of Illinois (now East 
St. Louis), to Edwardsville ; a line from Edwardsville to Vincennes, 
we understand is in contemplation. It will then only remain to have 
it continued from Vincennes to Louisville. When .these lines shall 
have gone into operation, a direct communication by stage will then 
be opened from the Atlantic States to Boone's Lick, on the Missouri. 


In 1819, immigrants began to come in large numbers. They 
came in wagons, in carriages, in pirogues, and finally on every puffing 
steamer that ascended the turbid waters of the Missouri. Embryo 
settlements had been made along the banks of the mighty river from 
St. Charles to Glasgow. This portion of Missouri, had already been 
seen by the immigrant. Favorable reports had been made of its 
great beauty, its fertile hills and valleys, its bountiful supply of 
timber, its perennial springs and numerous water courses. It was 
not only a new country, but its forests abounded with game, and its 
streams teemed with choicest fishes. Here were found : 

The bright eyed perch, with fins of various dye ; 
The silver eel, in shining volumes roll'd; 
The yellow carp, in scales bedropt with gold ; 
Swift trouts, diversified with crimson stains, 
And pikes, the tyrants of the watery plains. 

The Franklin Intelligencer of November 19, 1819, in speaking of 
the subject of immigration said : — 

The immigration to this territory, and particularly to this county, 
during the present season, almost exceeds belief. Those who have 
arrived in this quarter are principally from Kentucky, Tennessee, 
etc. Immense numbers of wagons, carriages, carts, etc. , with families, 
have for some time past, been daily arriving. During the month of 
October, it is stated, that no less than 271 wagons and four-wheeled 


carriages, and fifty-five two-wheeled carriages and carts passed near 
St. Charles, bound principally for Boone's Lick. It is calculated 
that the number of persons accompanying these wagons, etc., could 
not be less than 3,000. It is stated in the St. Louis Enquirer, of the 
10th inst., that about twenty wagons, etc., per week, had passed 
through St. Charles for the last nine or ten weeks, with wealthy and 
respectable immigrants from various states, whose united numbers are 
supposed to amount to 12,000. The county of Howard, already 
respectable in number, will soon possess a vast population, and no 
section of our country presents a fairer prospect to the immigrant. 


Although the county was organized in 1816, there was no inde- 
pendent tribunal known as the county court held in the county till 
February 26, 1821. This court met and organized at Old Franklin. 
The judges were Henry V. Bingham, David E. Drake and Thomas 
Conway. Hampton L. Boone was appointed county clerk pro tern. 

Among the proceedings of the court the first day was the appoint- 
ment of Robert Cooper guardian of the minor son of Sidney Carson, de- 
ceased. The minor son's name was Robert Sidney Carson, who was the 
father of Kit Carson, the brave scout. Elias Bancroft was appointed 
county surveyor, Nicholas S. Burckhartt, county assessor and Joseph 
Patterson, collector. 

The circuit court, sitting as a county court in 1816, had divided 
the county into four townships, to-wit: Moniteau, Bonne Femme, 
Chariton and La Mine. The county court at its first term, five years 
later (the term of which I am now speaking) again divided the 
county into seven townships, named as follows: Franklin, Boone's 
Lick, Chariton, Richmond, Prairie, Bonne Femme, and Moni- 
teau. Since then a new township called Burton, was created out 
of territory taken from Bonne Femme, Prairie and Richmond 
townships. With this exception the townships remain about as they 
were when first erected. 



The Pioneers' Peculiarities — Conveniences and Inconveniences — The Historical Log 
Cabin — Agricultural Implements — Household Furniture — Pioneer Corn-bread — 
Hand Mills and Hominy Blocks — Going to Mill — Trading Points— Bee Trees — 
Shooting Matches and Quiltings. 

The people in the early history of Howard county took no care to 
preserve history — they were too busily engaged in making it. 
Historically speaking, those were the most important years of the 
county, for it was then the foundation and corner - stones of all the 
county's history and prosperity were laid. Yet, this history was not 
remarkable for stirring events. It was, however, a time of self-re- 
liance and brave, persevering toil ; of privations cheerfully endured 
through faith in a good time coming. The experience of one settler 
was just about the same as that of others. Nearly all of the settler* 
were poor ; they faced the same hardships and stood generally on 
an equal footing. 

All the experience of the early pioneers of this county goes far 
to confirm the theory that, after all, happiness is pretty evenly 
balanced in this world. They had their privations and hardships, but 
they had also their own peculiar joys. If they were poor, they were 
free from the burden of pride and vanity ; free also from the anxiety 
and care that always attends the possession of wealth . Other peo- 
ple' s eyes cost them nothing. If they had few neighbors, they were 
on the best of terms with those they had. Envy, jealousy and strife 
had not crept in. A common interest and a common sympathy 
bound them together with the strongest ties. They were a little 
world to themselves, and the good feeling that prevailed was all the 
stronger because they were so far removed from the great world of 
the east. 

Among these pioneers there was realized such a community of 
interest that there existed a community of feeling. There were no 
castes, except an aristocracy of benevolence, and no nobility, except 
a nobility of generosity. They were bound together with such a 


strong bond of sympathy, inspired by the consciousness of common 
hardship, that they were practically communists. 

Neighbors did not even wait for an invitation or request to help 
one another. Was a settler's cabin burned or blown down? No 
sooner was the fact known throughout the neighborhood than the set- 
tiers assembled to assist the unfortunate one to rebuild his home. 
They came with as little hesitation, and with as much alacrity as 
though they were all members of the same family and bound to- 
gether by ties of blood. One man's interest was every other man's 
interest. • Now, this general state of feeling among the pioneers was 
by no means peculiar to these counties, although it was strongly illus- 
trated here. It prevailed generally throughout the west during the 
time of the early settlement. The very nature of things taught the 
settlers the necessity of dwelling together in this spirit. It was their 
only protection. They had come far away from the well established 
reign of law, and entered a new country , where civil authority was still 
feeble, and totally unable to afford protection and redress grievances. 
Here the settlers lived some little time before there was an officer 
of the law in the county. Each man's protection was in the good 
will and friendship of those about him, and the thing any man 
might well dread was the ill will of the community. It was more 
terrible than the law. It was no uncommon thing in the early times 
for hardened men, who had no fears of jails or penitentiaries, to stand 
in great fear of the indignation of a pioneer community. Such were 
some of the characteristics of Howard county. 


The first buildings in the county were not just like the log cabins 
that immediately succeeded them. The latter required some help and 
a great deal of labor to build. The very first buildings constructed 
were a cross between " hoop cabins " and Indian bark huts. As soon 
as enough men could be got together for a " cabin raising," then log 
cabins were in style. Many a pioneer can remember the happiest 
time of his life as that when he lived in one of these homely but 
comfortable old cabins. 

A window with sash and glass was a rarity, and was an evidence 
of wealth and aristocracy which but few could support. They were 
often made with greased paper put over the window, which admitted 
a little light, but more often there was nothing whatever over it, or 
the cracks between the logs, without either chinking or daubing, were 


the dependence for light and air. The doors were fastened with old- 
fashioned wooden latches, and for a friend, or neighbor, or traveller, 
the string always hung out, for the pioneers of the west were hospita- 
ble and entertained visitors to the best of their ability . It is notice- 
able with what affection the pioneers speak of their old log cabins. 
It may be doubted whether palaces ever sheltered happier hearts than 
those homely cabins. The following is a good description of those 
old landmarks, but few of which now remain : — 

" These were of round logs, notched together at the corners, rib- 
bed with poles and covered with boards split from a tree. A puncheon 
floor was then laid down, a hole cut in the end and a stick chimney 
runup. A clapboard door is made, a window is opened by cutting 
out a hole in the side or end two feet square, and finished without 
glass or transparency. The house is then ' chinked ' and * daubed ' 
with mud. The cabin is now ready to go into. The, household and 
kitchen furniture is adjusted, and life on the frontier is begun in 

" The one-legged bedstead, now a piece of furniture of the past, 
was made by cutting a stick the proper length, boring holes at one 
end one and a half inches in diameter, at right angles, and the same 
sized holes corresponding with those in the logs of the cabin the 
length and breadth desired for the bed, in which are inserted poles. 

" Upon these poles the clapboards are laid, or linn bark is inter- 
woven consecutively from pole to pole. Upon this primitive structure 

the bed is laid. The convenience of a cook stove was not thought of. 
i e ' 

but instead, the cooking was done by the faithful housewife in pots, 

kettles, and skillets, on and about the big fire-place, and very frequent- 
ly over and around, too, the distended pedal extremities of the legal 
sovereign of the household, while the latter was indulging in the 
luxuries of a cob-pipe and discussing the probable results of a con- 
templated deer hunt on the Missouri river or some one of its small 

These log cabins were really not so bad after all. 

The people of to-day, familiarized with " Charter Oak " cooking 
stoves and ranges, would be ill at home were they compelled to pre- 
pare a meal with no other conveniences than those provided in a 
pioneer cabin. Kude fire-places were built in chimneys composed of 
mud and sticks, or, at best, undressed stone. These fire-places 
served for heating and cooking purposes ; also for ventilation. Around 
the cheerful blaze of this fire the meal was prepared, and these meals 
were not so bad, either. As elsewhere remarked, they were not such 


as would tempt an epicure, but such as afforded the most healthful 
nourishment for a race of people who were driven to the exposure 
and hardships which were their lot. We hear of few dyspeptics in 
those days. Another advantage of these cooking arrangements was 
that the stove-pipe never fell down, and the pioneer was spared being 
subjected to the most trying of ordeals, and one probably more pro- 
ductive of profanity than any other. 

Before the country became supplied with mills which were of 
easy access, and even in some instances afterward, hominy-blocks 
were used. They exist now only in the memory of the oldest settlers, 
but as relics of the "long ago" a description of them will not be 
uninteresting : — 

A tree of suitable size, say from eighteen inches to two feet in 
diameter, was selected in the forest and felled to the ground. If a 
cross-cut saw happened to be convenient, the tree was " butted," that 
is, the kerf end was sawed off so that it would stand steady when 
ready for use. If there were no cross-cut saw in the neighborhood, 
strong arms and sharp axes were ready to do the work. Then the 
proper length, from four to five feet, was measured off and sawed or 
cut square. When this was done the block was raised on end and 
the work of cutting out a hollow in one of the ends was commenced. 
This was generally done with a common chopping ax. Sometimes a 
smaller one was used. When the cavity was judged to be large 
enough, a fire was built in it and carefully watched till the ragged 
edges were burned away. When completed the hominy-block some- 
what resembled a druggist's mortar. Then a pestle, or something 
to crush the corn, was necessary. This was usually made from a 
suitably sized piece of timber, with an iron wedge attached, the large 
end down. This completed the machinery, and the block was ready 
for use. Sometimes one hominy-block accommodated an entire 
neighborhood and was the means of staying the hunger of many 

In giving the bill of fare above we should have added meat, for of 
this they had plenty. Deer would be seen daily trooping over the 
prairie in droves of from twelve to twenty, and sometimes as many as 
fifty would be seen grazing together. Elk were also found, and wild 
turkeys and prairie chickens without number. Bears were not un- 
known. Music of the natural order was not wanting, and every night 
the pioneers were lulled to rest by the screeching of panthers* and the 
howling of wolves. When the dogs ventured too far out from the 
cabins at night, they would be driven back by the wolves chasing 


them up to the very cabin doors. Trapping wolves became a very 
profitable business after the state began to pay a bounty for wolf 

All the streams of water also abounded in fish, and a good supply 
of these could be procured by the expense of a little time and labor. 
Those who years ago improved the fishing advantages of the country 
never tire telling of the dainty meals which the streams afforded. 
Sometimes large parties would get together, and, having been provided 
with cooking utensils and facilities for camping out, would go off some 
distance and spend weeks together. No danger then of being ordered 
off a man's premises or arrested for trespass. One of the peculiar 
circumstances that surrounded the early life of the pioneers was a 
strange loneliness. The solitude seemed almost to oppress them. 
Months would pass during which they would scarcely see a human 
face outside their own families. 

On occasions of special interest, such as election, holiday celebra- 
tions, or camp-meetings, it was nothing unusual for a few settlers 
who lived in the immediate neighborhood of the meeting to entertain 
scores of those who had come from a distance. 

Rough and rude though the surroundings may have been, the 
pioneers were none the less honest, sincere, hospitable and kind in 
their relations. It is true, as a rule, and of universal application, that 
there is a greater degree of real humanity among the pioneers of any 
country than there is when the country becomes old and rich. If 
there is an absence of refinement, that absence is more than compen- 
sated in the presence of generous hearts and truthful lives. They are 
bold, industrious and enterprising. Generally speaking, they are 
earnest thinkers, and possessed of a diversified fund of useful, practical 
information. As a rule they do not arrive at a conclusion by means 
of a course of rational reasoning, but, nevertheless, have a queer way 
of getting at the facts. They hate cowards and shams of every kind, 
and above all things, falsehoods and deception, and cultivate an 
integrity which seldom permits them to prostitute themselves to a 
narrow policy of imposture. Such were the characteristics of the men 
and women who pioneered the way to the country of the Sacs, Foxes, 
Kickapoos and Pottawatomie Indians. A few of them yet remain, 
and although some of their descendants are among the wealthy and 
most substantial of the people of the county, they have not forgotten 
their old time hospitality and free and easy ways. In contrasting the 
present social affairs with pioneer times, one has well said : 

" Then, if a house was to be raised, every man ' turned out,' and 


often the women, too, and while the men piled up the logs that fash- 
ioned the primitive dwelling-place, the women prepared the dinner. 
Sometimes it was cooked by big log fires near the site where the 
cabin was building ; in other cases it was prepared at the nearest 
cabin, and at the proper hour was carried to where the men were at 
work. If one man in the neighborhood killed a beef, a pig or a deer, 
every other family in the neighborhood was sure to receive a piece. 

" We were all on an equality. Aristocratic feelings were 
unknown and would not have been tolerated. What one had we all 
had, and that was the happiest period of my life. But to-day, if you 
lean against a neighbor's shade tree, he will charge you for it. If 
you are poor and fall sick, you may lie and suffer almost unnoticed 
and unattended, and probably go to the poor-house ; and just as like 
as not the man who would report you to the authorities as a subject 
of county care would charge the county for making the report." 

Of the old settlers, some are still living in the county, in the 
enjoyment of the fortunes they founded in early times, " having 
reaped an hundred fold." Nearly all, however, have passed away. 
A few of them have gone to the far west, and are still playing the 
part of pioneers. But wherever they may be, whatever fate may 
betide them, it is but truth to say that they were excellent men, as a 
class, and have left a deep and enduring impression upon the county 
and the state. " They builded better than they knew." They were, 
of course, men of activity and energy, or they would never have 
decided to face the trials of pioneer life. The great majority of them 
were poor, but the lessons taught them in the early days were of such 
a character that few of them have remained so. They made their 
mistakes in business pursuits like, other men. Scarcely one of them 
but allowed golden opportunities, for pecuniary profit, at least, to pass 
by unheeded. What are now some of the choicest farms in Howard 
county were not taken up by the pioneers, who preferred land of very 
much less value. They have seen many of their prophesies fulfilled, 
and others come to naught. Whether they have attained the success 
they desired, their own hearts can tell. 

To one looking over the situation then, from the standpoint now, 
it certainly does not seem very cheering, and yet, from the testimony 
of some old pioneers, it was a most enjoyable time, and we of the 
present live in degenerate days. 

At that time it certainly would have been much more difficult 
for those old settlers to understand how it could be possible that sixty- 
five years hence, the citizens at the present age of the county's pro- 


gress would be complaining of hard times and destitution, and that 
they themselves, perhaps, would be among that number, than it is 
now for us to appreciate how they could feel so cheerful and contented 
with their meagre means and humble lot of hardships and depriva- 
tions during those early pioneer days. 

The secret was, doubtless, that they lived within their means, 
however limited, not coveting more of luxury and comfort than their 
income would afford, and the natural result was prosperity and con- 
tentment, with always room for one more stranger at the fireside, and 
a cordial welcome to a place at their table for even the most hungry 

Humanity, with all its ills, is, nevertheless, fortunately _ charac- 
terized with remarkable flexibility, which enables it to accommodate 
itself to circumstances. After all, the secret of happiness lies in 
one's ability to accommodate himself to his surroundings. 

It is sometimes remarked that there were no places for public en- 
tertainment till later years. The fact is, there were many such places ; 
in fact, every cabin was a place of entertainment, and these hotels 
were sometimes crowded to their utmost capacity. On such occasions, 
when bedtime came, the first family would take the back part of the 
cabin, and so continue filling up by families until the limit was 
reached. The young men slept in the wagon outside. In the morn- 
ing, those nearest the door arose first and went outside to dress. 
Meals were served on the end of a wagon, and consisted of corn 
bread, buttermilk and fat pork, and occasionally coffee, to take away 
the morning chill. On Sundays, for a change, they had bread made 
of wheat " tramped out " on the ground by horses, cleaned with a 
sheet and pounded by hand. This was the best, the most fastidious 
they could obtain, and this only one day in seven. Not a moment of 
time was lost. It was necessary that they should raise enough sod 
corn to take them through the coming winter, and also get as much 
breaking done as possible. They brought with them enough corn to 
give the horses an occasional feed, in order to keep them able for hard 
work, but in the main they had to live on prairie grass. The cattle 
got nothing else than grass. 


An interesting comparison might be drawn between the conven- 
iences which now make the life of a farmer a. comparatively easy one, 
and the almost total lack of such conveniences in early days. A brief j 


description of the accommodations possessed by the tillers of the soil 
will now be given. 

Let the children of such illustrious sires draw their own compar- 
isons, and may the results of these comparisons silence the voice of 
complaint which so often is heard in the land. 

The only plpws they had at first were what they styled "bull 
plows." The mould-boards were generally of wood, but in some 
cases they were half wood and half iron. The man who had one of 
the latter description was looked upon as something of an aristocrat. 
But these old " bull plows " did good service, and they must be 
awarded the honor of first stirring the soil of Howai-d county, as well 
as that of all the oldest counties of this state. 

The amount of money which some farmers annually invest in 
agricultural implements would have kept the pioneer farmer in farm- 
ing utensils during a whole lifetime. The pioneer farmer invested 
little money in such things, because he had little money to spare, and 
then again because the expensive machinery now used would not have 
been at all adapted to the requirements of pioneer farming. The 
" bull plow " was probably better adapted to the fields abounding in 
stumps and roots than would the modern sulky plow have been, and 
the old-fashioned wheat cradle did better execution than would a 
modern harvester under like circumstances. The prairies were seldom 
settled till after the pioneer period, and that portion of the country 
which was the hardest to put under cultivation, and the most difficult 
to cultivate after it was improved, first was cultivated ; it was well for 
the country that such was the case, for the present generation, famil- 
iarized as it is with farming machinery of such complicated pattern, 
would scarcely undertake the clearing off of dense forests and culti- 
vating the ground with the kind of implements their fathers used, and 
which they would have to use for some kinds of work. 


Notwithstanding the fact that some of the early settlers were en- 
ergetic millwrights, who employed all their energy, and what means 
they possessed, in erecting mills at a few of the many favorite mill- 
sites which abound in the county ; yet going to mill in those days, 
when there were no roads, no bridges, no ferry boats, and scarcely 
any conveniences for travelling, was no small task, where so many riv- 
ers and treacherous streams were to be crossed, and such a trip was 
often attended with great danger to the traveller when these streams 


were swollen beyond their banks. But even under these circumstances, 
some of the more adventurous and ingenious ones, in case of 
emergency, found the ways and means by which to cross the swollen 
streams, and succeed in making the trip. At other times again, all 
attempts failed them, and they were, compelled to remain at home un- 
til the waters subsided, and depend on the generosity of their fortun- 
ate neighbors. 

Some stories are related with regard to the danger, perils and 
hardships of forced travels to mills, and for provisions, which remind 
one of forced marches in military campaigns, and when we hear of 
the heroic and daring conduct of the hardy pioneers in procuring 
bread for their loved ones, we think that here were heroes more val- 
iant than any of the renowned soldiers of ancient or modern times. 

During the first two years, and perhaps not until some time af- 
terward, there was not a public highway established and worked on 
which they could travel ; and as the settlers were generally far apart, 
and mills and trading points were at great distances, going from place 
to place was not only very tedious, but attended sometimes with great 
danger. Not a railroad had yet entered the state, and there was 
scarcely a thought in the minds of the people here of such a thing 
ever reaching the wild west ; and, if thought of, people had no con- 
ception of what a revolution a railroad and telegraph line through the 
county would cause in its progress. Then there was no railroad in 
the United States ; not a mile of track on the continent, while now 
there are over 100,000 miles of railroad extending their trunks and 
branches in every direction over our land. 

Supplies in those days were obtained at St. Charles and St. 
Louis. Mail was carried by horses and wagon transportation, and 
telegraph dispatches wer e transmitted by the memory and lips of 
emigrants coming in, or strangers passing through. 

The first mills were built in the forts. These were small affairs. 
The first grist and saw mill combined was erected at Old Franklin, in 
1819, by Shadrack Barnes, and the buhrs were set on the saw-frame. 
At first the mill only ground corn which had to be sifted after it was 
ground, as there were no bolts in the mill. There was only one run 
of buhrs which, as well as the mill irons, were brought from St. Louis. 
They were shipped up the Missouri river. The mill cost about $50. 
The mill had no gearing, the buhrs being located over the wheel, and 
running with the same velocity as the wheel. It was a frame mill, 
one story high, and had a capacity of fifty bushels a day. People came 
from far and near, attracted by the reports of the completion of the 


mill, with their grists, so that, for days before it was ready for work, 
the river bottom was dotted over with hungry and patient men, wait- 
ing until it was ready to do their work, so that they might return 
with their meal and flour to supply their families and those of their 
neighbors, thus enduring the hardships of camp life in those early 
days in order that they might be able to secure the simple necessaries 
of life, devoid of all luxuries. 


The sports and means of recreation were not so numerous and 
varied among the early settlers as at present, but they were more 
enjoyable and invigorating than now. 

Hunters now-a-days would be only too glad to be able to find 
and enjoy their favorable opportunity for hunting and fishing, and 
even travel many miles, counting it rare pleasure to spend a few weeks 
on the water courses and wild prairies, in hunt arfd chase and fishing 
frolics. There were a good many excellent hunters here at an early 
day, who enjoyed the sport as well as any can at the present time. 

Wild animals of almost every species known in the wilds of the 
west were found in great abundance. The prairies, and woods, and 
streams, and various bodies of water, were all thickly inhabited be- 
fore the white man came and for some time afterward. Although the 
Indians slew many of them, yet the natural law prevailed here as well 
as elsewhere — " wild man and wild beast thrive together." 

Serpents were to be found in such large numbers, and of such 
immense size that some stories told by the early settlers would be 
incredible were it not for the large array of concurrent testimony, 
which is to be had from the most authentic sources. Deer, turkeys, 
ducks, geese, squirrels, and various other kinds of choice game were 
plentiful and to be had at the expense of killing only. The fur 
animals were abundant ; such as the otter, beaver, mink, muskrat, 
raccoon, panther, fox, wolf, wild-cat and bear. 

An old resident of the county told us, that in 1809, while he was 
travelling a distance of six miles, he saw as many as seventy-three 
deer, in herds of from six to ten. 


Another source of profitable recreation among the old settlers was 
that of hunting bees. The forests along the water courses were es- 
pecially prolific of bee trees. They were found in great numbers on 


the Missouri river, and in fact, on all the important streams in the 
county. Many of the early settlers, during the late summer, would 
go into camp for days at a time, for the purpose of hunting and 
securing the honey of the wild bees, which was not only extremely 
rich, and found in great abundance, but always commanded a good 
price in the home market. 

The Indians have ever regarded the honey bee as the forerunner 
of the white man, while it is a conceded fact that the quail always 
follows the footprints of civilization. 

The following passage is found in the "Eeport of the Exploring 
Expedition to the Eocky Mountains, in the year 1842, by Captain John 
C. Fremont," page 69. 

"Hereon the summit, where the stillness was absolute; un- 
broken by any sound, and the solitude complete, we thought ourselves 
beyond the regions of animated life ; but while we were sitting on the 
rocks, a solitary bee came winging his flight from the eastern valley, 
and lit on the knee of one of the men. We pleased ourselves with 
the idea that he was the first of his species to cross the mountain 
barrier, a solitary pioneer to foretell the advance of civilization." 

Gregg, in his " Commerce of the Prairies," page 178, vol. I.,- 
says : ' ' The honey bee appears to have emigrated exclusively from 
the east, as its march has been observed westward. The bee, among 
western pioneers, is the proverbial precursor of the Anglo-American 
population. In fact, the aborigines of the frontier have generally cor- 
roborated this statement, for they used to say that they knew the white 
man was not far behind when the bees appeared among them." 

There were other recreations, such as shooting matches and quilt- 
ing parties, which obtained in those days, and which were enjoyed 
to the fullest' extent. The quilting parties were especially pleasant 
and agreeable to those who attended. The established rule in 
those days at these parties was to pay either one dollar in money or 
split one hundred rails during the course of the day. The men would 
generally split the rails and the women would remain in the house and 
do the quilting. After the day's work was done the night would be 
passed in dancing. 

All the swains that there abide, 
With jigs and rural dance resort. 

When daylight came the music and dancing would cease, and the gal- 
lant young men would escort the fair ladies to their respective homes. 


One of the oldest pioneers tells us that for several years after he 


came to what is now known as Howard county the wolves were very 
numerous, and that he paid his taxes for many years in wolf scalps. 
His cabin was in the edge of the timber, that skirted Sulphur creek, 
and at night the howls of these animals were so loud and incessant 
that to sleep, at times, was almost impossible. 
Often, at midnight, all 

At once there rose so wild a yell, 
Within that ■dark and narrow dell, 
As all the fiends from heaven that fell 
Had pealed the banner-cry of hell. 

At such times the whole air seemed to be filled with the vibra- 
tions of their most infernal and diabolical music. The wolf was not 
only a midnight prowler here, but was seen in the daytime, singly or 
in packs, warily skulking upon the outskirts of a thicket, or sallying 
cautiously along the open path, with a sneaking look of mingled cow- 
ardice and cruelty. 


County and Township Systems — Government Surveys — Organization of Townships. 

Before proceeding any further, we deem it proper, since we are 
about to enter upon the history of the townships, to give some expla- 
nations of the county and township systems, and government surveys, 
as much depends in business and civil transactions, upon county limits 
and county organizations. 


With regard to the origin of dividing individual states into county 
and township organizations, which, in an important measure, should 
have the power and opportunity of transacting their own business and 
governing themselves, under the approval of, and subject to, the 
state and general government, of which they both form a part, we 
quote from Elijah M. Haines, who is considered good authority on the 

In his "Laws of Illinois, Kelative to Township Organizations," 
he says : — 

The county system originated with Virginia, whose early set- 
tlers soon became large landed proprietors, aristocratic in feeling, living 
apart in almost baronial magnificence, on their own estates, and own- 
ing the laboring part of the population. Thus the materials for a 
town were not at hand ; the voters being thinly distributed over a 
great area. 

The county organization, where a few influential men managed 
the wholesale business of a community, retaining their places almost 
at their pleasure, scarcely responsible at all, except in name, and per- 
mitted to conduct the county concerns as their ideas or wishes might 
direct, was moreover consonant with their recollections or traditions 
of the judicial and social dignities of the landed aristocracy of 
England, in descent from whom, the Virginia gentleman felt so much 
pride. In 1834, eight counties were organized in Virginia, and the 
system extending throughout the state, spread into all the southern 
states, and some of the northern states ; unless we except the nearly 
similar division into "districts," in South Carolina, and that into 
" parishes " in Louisiana, from the French laws. 


Illinois, which, with its vast additional territory, became a 
county of Virginia, on its conquest by General George Rogers Clark, 
retained the county organization, which was formerly extended over 
the state by the constitution of 1818y, and continued in exclusive use, 
until the constitution of 1848. Under this system, as in other states 
adopting it, much local business was transacted by the commissioners 
in each county, who constituted a county court, with quarterly ses- 

During the period ending with the constitution of 1847, a large 
portion of the state had become filled up with a population of New 
England birth or character, daily growing more and more compact and 
dissatisfied with the comparatively arbitrary and inefficient county 
system. It was maintained by the people that the heavy populated 
districts would always control the election of the commissioners to the 
disadvantage of the more thinly populated sections — in short, that 
under that system " equal and exact justice " to all parts of the county 
could not be secured. 

The township system had its origin in Massachusetts, and dates 
back to 16.35. 

The first legal enactment concerning the system, provided that, 
whereas, " particular townships have many things which concern only 
themselves and the ordering of their own affairs, and disposing of 
business in their own town," therefore, the "freemen of every town- 
ship, or a majority part of them, shall only have power to dispose of 
their own lands and woods, with all the appurtenances of said town, to 
grant lots, and to make such orders as may concern the well ordering 
of their own towns not repugnant to the laws and orders established 
by the general court." 

They might also (says Mr. Haines) impose fines of not more than 
twenty shilings, and " choose their own particular officers, as consta- 
bles, surveyors for the highway and the like." 

Evidently this' enactment relieved the general court of a mass 
of municipal details, without any danger to the power of that body in 
controlling general measures of public policy. 

Probably, also, a demand from the freemen of the towns was 
felt for the control of their own home concerns. 

The New England colonies were first governed by a general 
court or legislature, composed of a governor and a small council, 
which court consisted of the most influential inhabitants and possessed 
and exercised both legislative and judicial powers, which were limited 
only by the wisdom of the holders. 

They made laws, ordered their execution by officers, tried and 
decided civil and criminal causes, enacted all manner of municipal 
regulations, and, in fact, did all the public business of the colony. 

Similar provisions for the incorporation of towns were made in 
the first constitution of Connecticut, adopted in 1639, and the plan of 
township organization, as experience proved its remarkable economy, 


efficiency and adaption to the requirements of a free and intelligent 
people, became universal throughout New England, and went west- 
ward with the immigrants from New England into New York, Ohio, and 
other western states. 

Thus we find that the valuable system of county, township and 
town organizations had been thoroughly tried and proven long before 
there was need of adopting it in Missouri or any of the broad region 
west of the Mississippi river. But as the new country began to be 
opened, and as eastern people began to move westward across the 
mighty river, and form thick settlements along its western bank, the 
territory and state, and county and township organizations soon fol- 
lowed in quick succession, and those different systems became more 
or less improved, according as deemed necessary by the experience 
and judgment and demands of the people, until they have arrived at 
the present stage of advancement and efficiency. In the settlement of 
the territory of Missouri, the legislature began by organizing counties 
on the Mississippi river. As each new county was formed, it was 
made to include under legal jurisdiction all the country bordering 
west of it, and required to grant to the actual settlers electoral 
privileges and an equal share of the county government, with those 
who properly lived in the geographical limits of the county. 

The counties first organized along the eastern borders of the state 
were given for a short time jurisdiction over the lands and settlements 
adjoining each on the west, until these localities became sufficiently 
settled to support organizations of their own. 


No person can intelligently understand the history of a country 
without at the same time knowing its geography, and in order that a 
clear and correct idea of the geography of Howard county may be 
obtained from the language already used in defining different localities 
and pieces of land, we insert herewith the plan of government surveys 
as given in Mr. E. A. Hickman's property map of Jackson county, 
Missouri : — 

Previous to the formation of our present government, the east- 
ern portion of North America consisted of a number of British 
colonies, the territory of which was granted in large tracts to British 
noblemen. By treaty of 1783, these grants were acknowledged as 
valid by the colonies. After the revolutionary war, when these 
colonies were acknowledged independent states, all public domain 
within their boundaries was acknowledged to be the property of the 
colony within the bounds of which said domain was situated. 


Virginia claimed all the northwestern territory, including what 
is now known as Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana and 
Illinois. After a meeting of the representatives of the various states 
to form a union, Virginia ceded the northwest territory to the United 
States government. This took place in 1784 ; then all this north- 
west territory became government land. It comprised all south of 
the lakes and east of the Mississippi river and north and west of 
the states having definite boundary lines. This territory had been 
known as New France, and had been ceded by France to England in 
1768. In the year 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte sold to the" United 
States all territory west of the Mississippi river and north of Mexico, 
extending to the Rocky Mountains. 

While the public domain was the property of the colonies, it was 
disposed of as follows : Each individual caused the tract he desired to 
purchase to be surveyed and platted. A copy of the survey was then 
filed with the register of lauds, when, by paying into the state or col- 
onial treasury an agreed price, the purchaser received a patent for the 
land. This method of disposing of public lands made lawsuits numer- 
ous, owing to different surveys often including the same ground. To 
avoid these difficulties and effect a general measurement of the terri- 
tories, the United States adopted the present mode or system of land 
surveys, a dscription of which we give, as follows : 

In an unsurveyed region, a point of marked and changeless topo- 
graphical features is selected as an initial point. The exact latitude 
and longitude of this point is ascertained by astronomical observation, 
and a suitable monument of iron or stone to perpetuate the position. 
Through this point a true north and south line is run, which is called a 
principal meridian. This principal meridian may be extended north 
and south any desired distance. Along this line are placed, at dis- 
tances of one-half mile from each other, posts of wood or stone, or 
mounds of earth. These posts are said to establish the line, and are 
called section and quarter-section posts. Principal meridians are 
numbered in the order in which they are established. Through the 
same initial point from which the principal meridian was surveyed, an- 
other line is now run and established by mile and half-mile posts, as 
before, in a true east and west direction. This line is called the base 
line, and like the principal meridian, may be extended indefinitely in 
either direction. These lines form the basis of the survey of the 
country into townships and ranges. Township lines extend east and 
west, parallel with the base line, at distances of six miles from the 
base line and from each other, dividing the country into strips six 
miles wide, which strips are called townships. Range lines run north 
and south parallel to the principal meridian, dividing the country into 
strips six miles wide, which strips are called ranges. Township strips 
are numbered from the base line and range strips are numbered from 
the principal meridian. Townships lying north of the base line are 
"townships north;" those on the south are "townships south." 
The strip lying next the base line is township one, the next one to 



that township tioo, and so on. The range strips are numbered in the 
same manner, counting from the principal meridian- east or west, as 
the case maybe. 

The township and range lines thus divide the country into six-mile 
squares. Each of these squares is called a congressional township. 
All north and south lines north of the equator approach each other as 
they extend north, finally meeting at the north pole ; therefore north 
and south lines are not literally parallel. The east and west boun- 
dary lines of any range being six miles apart in the latitude of Mis- 
souri or Kansas, would, in thirty miles, approach eack other at 2.9 
chains, or 190 feet. If, therefore, the width of the range when started 
from the base line is made exactly six miles, it would be 2.9 chains 
too narrow at the distance of thirty miles, or five townships north. 
To correct the width of ranges and keep them to the proper width, the 
range lines are not surveyed in a continuous straight line, like the 
principal meridian, entirely across the state, but only across a limited 
number of townships, usually five, where the width of the rauge is 
corrected by beginning a new line on the side of the range most distant 
from the principal meridian, at such a point as will make the range its 
correct width. All range lines are corrected in the same manner. 
The east and west township line on which these corrections are made 
are called correction lines, or standard parallels. The surveys of the 
state of Missouri were made from the fifth principal meridian, which 
runs through the state, and its ranges are numbered from it. 
The State of Kansas is surveyed and numbered from the sixth. 
Congressional townships are divided into thirty-six square miles, 
called sections, and are known by numbers, according to their jjosi- 
tion. The following diagram shows the order of numbers and the sec- 
tions in congressional township. 







-20 21- 



-32 33- 



Sections are divided into quarters, eighths and sixteenths, and 
are described by. their position in the section. The full section con- 
tains 640 acres, the quarter 160, the eighth 80, and the sixteenth 40. 
In the following diagram of a section the position designated by a is 
known as the northwest quarter ; i is the northeast quarter ; of the 
northeast quarter ; d would be the south half of the southeast quarter, 
and would contain 80 acres. 



Sec. post 




Sec. post 

160 acres 







Sec. post 

Sec. post 

% Sec. post 

Sec. post 

H Sec. post 

Congressional townships, as we have seen are six mile squares of 
land, made by the township and range lines, while civil or municipal 
townships are civil divisions, made for purposes of government, the 
one having no reference to the other, though similar in name. On the 
county map we see both kinds of townships — the congressional 
usually designated by numbers and in squares ; the municipal or civil 
township by name and in various forms. 

By the measurement thus made by the government the courses 
and distances are denned between any two points. St. Louis is in 
township 44 north, range 8 east, and Independence is in township 49 
north, range 32 west ; how far, then, are Kansas City and St. Louis 
apart on a direct line 'f St. Louis is forty townships east — 240 miles — 
and 'five townships south — thirty miles ; the base and perpendicular 
of a right-angled triangle, the hypothenuse being the required 


The " township," as the term is used in common phraseology, in 
many instances, is widely distinguished from that of " town," though 
many persons persist in confounding the two. " In the United States, 
many of the states are divided into townships of five, six, seven, or 
perhaps ten miles square, and the inhabitants of such townships are 
vested with certain powers for regulating their own affairs, such as 
repairing roads and providing for the poor. The township is subor- 
dinate to the county." A " town " is simply a collection of houses, 
either large or small, and opposed to " country." 

The most important features connected with this system of town- 


ship survevs should be thoroughly understood by every intelligent 
farmer and business man ; still there are some points connected with 
the understanding of it, which need close and careful attention. The 
law which established this system required that the north and south 
lines should correspond exactly with the meridian passing through 
that point; also, that each township should be six miles square. To 
do this would be an utter impossibility, since the figure of the earth 
causes the meridians to converge toward the pole, making the north 
line of each township shorter than the south tine of the same township. 
To obviate the errors which are on this account, constantly occurring, 
correction lines are established. They are parallels bounding a line 
of townships on the north, when lying north of the principal base ; oh 
the south line of townships when lying south of the principal base 
from which the surveys, as they are continued, are laid out anew ; the 
range lines again starting at correct distances from the principal 
meridian. In Michigan these correction lines are repeated at the end 
of every tenth township, but in Oregon they have been repeated with 
every fifth township. The instructions to the surveyors have been 
thiJt each range of townships should be made as much over six miles 
in width on each base and correction line as it will fall short of the 
same width where it closes on to the next correction line north ; and 
it is further provided that in all cases, where the exterior lines of the 
townships shall exceed, or shall not extend six miles, the excess of 
deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or deducted from the 
western or northern sections or half sections in such township, 
according as the error may be in running the lines from east to 
west, or from south to north. In order to throw the excess of de- 
ficiencies on the north and on the west sides of the township, it is 
necessary to survey the section lines from south to north, on a true 
meridian, leaving the result in the north line of the township to be 
governed by the convexity of the earth, and the convergency of the 

Navigable rivers, lakes and islands are " meandered" or surveyed 
by the compass and chain along the banks. "The instruments 
employed on these surveys, besides the solar compass, are a survey- 
ing chain thirty-three feet long, of fifty links, and another of smaller 
wire, as a standard to be used for correcting the former as often at 
least as every other day, also eleven tally pins, made of steel, telescope, 
targets, tape measure and tools for marking the lines upon trees or 
stones. In surveying through woods, trees intercepted by the line are 
marked with two chips or notches, one on each side ; these are called 


sight or line' trees. Sometimes other trees in the vicinity are blazed 
on two sides quartering toward the line ; but if some distance 
from the line the two blazes should be near together on the 
side facing the line. These are found to be permanent marks, 
not wholly recognizable for many years, but carrying with 
them their own age by the rings of growth around the blaze, which 
may at any subsequent time be cut out and counted as years ; and . 
the same are recognized in courts of law as evidence of the date of 
the survey. They cannot be obliterated by cutting down the trees or 
otherwise without leaving evidence of the act. Corners are marked 
upon trees if found at the right spots, or else upon posts set in the 
ground, and sometimes a monument of stones is used for a township 
corner, and a single stone for section corner ; mounds of earth are 
made when there are no stones nor timber. The corners of the 
four adjacent sections are designated by distinct marks cut into a tree, 
one in each section. These trees, facing the corner, are plainly 
marked with the letters B. T. (bearing tree) cut into the wood. 
Notches cut upon the corner posts or trees indicate the number of 
miles to the outlines of the township, or if on the boundaries of the 
township, to the township corners. 



Boundary— Physical Features — Lakes — Salt Springs — Indian Mounds — Early Set- 
tlers— The Name— Daniel Boone — The Date of His Visiting the Township— He 
Never Manufactured Salt— Historic Ground — Character of the Early Settlers — 
Their Troubles — Supplied Themselves with Many Things — After the War of 1812 — 
Biograpical Sketch of Major Stephen Cooper — Boonsboro — Its Early History — 

We shall begin the township history of Howard county, not alpha- 
betically but chronologically, giving each as nearly as we can in the 
order of their settlement, commencing with Boone's Lick town- 


This township, which was re-organized in 1821, has suffered no 
dimunition of its terrritory since that period, nor has its area been 
increased. It occupies the southwestern corner of the county, and 
is bounded on the north by Chariton township, on the east by Rich- 
mond and Franklin townships, on the south by Cooper county and the 
Missouri river, and on the west by Saline county and the Missouri 


The township was originally heavily timbered and a great abun- 
dance of the best of timber is now standing, but much of it has been 
cleared off preparatory to the opening of the farms, which are now 
located on almost every quarter section of the township. The sur- 
face of the township is undulating and in many places hills and ridges 
abound. Limestone is found in different portions of the township. 
It is well watered by Salt, Bowen's Simpson's, Brown's and Clark's 
branches, and by Sulphur and Bartlett's creeks, all of which flow into 
the Missouri river, which forms the southern and western border of the 
township. Besides these streams of water the township, many years 
ago, was noted for its lakes, known as Cooper's and Nash's lakes. 
The latter was quite an extensive body of water, and at one time 
covered portions of sections 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34. It has 


been ditched and drained, and its entire area is now under fence 
and paying a rich tribute to the farmer. Cooper's lakes were 
located on sections 2 and 11, but, like the one mentioned, they 
have been drained and are now properly classed among the tillable 
lands of the township. 

In this township there are a number of salt springs, the most 
celebrated of these being Boone's Lick. From the date of their orig- 
inal discovery, a great quantity of salt has been manufactured from 
the brine and shipped to St. Louis and elsewhere throughout the 
country. A few years since a well was bored to the depth of 
1,001 feet at this "lick" from which flowed a stream of brine 
sufficiently strong and rapid to produce one hundred barrels of 
superior salt in twenty-four hours. 

A number of Indian mounds are found in the township. 

The soil is generally fair on the highlands and exceedingly fertile 
in the river bottom. The bulk of the tobacco raised in the county 
is produced in this township. 


There is probably more historical interest connected with the early 
history of Boone's Lick township than with any other municipal division 
of the county. The great dramatist intimates there is nothing in a 
name. A name, however, sometimes means a great deal, as it does in 
this instance. Had the township received its name by accident, or had 
it been given as the mere result of some man's capricious or idle whim, 
then it could have had no significance. But when we know that it 
was bestowed upon the township after mature deliberation, then it is 
that we begin to realize something of its import, and naturally ask 
ourselves the question, " Why the name of Boone's Lick? " 

Would that we knew more of the brave hunter whose daring ex- 
ploits illumine the pages of the pioneer history of two States ! Espe- 
cially of his connection with Boone's Lick township, and the Boone's 
Lick country, in honor of whom the entire region took its name. 
Without stopping to discuss the seemingly apparent conflict between 
tradition and the meagre historical facts relating to the probability of 
his once residing within the present limits of Howard county, we shall 
simply state, as we did in a preceding chapter of this book, that Daniel 
Boone erected a cabin and camped one winter in the immediate vicin ity 
of Boone's Lick. The date of his doing this is not known. He had 
doubtless visited the "licks " quite often in search of game before 
he had concluded to camp there. We are, however, confident, from the 


most authentic records we have examined, that the date of his coming 
to Boone's Lick township was not far from the beginning of the 
present century. That Daniel Boone ever ir. ade salt here or elsewhere 
we are disposed to doubt. He was a hunter, both by habit and inclina- 
tion, and followed exclusively the life of a hunter as a livelihood, and 
it is very improbable that he would turn aside from his legitimate 
avocation, and one that he esteemed above all others, to pursue, even 
for a short season, any other employment, which at that early day, 
promised no such remuneration as inured to the benefit of the active 
and vigilant hunter and skilful trapper. His sons Nathan and Daniel, 
however, manufactured salt in the township some years later — in 
1807 — and conveyed the same to the river in hollow logs,- so imper- 
fect were the facilities then for transportation. 

Every acre of Boone's Lick township is historic ground, hallowed 
to the memory of the most distinguished pioneer that ever pitched his 
tents in the forests of the great west. Its hills and its valleys first 
echoed and re-echoed to the crack of his unerring rifle. And it may 
be that its soil had never been touched by the feet of the white man 
until pressed by his. As Daniel Boone was bold in adventure and 
fearless in his character, and possessed many of the sterling character- 
istics of a noble manhood, so were the early settlers of this township, 
fearless in their attempts to conquer the wilderness, and so did they 
possess in a large measure, the distinguishing traits of a superior 
manhood. As heretofore stated (and the fact is obtained from the 
first recorded deed in the county), Joseph Marie, a Frenchman, had 
made a settlement and improvements in Boone's Lick township in 
1800, in the neighborhood of Eagle's Nest, and about one mile south- 
west of Fort Kincaid. Col. Benjamin Cooper came in 1808, and 
located at Boone's Lick, but his settlement there being regarded as an 
infringement upon the Indian lands, he was ordered by the govern- 
ment to return to a point below the mouth of the Gasconade, and in 
doing so he established himself on Loutre island. After remaining 
on the island for two years, and being joined there by about twenty- 
five families, he returned with a large portion of these in the spring of 
1810, to Boone's Lick, where they erected cabins and put in crops in 
the succeeding fall. This was the first permanent settlement of the 
township, and the embryotic settlement of Howard county, which has 
widened and widened, until like the waves of the sea, it has long since 
reached the remotest limits of the county, having increased more thiin 
a thousandfold. 

Among the names of the early settlers we find the following: 


Col. Benjamin Cooper, and sons, Frank, Benjamin, David, and Sar- 
shall ; Sarshall Cooper and sons, Joseph and Braxton ; Braxton 
Cooper and his son Bobert ; John and Abbott Hancock, John and 
William Berry, John and Henry Ferrill, Peter Popineau, William 
Wolfskill and sons, Joseph and William ; James Anderson and sons, 
Middleton and William ; John O'Bannon, Stephen Jackson, Josiah 
Thorp and sons, William and John ; Grey Bynum, Bobert 
Brown, Eobert Irwin, James Coil, James Jones, Adam Woods, 
Gilead Rupe, Amos Ashcraft and sons, Otho, Jesse, James and 

The settlers had to contend with many difficulties, even before 
the war of 1812, chief among which was the opposition of congress 
to tbeir occupying lands within the limits set apart as belonging to 
the aborigines, who, however, acquiesced in their remaining. The 
settlers determined they would not surrender their claims, if they 
could help it, and continued to occupy the lands they had purchased, 
derived from a Spanish grant, which had been obtained by Ira P. 
Nash in the year 1800. They manufactured their own powder and 
salt, and supplied themselves with a fabric, which was made from 
wild nettles, and which served to them the purposes of cotton goods. 
They obtained their meats from the woods and the streams, the former 
abounding in choicest game, and the latter swarming with varied tribes 
of multitudinous fishes. 

By chase our longrlived fathers earned their food ; 
Toil strung the nerves, and purified the blood ; 
But we, their sons, a pampered race of men, 
Are dwindled down to three-score years and ten. 

They not only had to contend with the hardships and privations 
which fall to the lot of the pioneer in their heroic struggles to dissipate 
the gloom of the forest; but scarcely had they completed their cabins, 
beneath whose humble roofs they were about to enjoy the first fruits 
of their labors, when a more terrible ordeal, through which they were 
destined to pass, suddenly confronted them. War had been declared 
against Great Britain, and that nation had incited the Indians upon 
our frontiers to deeds of violence. It was so here, and to protect 
themselves against these savages they were compelled, single-handed 
and unaided, to build a fort (Fort Cooper), where they remained the 
greater part of three years. [For further history in reference to 
Fort Cooper see preceding chapters. J 

When peace was concluded (1815), the settlers commenced the 


work of improvement in earnest. They were principally from Ken- 
tucky, and were noted for their liberality and kindness, and for the 
high standard of morality which they brought with them, and which 
they maintained even when they were no longer a law unto them- 
selves, and after they had become snbject to the jurisdiction of terri- 
torial laws. John and Henry Ferrill and Robert Hancock were from 
Tennessee ; James Kyle from Virginia ; Grey Bynum from South Car- 
olina ; Stephen Jackson from Georgia. 


Maj. Stephen Cooper, who now resides in Colusa, California, was 
one of the pioneers of Boone's Lick township, and being one of the 
very few men living who shared with the early settlers the clangers 
and difficulties of that eventful period (the first settlement of Howard 
county), we publish in this connection a sketch of his life, feeling con- 
fident that it will be perused with great interest : — 

My parents emigrated from Virginia to Kentucky at a very early 
day. My father's name was Sarshall Cooper. My mother was in the 
fort at Boonsboro at the time it was besieged by the Indians. My 
father was at some other station, the name of which I do not now re- 
member. I was born in Madison county, Kentucky, March 10, 1797. 
In 1810 my father emigrated to Missouri and settled at Cooper's fort 
in Howard county. St. Louis was then but a small French village, 
with a few miserable houses, mostly thatched with straw. At that 
time, and for several years afterwards, the settlers generally lived in 
fortified houses, or forts, as they were called, on account of the In- 
dians. My father had command of three forts, viz : Cooper's fort, 
Hempstead and Kincuid. The two latter were ten miles from the 
former. For several years we had no organized government ; each 
did what he thought right in his own eyes, and we had very little 
trouble in our own fort — in fact we never had any. Sometimes my 
father and uncle would be sent for to go to the other forts to settle 
some slight difficulty, but never anything serious occurred. On one 
occasion a Frenchman had stolen twenty dollars — a large amount at 
that time. He was ordered to leave the settlement. He begged hard 
to be permitted to come back at the end of a year, and he promised 
so faithfully to behave himself well, if he were allowed to, that the 
desired permission was given, and after serving out his term of ban- 
ishment he returned, and was ever after a good citizen. 


We lived very simply in those days. Coffee was worth 50 cents 
per pound in St. Louis, and it was seldom we saw either tea or coffee. 
We had no markets for our produce, so we merely raised enough tor 
our own consumption, our principal products being corn, hogs, cattle, 


and some little wheat, the old-fashioned ox-mills (so-called), being 
about the only mills in the country. We raised cotton enough for our 
own use, and with that and the wool which came from our sheep, our 
women folks made nearly all the clothing worn by either men or women. 

THE WAR OF 1812 

I served as a volunteer in my father's company, who was under the 
command of Gen. Henry Dodge, a great Indian fighter and afterwards 
United States Senator from Wisconsin. I was detailed as a spy, and 
was often sent out to look for Indian trails, camps, or fortifications. 
On one occasion, accompanied by Joseph Stills (whose two brothers 
and son-in-law are now residing near Stockton, in this State), we 
were surrounded by about three hundred Indians. In attempting to 
charge through them, Stills was shot from his horse and instantly killed. 
Myself and horse escaped unhurt. At that time I killed the principal 
" brave " of the Sac nation. It has always been my motto never to 
run with a loaded gun in my hand. 

My father was shot and instantly killed, sitting by his own fire- 
side, by an Indian, who picked a hole in the wall one dark, stormy 
night. This was after we had heard that peace had been declared 
in 1815. 

Many incidents occurred in my younger days which it would take 
a volume to relate. Once, while attending school, an alarm of 
"Indians!" was given. I threw my book across the room, never 
stopping to see where it fell, and seized my gun. This was about the 
close of the war, and the alarm proceeded from a large party of 
Indians who were on their way to St. Louis to make a treaty with the 
United States government. 


continued to commit depredations occasionally, even after peace 
had been made. On one occasion they took two negroes who were 
chopping wood and carried them off. The alarm was given and 
seventy or eighty men collected together and pursued them. About 
dark we struck the trail. We were all mounted, and my brother and 
myself put our horses on a lope. Directly my horse jumped over an 
Indian fire, from which they had just fled, leaving their meat still 
roasting over the coals. We heard one of the negroes cry out, but it 
was so dark we were unable to find him or his captors. A few days 
after we found his body. The other negro was never heard of. 


1 was one of a party of fifteen who first opened the Santa Fe 
trade in 1822. In 1823 I went on a second trip to Santa Fe as leader 
or captain of thirty men. Our stock in trade was principally dry 
goods, for which we expected to get money in return. All went 


prosperously with us till daybreak on the morning of the first of 
June, when a party of Indians fired on us, stampeded our horses, and 
ran off every head, except six, which we saved. Fortunately none of 
us were killed or wounded, although I managed to kill one Indian. 
This occurred on the banks of the Little Arkansas. In company with 
five others I went back to Missouri, bought horses and returned to 
our company. When we got in sight of the camp, we saw fully fifteen 
hundred Indians in and around the same. This looked rather squally, 
and some proposed to back out ; I told them they could do as they 
pleased, but I should go on to our comrades, if no other man went 
with me. Finally we all went up, and found it to be a party of 
friendly Kaw Indians on a buffalo hunt — a different tribe from those 
who had stampeded our horses. 

We pursued our journey without any further molestation from 
Indians, but sometimes suffered severely from want of water. On 
one occasion eight of our men gave out entirely on that account, and 
were unable to travel. The rest of the company, with the exception of 
myself, cut the lash ropes from their packs, scattered the goods upon 
the ground, took the best horses and scattered off like crazy men for 
water, leaving me and the eight men behind. Some of those who 
were leaving us fell on their knees and plead with me to go with them 
and save my own life ; urging as a reason that the men were bound 
to die, and that I could do them no good by staying. I said I would 
not leave them as long as a breath of life was left in one of them ; 
that if they found water they should return to us. This was one or 
two o'clock in the afternoon. When it became dark I built a fire of 
buffalo chips, and fired guns in the air as a signal to guide them to us. 
About midnight four of the men returned with water and we were all 
saved. The others had drank so much water that they were unable 
to return, and remained by the water hole. We were lost in attempt- 
ing to reach them, and it was four days before we found them. 
From this time on to the end of our journey we had no further 

In 1825 the United States government laid out a road from the 
borders of Missouri to Santa Fe. I was appointed pilot and captain 
by the company. 

In the Blackhawk war in 1833, I volunteered and acted as a spy 
and guide under Captain Matsen. After he was called in, I joined the 
company of Captain Hickman of Boone county, Missouri, in the same 
capacity, and served till the close of the war. 

In 1837 Governor Boggs, of Missouri, appointed Col. Boone, 
Major Berrecroft and myself commissioners to locate and mark out 
the northern boundary of Missouri, which we did. President Van 
Buren appointed me Indian agent for the Pottawatomie, Ottawa and 
Chippewa tribes of Indians — headquarters Council Bluffs. The ap- 
pointment was unasked for, and I retained it until removed by Presi- 
dent Tyler for political reasons. In 1844 I was elected to the 
legislature of Missouri from Holt county. I remember at one time 


during the session making the remark that I expected to live to see 
the Mississippi river and the Pacific ocean connected by a railroad, 
which caused a great deal of laughter. 


Iii the summer of 1845, I was induced by several letters received 
from Colonel Benton, stating that my services would be needed, to 
accompany Colonel Fremont on his expedition to California. I went 
with him as far as Bent's fort, on the Arkansas, where I informed him 
I could go no further with him. There the company divided, Colonel 
Fremont with his party pursuing his original plan, whilst I went 
south through a part of Texas, returning home that winter. I have 
omitted to mention that I was married in 1824. We have had six 
children — four daughters and two sons — all of whom, with their 
mother, are still living. I have also sixteen grandchildren. 

In the spring of 1846, 1 set out with my entire family for Califor- 
nia, and was captain of the train, composed of several families, and 
numbering twenty-eight wagons. Nothing unusual occurred to us till 
we struck the Humboldt. One day after we reached the river I was 
riding ahead of the train, when I met a man who halloed "Hurrah 
for California ! " He was so excited that it was with difficulty I could 
stop him. At last I succeeded and asked him what the news was. He 
said the American fkg was flying over California. This was the first 
we knew of the Mexican war. When we reached the train one wild 
hurrah was heard from one end to the other, in which men, women 
and children all joined. 

We struck the Sacramento valley on the 5th of October, 1846. 
That winter I stopped at Yount's ranche in Napa valley — a man 
who, in my opinion, did more for the early emigrants of California 
than all the Sutters ever did. 

On the night of the 22d of February, 1847, I presided over the 
first political meeting ever held by Americans in California, in a little 
village then called Yerba Buena, now known as San Francisco. The 
object was to co-operate with Fremont in forming a council to frame 
laws for our future government. He selected seven men — two Eng- 
lishmen, two Mexicans, or Californians, and three Americans — old 
residents of the country ; but General Kearney superseding Fremont 
about this time, the council soon ceased to exist. 

On the 4th of July, 1847, George Yount and myself gave the 
first public 4th of July dinner ever given in California. We had 
:i large turn out, and everything passed off pleasantly ; I still have 
the flag improvised for the occasion. It has the stripes of our na- 
tional flag, with a lone star, and the inscription, " California is ours 
as long as the stars remain. " 

In the fall of 1847 1 removed to Benicia, where I was appointed 
alcalde by Governor Mason, and was afterwards elected alcalde and 
judge of the first instance, for the country north of the bay of San 
Francisco and west of the Sacramento river. In the fall of 1854 I 


removed to Colusa, where I have since resided. I was soon afterward 
elected justice of the peace, and re-elected several terms, holding that 
office for twelve successive years. 

I voted three times for Jackson, and also cast my vote for Van 
Buren, Polk, Pierce, Breckinridge, McClellan, Seymour, Tilden and 




Boundary — Physical Features — Early Settlers — Mary Jones' Recollection of Early 
Days — Kit Carson — Hardeman's Garden — Franklin — Its early History and Business 
Men — Its Talented and Distinguished Citizens — Santa Fe Trade — Lawyers, News- 
papers and Churches — Travel — County Seat changed to Fayette — A Letter — Post- 
masters of Old Franklin — New Franklin — Early Business Men — Lottery — Town 
' Incorporated — Population and Present Business — Secret Orders — Estill — Incidents 
of the Highwater of 1844. 


Franklin township stands as it did when erected by the county 
court, in 1821. In area, it is about 50 miles square. It is bounded 
on the north by Richmond and Boone's Lick townships ; on the east 
by Moniteau township ; on the south by Cooper county, from which 
it is separated by the Missouri river ; and on the west by Boone's Lick 


Portions of this township are quite hilly: much of the high land, 
however, is undulating. The soil is generally good, and is highly 
productive. The bottom land on the Missouri river, is of a superior 
quality and produces bountiful crops, especially of corn. The hill- 
lands grow excellent wheat, which is quite extensively raised in the 
township. This township is fairly drained, the chief water courses 
being Bonne Femme and Sulphur creeks. The Bonne Femme and its 
affluents flow nearly south through the township and empty into the 
Missouri river. Sulphur Creek passes also south, a little west of the 
centre of the township, thence east through sections 32, 33, and 
unites with the Bonne Femme. 


We have already (elsewhere in this book), given the name of one 

of the earliest settlers in Franklin township. This was an Indian 

trader, by the name of Prewitt, who was here prior to 1804. The 

next pioneers, who were possibly the first permanent settlers, of 

12 (157) 


whom we have any knowledge, who came to the township, were 
Wm. Monroe and wife, who settled in the township in the spring 
or summer of 1808 ; it is, however, not known precisely, where 
he first pitched his tent. They went to Kentucky the same year 
in company with others, and returned and settled in the same 
township in 1811. Andrew Smith and Amos Barnes were early set- 
tlers, coming in 1809, the former arriving on the 3d of July. James 
Alcorn, Price and John Arnold, Joseph and David Boggs, Kobert and 
William Samuel, Townsend Brown, Christopher and Nicholas T. 
Burckhartt, Lindsay Carson and sons, "Kit," Andrew and Moses ; 
Charles and William Canole, Isaac Clark, Joseph, James and Perrin 
Cooley, James Cockrell, James, John, Peter and William Gleasou, 
James Douglas, Daniel Durben, John Elliott, father of Col. N. G. 
Elliott ; Hiram, Eeuben, Sarshall and Simeon Fugate, Reuben Gentry, 
Abner, John and Wm. Grooms, Alfred and Moses Head, Robert 
Hinkson, who moved to Boone county, Noah Katon, Joseph, William 
and Ewing McLain, Joseph Moody, Mrs. Susan Mullins, Thompson 
Mullins, Wm. Pipes, "Christopher, James, Jesse and Silas Richardson, 
John Rupe, Thomas Smith, John and James Sneathan, Joseph Still, 
John Stinson, Solomon, David and John Tetlers, Isaac and John 
Thornton, Jonathan Davis, Elisha and Levi Todd, James Phillips, 
Jesse Turner, Thomas Vaughan, Robert Wilds, Wm. Watkins, James 
Whitley. Rev. David, Joseph, William and Ewing McLain were also 
some of the first settlers in the township, and were connected with 
Fort Kiucaid during the war of 1812. 

Connected with Fort Hempstead, which was also located in 
Franklin township, were Amos, Jesse and Otto Allbright, Aquilla, 
Abraham, James, John and Shadrach Barnes, Robert Barclay, Camp- 
bell and Delaney Bolan, David and Henry Burris, Prior Duncan, 
Stephen and John Field, John Hines, Usebines Hubbard, Asaph and 
Daniel Hubbard, Joseph Jolly, since of Jolly's bottom, Cooper 
county; John, David and Matthew Kincaid, Adam McCord, Daniel 
and John Monroe, John Mathews, Wm. Nash, Gilead Rupe, Enoch', 
Isaac and Wm. Taylor, Enoch Turner, Giles and Britton Williams, 
Frank Wood, and Henry Weeden. The above settlers all came prior 
to 1812. 


The only pei-son now living in Franklin Township, who was old 
enough while living in Fort Hempstead to take cognizance of what 
was then passing, is Mary Jones, or, as she is familiarly called, "Aunt 


Polly Jones," formerly "Polly Snoddy." She is the daughter of 
Andrew Smith and Sarnh Scribner, and was born in Pulaski county, 
Kentucky, in 1801. Her father emigrated to Missouri, St. Charles 
county, in 1807, and stopped for several weeks with his family at the 
hospitable cabin of Daniel Boone, the distinguished hunter and pio- 
neer, who had come from Kentucky to St. Charles county, in 1795. 
After remaining in that county until 1809, Smith came up the Missouri 
river, accompanied by his family and bringing all his worldly goods. 
These he transported on one of Daniel Boone's boats — a kind of keel 
boat which had been used by the latter when sending salt, peltries, 
etc., to St. Louis. The propelling power of this water-craft consisted 
of a very simple piece of machiner}', to-wit : — a long pole, made gen- 
erally of some light wood, with an iron hook fixed in one end of it. 
One end of the pole was thrust down into the water, until it rested on 
the ground, and the other was adjusted to the arm. Against this the 
party or parties in the boat would push — walking the entire length of 
the boat and then repeat. 

The family reached Howard county, Franklin township, on the 
morning of July 3d, 1809, and landed near a cabin which had been 
erected by Amos Barnes. After their arrival and settlement, they 
found that they were truly in a wild country, and that their neighbors 
were very few. Among these Mrs. Jones remembers John Berry, 
David McLain, and William Brown. 

The family built a cabin and cleared a piece of ground, where they 
raised three small crops. In February, 1813, they went into Fort 
Hempstead, rather than return to St. Charles county, or Loutre 
island. The Indian war had commenced the spring before, and all 
the settlers were compelled to enter one of the forts, or seek another 
location, which would be out of danger. Sixteen persons left the fort 
for St. Charles county, but Andrew Smith determined to remain, and 
was made first corporal in Captain Sarshall Cooper's company. The 
two first settlers killed by the Indians (Todd and Smith), were kins- 
men of Mrs. Jones, the former a cousin and the latter her uncle. 

One among the first rumors of Indian outrages that occurred, Mrs. 
Jones says, happened in Cooper county (then a part of Howard). A 
pioneer by the name of Wm. Kamsey, after having erected a cabin, had 
occasion to leave home, going only two or three miles, leaving his wife 
and three children. While he was gone, a few of the Miami Indians 
went to the cabin where they found Mrs. Ramsey in bed, sick. Hav- 
ing had the erysipelas in her head, her hair was cut short like a man's, 
and the Indians, believing her to be a man, killed her in bed. After- 


wards, discovering that she was a woman (hearing her children cry- 
ing and calling her mother), they took her body and roasted it on a 
fire which they made near the cabin, and burned her children after 
killing them with theirtomahawks. Among the early preachers in the 
fort, was Wm. Thorp, who was a Baptist. She spoke of another 
Baptist minister, Elder David McLain, who was the first man to pro- 
claim the "Gospel of Peace" to the settlers of the Boone's Lick 

Dr. James M. Peck, in his memoirs, speaks of Elder David McLain 
as follows : — 

The only one that remains to be noticed is Elder David McLain. 
He was the first Baptist minister that came from Central Kentucky to 
the Boone's Lick country with the first colony in 1810. Early in 
March, 1813, he started on horseback to Kentucky in company with a 
man named Young. They travelled without molestation till they 
reached Hill's ferry, on the Kaskaskia river, the old trace from St. 
Louis to Vincennes, via Carlyle, the seat of justice of Clinton county, 
Illinois. Three families that resided here, being alarmed by Indian 
signs, had left the ferry for one of the settlements in St. Clair county. 
The ferry-boat being fastened to the west bank, the two travellers crossed 
with their horses, and had not proceeded more than half a mile before 
they were fired on by Indians. Mr. Young was shot, and fell from 
his horse. Mr. McLain's horse was shot through the body, and fell, 
but the rider extricated himself, threw his saddle-bags into the bush, 
and ran for his life, with several Indians in chase. Soon after, all the 
Indians fell back but one stout, athletic fellow, that seemed deter- 
mined not to lose his prey. Elder McLain was encumbered with a 
thick overcoat, with wrappers on his legs, and boots and spurs on his 
feet. The Indian fired and missed him, which gave him the chance 
to throw off his overcoat, in hopes the prize would attract the atten- 
tion of his pursuer. The other Indians having fallen back, Mr. 
McLain made signs of surrender as this one approached him, having 
loaded his gun. In this way he deceived his foe till he got within a 
few feet, when he assumed an attitude of defiance, watched his mo- 
tions, and, at the instant he fired, dodged the ball, and then, with all 
the energy he could command, ran for his life. The contest con- 
tinued more than one hour, during which his foe fired at him seven 
times. In one instance, as he threw his breast forward, unfortunately, 
he threw his elbow back and received the ball in his arm. During the 
chase he contrived to throw off his boots and spurs. They had run 
three or four miles in the timber bottom down the rivei% and at a 
bend came near the bank. Elder McLain found himself nearly ex- 
hausted, and it seemed to him his last chance of escape was to swim 
the river. He plunged in, making the utmost effort of his remaining 
strength, and yet he had to keep an eye constantly fixed on his wily foe, 
who had loaded his gun for the eighth time, and from the bank brought 


it to a poise, and fired a second time after McLain dove in deep water. 
By swimming diagonally down the stream he had gained on his pur- 
suer, who, with the savage yell peculiar on such occasions, gave up 
the chase and returned to his band. Doubtless his report to the 
braves was that he had followed a "Great Medicine," who was so 
charmed that his musket balls could not hurt him. 

On reaching the shore, Mr. McLain was so exhausted that it was 
with the utmost difficulty he could crawl up the bank, for he was in a 
profuse perspiration when he plunged into the cold water. He was 
wet, chilled through, badly wounded, and could not stand until he 
had rolled himself on the ground, and rubbed his limbs to bring the 
blood into circulation. It was thirty-five miles to the JBadgley settle- 
ment, where Elder Daniel Badgley and several Baptist families lived, 
which Mr. McLain, after incredible effort and suffering, reached the 
next morning. There, with his wounded arm and a burning fever, 
he lay several weeks, till some of his friends came from the Boone's 
Lick settlements and took him to his family. A party of volunteers 
went over the Kaskaskia river, buried Mr. Young, found McLain's 
saddle-bags, with the contents safe, but saw no Indians. 

Mrs. Jones says, while in the fort, if any man went to sleep on 
his watch, while acting as sentinel, the penalty imposed for his contre- 
temps, was the grinding of as many pecks of corn with a hand-mill, as 
there were widows in the fort (Hempstead). There were seven 
widows in the fort and each became the recipient of a peck of meal, 
whenever the sentinel slept on duty. James Barnes taught school in 
Fort Kincaid. Among the first blacksmiths in and out of the forts, 
were Wm. Canole, Charles Canole and a man named Whitley. 

The first school teacher outside of the forts, in the township, was 
Grey Bynum, who was also the first circuit court clerk. Mr. Bynum 
was a South Carolinian by birth, and came to Howard county among 
the first emigrants. His school was taught in a cabin which stood 
near the present Hickman grave yard, and about one mile south of 
the present residence of Christopher Burckhartt. 


As the building in which this original school of the country was 
taught would be regarded in this day and age as something of an 
architectural wonder, we will describe it : — 

It was erected by the people of the neighborhood ; was built of 
round logs, the space between them chinked and then daubed with 
mud. About five feet from the west wall, on the inside, and about 
five feet high, another log was placed, running clear across the build- 
ing. Puncheons were fixed on this log and in the west wall on which 


the chimney was built. Fuel could then be used of any length not 
greater than the width of the building, and when it was burned 
through in the middle, the ends were crowded together ; in this man- 
ner was avoided the necessity of so much wood chopping. There 
was no danger of burning the floor, as it was made of dirt. The 
seats were made of stools or benches, constructed by splitting a log, 
and hewing off the splinters from the flat side and then putting four 
pegs into it from the round side, for legs. The door was made of 
clapboards ; no windows. Wooden pins were driven into a log run- 
ning lengthwise, upon which was laid a board, and this constituted 
the writing desk. 

Although not a professional teacher, Mr. Bynum esteemed it a — 

Delightful task, to rear the tender thought, 
To teach the young idea how to shoot,- 

and achieved for himself such a reputation in the community that his 
patrons said — 

He was a scholar, and a ripe and good one. 

Attending this pioneer school, were the children of the neighbor- 
hood, within a radius of five miles. Among these, was Mrs. Jones, 
Matthew Kincaid, Dorcas Kincaid, the Alcorn children, the Hubbards 
and others. Mrs. Jones has in her possession two of the school books 
that she then studied. These are very old and faded in appearance. 
They are "Kentucky Preceptor" and "Lessons in Elocution," and 
were published about the year 1800. The date of publication of each 
was torn out, but we ascertained about the time they were issued by 
reading some of their contents, treating of events which took place 
about the period mentioned. These books, were purchased by Daniel 
Boone, in St. Louis, between 1810 and 1812, whither he had gone 
with a load of skins and furs. A few of the neighbors in Franklin 
township, from whom he purchased peltries, requested him to bring 
them some text-books, and these were two of the selections made by 

Judge Abiel Leonard, also taught a school soon after his arrival 
in 1819, in the same township, near Old Franklin. Being an obscure 
and humble pedagogue, he afterwards reached the most honorable 
and exalted judicial position in his adopted State, — being appointed 
judge of the Supreme court, — which position he filled with marked 
ability, until he was compelled to resign on account of ill health. 

The first marriage that occurred in Franklin township, and prob- 


ably the first in Howard county, was that of Eobert Cooper and 
Elizabeth Carson, in the spring of 1810. The ceremony took place 
at the residence (log cabin) of the bride's father, Lindsay Carson, 
who was the father of "Kit" Carson, the great scout. The invited 
guests were numerous, embracing the entire neighborhood. Mr. 
Carson sought to make the occasion one of business as well as 
pleasure, for after the marriage had been solemnized, the male por- 
tion of the guests, assisted him in raising a house, the groom being 
one of the most active workmen present'. 

Mrs. Jones says the first birth in the county (and in Franklin 
township, occurred in the family of Elder David McLain. 

The first persons to die from disease were Daniel Monroe's wife 
and infant child. 

Thomas Smith was the first shoemaker in all the Boone's Lick 
country, and his wife, Sarah, was an adept in the art of making moc- 
casins. Dr. Tighe was the pioneer physician of the township, and 
made his home for a short time at Andrew Smith's. 

While Mrs. Jones was stopping at the house of Daniel Boone, 
in St. Charles county, she saw the old hunter eating raw-meat 
quite often. He seemed to be especially fond of raw venison and 
preferred it to the most delicately cooked and highly seasoned viands. 
His early life was such — living almost constantly in the woods — 
that he was at times compelled to eat raw meat, and becoming 
habituated to the use of it, he' learned to like it. 

Mrs. Jones, is now in the eighty-second year of her age, and is 
in the enjoyment of good health and an excellent, vivid memory. 
She resides with her son, James Snoddy, who was a child by a former 
marriage. She is active and industrious, and voluntarily does her 
part of the household work — preferring a life of industry, even at 
her advanced age, to a life of indolence and ease. 

When asked whether she would like to live over again the years 

of her pioneer life, she answered with much earnestness: " If I 

knew where there was such a country as this was seventy years ago, 

I would go to it, as old as I am." We hope that the brittle thread 

of life may be lengthened out to this octogenarian many spans, and 

that byv and by it may be said of her : — 

Of no distemper, of no blast she died, 

But fell like autumn fruit that mellow'd long ; 

Even wondered at, because she dropt no sooner. 

Fate seemed to wind her up for four-score years ; 

Yet freshly ran she on ten winters more ; 

Till like a clock worn out with eating time, 

The wheels of weary life at last stood still. 


Matthew Mullins and sister, who now reside in Franklin 
township, were also in one of the forts (Hempstead), in 1815, but 
being small children, respectively two and four years of age, they 
now have no recollection of any of the early events that transpired 
during that memorable era in the history of the county. 

Mrs. Polly Jones, Matthew Mullins and sister are the only persons 
now living in Howard county, who lived in the forts. Ephraim 
McLain, of Saline county, and Samuel Cole and Thos. McMahan, and 
his brother Jackson, of Cooper county, also resided in the forts during 
the war of 1812, where they remained for several years. These are 
all the survivors of that early day that the author could hear of, now 
living in Howard and adjacent counties. There are doubtless a few 
others in California and elswhere throughout the country, but they 
are few in number, and are "Waiting by the river." 


Among the men who once lived in Franklin township, who 
afterwards achieved a notoriety in western annals, was the great 
scout, Kit Carson. He was born in Madison county, Kentucky, 
ou the 24th day of December, 1809, and his father, Lindsay 
Carson, emigrated to Howard county in 1810, bringing his family 
with him. After their arrival, they built a cabin and raised two 
small crops and then with other old settlers in that portion of the 
county, went into Fort Kincaid. After the war, his father appren- 
ticed him to David Workman, who then resided at Franklin, to learn 
the saddler's trade. He remained with Workman two years; his 
labors becoming irksome, he left, and in 1826, he joined a party 
destined for the Rocky mountains. Crossing the plains at that day 
was a dangerous undertaking. There were then no guides and charts, 
and nothing indicating springs and camp-grounds. These oases of 
the American Sahara, had not at that time been pressed by the feet 
of the white man. They had been trodden only by the buffalo, the 
wild horse and the savage Indian. The man, therefore, who crossed 
the plains to Santa Fe, was in every sense of the word, a hero. Kit 
went into Santa Fe, New Mexico, which country thereafter became 
the field of his remarkable and daring exploits. He remained in that 
country, until his death, which occurred in 1869. Quite a number of 
his relations now reside in Howard county. Among these, are Ham- 
ilton Carson, his brother, and George H., James T., Frank, George 
W., and Dudley Carson, his nephews. 

history or howard and cooper counties. 165 

hardeman's garden. 

In the history of Franklin township, we should not forget to 
mention " Hardeman's garden," which was located about five miles 
above Old Franklin, nearly opposite to the mouth of the La Mine 
creek. It was a vine-clad, rose-covered bower, the prototype of the 
renowned " Tulip grove" of that public benefactor, Henry Shaw, of 
St. Louis. The founder of this celebrated garden, Mr. John Harde- 
man, was of German extraction, a gentleman of fortune, and pos- 
sessed remarkably fine taste in horticulture. He was ambitious to ex- 
cel in this inviting field, and to gratify his inclinations, laid off ten 
acres in an exact square for a botanic garden, sparing neither expense 
nor labor in adorning it with fruits, flowers and shrubs, indigenous 
and exotic. Serpentine walks, paved with shells, conducted the ad- 
miring visitor through this charming court of Flora, where, amid 
zephyrs of the richest perfume, flowers of the most beautiful hue 
greeted the eye, and fruits of the most delicious flavor tempted the 
palate. It was a place — 

Where opening roses breathing sweets diffuse, 
And soft carnations shower their balmy dews ; 
Where lilies smile in virgin robes of white, 
The thin undress of superficial light ; 
And varied tulips show so dazzling gay, 
Blushing in bright diversities of day. 

This beautiful garden was finally engulfed in the Missouri river, 
the first encroachment of that treacherous stream occurring in 1826, 
when a large portion of it was swallowed up. Mr. Hardeman, how- 
ever, continued the cultivation of such portions of the garden as were 
left, until about the time of his death, which took place in 1829. A 
sweet honeysuckle still grows in the yard where Mary S. Hanna now 
lives, in Fayette, that was taken from the Hardeman garden in 1829. 
At the date mentioned, Mrs. Louise Boone, wife of Hampton L. Boone, 
and Miss Malinda Owen, daughter of General Ignatius P. Owen, of 
Fayette, made a visit to the garden and, when leaving, Mr. Harde- 
man gave them the honeysuckle, then a small vine. This is the only 
relic of that once far-famed and lovely garden that exists in this part 
of the country. 


This town (named after Benjamin Franklin, the philosopher), 
afterwards called "Old Franklin," in contradistinction to New Frank- 


lin, in the same township, was located on section 5, township 48, 
range 16, in 1816, on the river bank and opposite to Boonville, in 
Cooper county. It was selected in 1817 as the county seat of How- 
ard county, by Benjamin Estill, David Jones, David Kincaid, William 
Head and Stephen Cole, who were appointed commissioners for that 
purpose by the general assembly of Missouri. Hannah Cole's fort 
remained the county seat, however, until the second Monday in No- 
vember, 1817, when the circuit court met at Franklin the first time. 
(See Chapter III, this book.) The original town site occupied 100 
acres of land and was purchased for Howard county by the commis- 
sioners who selected the county seat from James H. Benson, William 
V. Rector, John W. Scudder, James C. Ludlow, and Joseph Wig- 
gins, for $200. About two years after the town was laid out, an ad- 
dition was added, called "East Franklin." The town contained a 
public square which embraces two acres of ground. The square was 
levelled and grounds put in order by Andrew Smith and James Snoddy . 
The streets were generally eighty-seven feet wide. The first house built 
in Franklin (upon the authority of Mrs. Mary Jones, of whom we 
have spoken in the preceding pages), was erected by Amos Barnes. 
It was constructed of rough logs and stood near the river bank. The 
land office was located there, soon after it was founded, and it being 
the most western settlement, of any importance, in the state, and the 
starting point for the Santa Fe country, it increased rapidly in popu- 
lation and influence. Some of the best blood of Kentucky, Virginia, 
Tennessee and other states, flowed in the veins of many of the citizens 
of Franklin. The town was noted for the intelligence, hospitality 
and enterprise of its people, a number of whom filled honorable po- 
sitions in the legislature, executive and judicial departments of the 
state, and not a few attained a national reputation as gallant soldiers 
and trusted statesmen. Among her illustrious citizens, whose names 
sparkle upon the historic page with a fadeless lustre, were: — Lil- 
burn W. Boggs, John Miller, Hamilton R. Gamble (each of whom 
were afterwards governor of the state), John F. Ryland, Abiel 
Leonard (afterwards judges of the supreme court of the state), 
General Robert P. Clark and Cyrus Edwards (the two latter distin- 
guished lawyers), Dr. H. Lane, Dr. J. H. Benson, Peter Ferguson, 
Dr. Charles Kavanaugh, Col. William Boone, Dr. J. J. Lowery, Grey 
Bynum, Dr. David Woods, Bennett Clark, General John B. Clark, Sr., 
S. C. McNees, John Ray, J. S. Finley, John Walker, Charles Woods, 
Thomas Hardeman, G. C. Sibley, John S. Brickey, Andrew S. Mc- 
Girk (afterwards judge), Price M. Prewitt, J. C. Ludlow, W. Moss, 


James Hickman, Judge David Todd, Stephen Donohoe, John Lamb, 
James D. Campbell, F. S. Grundy (nephew of Felix Grundy, of Ten- 
nessee), L. Switzler, H. V. Bingham (the great artist, whose accom- 
plished pencil has perpetuated many of the scenes and incidents re- 
sulting from the enforcement of Order No. 11), Alphonso Wet more 
(author of first Gazetteer of Missouri), Henry and Charles Carroll, 
Judge David Drake, Giles Samuel, Joshua and David Barton, J. B. 
Howard, William V. Rector, Natt Ford, James Callaway and Zacha- 
ria'h Benson. Although this list does not include the names of all 
who are entitled, to a niche in the temple of fame, yet these are suffi- 
ciently numerous and distinguished to challenge the admiration of the 
reader, and to light a glow of pride upon the cheek and in the eye of 
every Howard county man and woman, as they scan them over. 

We doubt whether any town containing no greater population 
than Franklin had, and reaching no greater age, can be found any- 
where in the United States, that can boast of so many eminent men. 
Its early achievements in commerce during the palmy days of the 
Santa Fe trade, were simply immense for that clay and time. The fol- 
lowing, copied from the Fayette Intelligencer of May 2, 1828, will give 
the reader some idea of the importance of this trade : — 

The town of Franklin, as also our own village, presents to the eye 
of the beholder, a busy, bustling and commercial scene, in buying, 
selling and packing goods, practising mules, etc., etc,, all preparatory 
to the starting of the great spring caravan to Santa Fe. A great number 
of our fellow citizens are getting ready to start, and will be off in the 
course of a week on a trading expedition. We have not the means 
of knowing how many persons will start in the first company, but 
think it probable the number will exceed 150, principally from this 
and the adjoining counties. They generally purchase their outfits from 
the merchants here at from 20 to 30 per cent advance on the Philadel- 
phia prices, and calculate to make from 40 to 100 per cent upon their 
purchases. They will generally return in the fall. We suppose the 
amount which will be taken from this part of the country this spring 
will not perhaps fall much short of $100,000 at the invoice prices. 

We wish them a safe and profitable trip, a speedy return to their 
families and homes in health, and they may long live to enjoy the 
profits of their long and fatiguing journey of nearly one thousand 
miles, through prairies inhabited only by savages and wild beasts. 

Among the pioneer merchants and business men of Franklin, 
were Hickman and Lamb from Kentucky. These gentlemen, owned 
and operated a large store, purchasing their goods (as the merchants of 
the town generally did) in Philadelphia. Claiborne F. Jackson, after- 


wards governor of the state, was a clerk in this store in 1826. Joseph 
Simpson was also a merchant; he was an Englishman, and came to 
Franklin about the year 1822 ; he died in Franklin in 1828. Smith 
& Knox were merchants ; Smith was receiver in the land office. 
Giles Samuels was a business man. Alexander McCausland was also 
a merchant. Blois, a Canadian Frenchman, was a merchant. Moss 
Prewitt was a hatter, and afterwards became a banker in Columbia. 
There were as many as four manufacturers of hats in 1826, in the town. 

Barnes was probably the first blacksmith in the place. 

Mordecai owned the first livery stable. Jas. R. Abernathy 
assisted him in attending to it. Dr. H. T. Glenn, who moved to Cal- 
ifornia and became the largest farmer in that state, married a daughter 
of Abernathy. 

Henry V. Bingham, father of George Bingham, the well known 
artist and portrait painter, kept a hotel; so did Mrs. Peebles. The 
town had two or three grist mills from 1820 to 1828. John Harde- 
man operated a grist mill with carding machine attached. Shadrach 
Barnes ran a grist mill. The ferry was originally owned by Hannah 
Cole, who operated it as early as 1816 from the fort to Franklin. 
It was afterwards run by Rogers, of Boonville, Isaac Gearhardt and 

The bar of Franklin was ably represented in the persons of Judge 
George Tompkins, Charles French, Amos Reece (who afterwards 
resided in Plattsburg, Clinton county, Mo., and then moved to Leav- 
enworth, Kansas), F. S. Grundy, Andrew McGirk, John F. Rvland, 
Robert McGavick, Cyrus Edwards, and a number of others who were 
noted for their skill and ability as lawyers. (See chapter on bench 
and bar.) 

The Missouri Intelligencer, the first newspaper established west of 
St. Louis, was started here in 1819. (See Chap, entitled "The 

The Baptists organized a church in the town in 1819, the Method- 
ists one year later. No house of worship, however, was ever erected 
in the town by any denomination. The Old School Presbyterians 
organized a church in April, 1821. (See chapter on ecclesiastical his- 
tory. ) 

Travel between Franklin and St. Louis was done on horseback 
until 1820, when four-horse stages were put on the line. Soon after 
that, travel upon steamboats came gradually into use ; the fare being 
about the same by either mode — $10.50 for each passenger. 

Franklin continued to be the county seat of Howard county, until 


1823, when it (the county seat) was located at Fayette, the latter 
town, being about the geographical centre of the county, after Cooper 
and Boone counties had been taken from its territory. Many of the 
citizens of Franklin, including the attorneys, soon came to Fayette to 
live. The great majority, however, continued to stand by the for- 
tunes of the old town, where they remained until the spring of 1828, 
when they were compelled to abandon their homes, because of the 
sudden caving in of a large portion of the town site. It is estimated that 
Franklin, during her palmiest days — from 1823 to 1826 — contaiued 
between 1,500 and 1,700 people. In 1828, on account of the overflow 
and the washing away of the town site, Franklin was almost entirely 
abandoned, her citizens going elsewhere to live; a number of these 
founded the town of New Franklin, within two miles of Old Franklin 
and in the same township. 

A Masonic lodge was organized at Old Franklin, in 1820. It 
was afterwards moved to New Franklin, where it was reorganized in 
1852, and is now known as Howard Lodge No. 4. It was the fourth 
lodge of Freemasons, instituted in Missouri. Nothing now remains 
to mark the spot where once stood the proud, pretentious little city of 
Franklin, but a two-story brick,* now known as the "Franklin 
House," located immediately west of the depot. Two or three busi- 
ness houses, of modern architecture, occupy a portion of the old 
town-site — the extreme lower portion — but the town, itself, except- 
ing the house above mentioned, is a thing of the past. 


The following letter, written more than three-score years ago, by 
Mr. A. Fuller, who had been living in the Boone's Lick country about 
six mouths at the time he wrote, will be read, doubtless, with much 
interest by the citizens of the county to-day : 

Franklin, Mo., Dec, 1819. 

Dear Tom : — 

You need not scold ; I have had too much to do to write to you fel- 
lows that live in civilized society. Here I am, on the extreme frontier 
of the settlements of our country, but would not exchange places with 
you for all your boasted luxuries. I can, within a mile or so, kill 

* This was, at the time it was erected, the only brick building in the Boone's Lick 
country. It was built lor a school and was incorporated by the legislature in the 
winter of 1820, with Gen. Thos. A. Smith, Nathaniel Hutchinson, Jno. J. Lowery, 
George Tompkins, James C. Ludlow, Taylor Berry and Jonathan S. Findlay, as 
trustees. It is now the property of Broadus Smith, who operates it as a hotel. 


as many prairie chickens as I choose, and all other game of the 

The settlers of the country moved out of the forts last spring, and 
are about as happy a set as you can find on the earth to think that the 
Indians are to let them alone hereafter. I have become acquainted 
with most of the citizens of the town. The Hon. Judge Todd and 
fumilv arrived here last summer, one of the most agreeable men and 
families that I have ever met. He is too liberal and kiud for his own 
good ; also Dr. Hutchinson, Dr. Lowery, and General Smith. I do not 
think you can understand the nobleness of such minds, as it is only 
here in the extreme west, where all have been accustomed to facing 
dangers every day, that they can be appreciated. We have three , 
stores in this thriving place : an old gentleman, Mr. Gaw ; Stanley & 
Ludlow, and Sanganette & Bright, all doing a fair business. We had 
two arrivals of steamboats during the summer, one a government boat, 
Western Engineer, on an exploring expedition. In place of a 
bowsprit, she has carved a great serpent, and as the steam escapes out 
of its mouth, it runs out a long tongue, to the perfect horror of all 
Indians that see her. They say, "White man bad man, keep a great 
spirit chained and build fire under it to make it work a boat ! " The 
other was a boat loaded with government supplies, for the troops in 
the forts above here, also two hundred thousand dollars in specie. A 
large portion of her cargo was Monongahela whiskey. It looks like 
a dispensation of Providence that she should be sunk soon after 
leaving. The officers and visitors were desecrating the Sabbath day 
by card playing and drinking. She left here and ran up to the head 
of' the first island above when she struck a snag and sank immedi- 
ately, without the crew being able to save anything out of her. There 
she lies with all her silver and freight on her. There are in the neigh- 
borhood several forts, that were used by the people during the Indian 
difficulties. Fort Hempstead, about three miles back from the river; 
Cooper's Fort, ten miles above here where were many of the hair- 
breadth escapes of the wild west. At one time, when it was besieged by 
a large body of Indians, and they needed to communicate with the fort 
here, not having any men to spare, a daughter* of Colonel Cooper vol- 
unteered to run the gauntlet, and mounting a fleet horse dashed through 
the Indians, reached the fort here, got the assistance needed, and was 
back in time to relieve her friends. Is there one of your city belles 
could do a similar feat? I guess not. I tell you, Tom, there is an 
independence and nobleness in the bearing of the young folks here, 
dressed in their home-made clothing, — the ease of gait and carriage, — 
that puts affectation and fine dresses in the shade. I am not carried 

* The Miss Cooper here spoken of, was the mother of the wife of the present Solon 
Shepherd, who resides near Fayette. This romantic and attractive little story was given 
much credence, even at that early day, among certain persons; the author heard of Miss 
Cooper's act of heroism soon after his arrival in Howard county, but after carefully inves- 
tigating the matter, he finds that the story had no foundation in fact, and exists in imagina- 
tion onty as a beautiful fiction. 


away entirely by the nobleness of the wild frontier people, but there is 
a frank generosity with them that you in the east know nothing of, there- 
fore you cannot appreciate it. There is also a fort across the river from 
here called Cole's fort, that had its share of trouble ; also one above the 
La Mine river. One of the men, Mr. McMahan, from there, was coming 
down to Cole's fort on business ; when about two miles above here he 
was fired upon and killed by the Indians. One of the young Coles 
and one of the Roups were cutting a bee-tree in the woods near the 
path, and it is thought the Indians were crawling on them, when Mr. 
McMahan, passing, was fired on and killed. The men, Cole and 
Roup, hurried back to their fort for aid, and went to see what mischief 
the red-skins had been doing. Mr. McMahan was shot through the 
body. He ran his horse toward the river for about a quarter of a 
mile when he fell dead. The Indians, it is thought, saw the two men 
running for the fort and thought it safest to leave, which they did 
without followingthe flying men. I believe I could have set till this 
time, hearing of the hair-breadth escapes of the earl}' settlers. They 
have laid out a town opposite here on the river, called Boonville, which 
they expect to eclipse this place, but the traders think Franklin will 
eclipse any town out west. I think likely it will if the river will let 
it alone I went over the river last summer to attend the first sale of 
lots, intending to purchase some to build on, but they were run up to 
a fabulous price, away beyond my reach. There were some of the 
voters who appeared to be affected by patriotism acquired at the only 
(what was termed) tavern in the place, kept by a hard looking old 
fellow named Reames, who bowed politely to all who came in and asked 
for something to drink, and I was told the whiskey had actually not had 
time to cool before it was dealt out to customers, having been brought 
all the way from a Mr. Houxe's where is a horse mill and distillery; 
so the people of Boonville, cannot only have liquor, but can have their 
corn ground ready for sifting. The mill and distillery are about a 
mile from the town. Adieu. 


A statement showing the date of the establishment of the post-office 
at Old Franklin, together with the names of all the postmasters at the 
said office in the order of their appointment, and the date of aj>point- 
ment of each. 

Established April 20, 1821. 

April 20, 1821, Augustus Stores. 
October 20, 1823, Taylor Berry. 
December 13, 1824, Giles M. Samuel. 
August, 5, 1831, J. W. Redman. 
September 16, 1839, Wm. Harley. 
October 23, 1839, J. S. Lawson. 


May 18, 1841, Geo. Chapman. 
October 6, 1843, Isaac N. Bernard. 
January 9, 1845, C. W Bartholemew. 
July 24, 1846, J. G. McCauley. 
December 14, 1848, Win. Neilson. 
September 17, 1850, Robert Colman. 
May 17, 1855, J. W. Chilton. 
June 22, 1805, J. G. McCauley. 
October 5, 1865, Return L. Bradley. 
April 2, 1866, G. E. Turner. 
December 1, 1868, James W. Chilton. 
September 7, 1874, Chs. E. Rainey. 
May 22, 1877, James M. Settle. 
January 26, 1882, J. J. McCauley. 
April 26, 1882, J. H. Sturdevant. 


As already intimated, New Franklin owes its existence to the fall 
and final obliteration of Old Franklin, and was laid out in 1828, on 
he west half of section 28, township 49, range 16, which was then 
owned by James Alcorn. 

Many of the buildings of the old town were moved to the new. 
Among the earliest business men of that place, were James Alcorn, 
who built the first business house; Willis Roberson, the first black- 
smith ; M. Switzler, the first hotel-keeper. Among the early enter- 
prises, was a tanyard by Lewis Scott, a carding machine by Wm. 
Bowen and a rope factory by Bernard. The first and only lottery 
ever chartered by the state of Missouri, was started at this point, the 
purpose of which was to raise $15,000 in order to enable the town to 
build a railroad to the river. The charter was afterwards modified, 
so as to permit the construction of a plank road, and still later to 
embrace a macadamized public highway instead. This lottery fran- 
chise was finally disposed of by the town to a company in St. Louis, 
for five hundred dollars per year, and New Franklin has since em- 
ployed its receipts from this source, in completing a safe and enduring 
highway to the river. The town was incorporated February 7th, 
1833. The original trustees were: Abiel Leonard, David Workman, 
Nathaniel Hutchison, Joshua Hobbs, Alphonzo Wetmore, Lewis 
Switzler, and Lindsay P. Marshall. 

The population at present numbers about two hundred and fifty 


persons. The town contains one dry good store, two drug stores, one 
grocery, one harness shop, one mill, one blacksmith, one carpenter, one 
barber, three physicians, one hotel, two churches, one large, elegant 
brick school house, and three secret orders, the oldest of which is the 

A. O. U. W. 

New Franklin lodge No. 194, was organized July 17, 1880. The 
charter members were, George C. Edwards, Theo. H. Todd, A. S. 
Blankenbaker, Lemuel Frizell, Strother H. Todd, J. B. Ainsworth, 
Augustus Turner, E. T. Smith, W. T. Way land, G. S. Herndon, J. 
G. Whitton, Wm. M. Strongs, Joshua F. Crews, Levi Fuller, F. G. 
Canole, Y. Q. Bonham, James Randall, Wallace Estill, John M. 
Boggs, Jas. L. Gordon, Thomas J. Jordan, E. E. Dunaway, James 
D. Chorn and W. W. Smith. 

Present officers — G. S. Herndon, M. W. ; W. W. Gray, Fore- 
man; J. F. Crews, Overseer; E. E. Dunaway, Recorder; B. M. 
Chancellor, Receiver; Augustus Turner, Financier; J. J. Whitton, 
Guide ; S. H. Took, I. W. ; Wm. B. Webb, O. W. ; F. G. Canole, P. 
M. W. 


Organized May 6, 1852, with the following members, Adam 
Lowry, James M. Chora, S. T. Hamm, H. Kingsbury, C. E. Wil- 
coxon, J. D. Thompson, A. H. Lee, W. M. Biles. 

First officers — Adam Lowry, W. M. ; James M. Choru, S. W. ; 
S. T. Hamm, J. W. ; H. Kingsbury, Treasurer; C. E. Wilcoxon, 

Present officers— R. T. Kingsbury, W. M. ; W. E. McKinney, 
S. W. ; W. O. Cox, J. W. ; W. W. Smith, Treasurer; Geo. C. 
Edwards, Secretary ; number of members fifty-one. 

boone's lick lodge no. 57, I. O. O. F. 

was organized May 5th, 1852, with J. W. Chilton, N. G. Elliott, S. 
T. Hamm, E. H. Devins, and James S. White, as charter members. 
The names of the first officers and present officers failed^to reach 
the writer. 


is located on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroad, '"near the 
centre of the township, on the northeast of southwest quarter, section 


17, T. 48, R. 16, and was named in honor of Col. James R. Estill, a 
large landed proprietor and stock raiser, through whose land tbe rail- 
road passes. The town contains one store and blacksmith shop. 

The country surrounding Estill, is well improved, and is one of 
the most beautiful portions of Howard county. The farm houses are 
generally large and handsomely constructed; many of them being 
brick, and of modern style, while the yards and lawns in front of 
them are not only set in blue grass, but planted with shrubs, flowers, 
fruit and shade trees. 


The overflow of the Missouri river in 1844 is remembered by the 
old settler of to-day, as the highest water known within his recollec- 
tion. By actual measurement, the water was then six feet higher 
than it has been at any time since. The entire Missouri river bottom 
or low lands were submerged, many farms being covered to the depth 
of fifteen feet. The suffering among the people who occupied the 
overflowed districts was very great, many of them not only losing 
their houses, their stock and their crops, but losing their lives in their 
efforts to escape the mighty flood, which remained upon the land for 
nearly three weeks. 

A farmer who lived in the bottom, south of New Franklin about 
a mile, by the name of Lloyd, waited, during the rise, thinking every 
day the river would reach its highest point, and did not leave his 
cabin until he was compelled one morning to hastily make his exit 
through the roof. While getting out some of his household plunder, 
he spilt some corn meal on the roof of his cabin. The third day after 
leaving, Lloyd returned in his boat and found to his surprise that the 
roof of his cabin had been transformed into a menagerie of birds and 
animals. Among these was a cat, a dog, a coon, a fox, a rat, two 
chickens and a turkey. He observed that the meal was all gone, and 
was greatly surprised to find these animals living together in perfect 
harmony. A common misfortune had created among them a sym- 
pathetic feeling. The presence of the great flood had seemingly 
over-awed and overpowered their antagonistic natures, and like the 
"lion and the lamb" of prophetic history, they were dwelling 
together in peace. 

Another farmer, who resided in the bottom, lost a very valuable 
horse. The day he left his cabin this horse was driven with other 
horses and stock to the hills for safe keeping. Some days afterwards 



the horse was missing, and was not found until the waters had receded 
when he was discovered (at least such portions of him as were left), 
hanging by one of his hind feet in some grapevines fully fifteen feet 
above the ground, having on the same halter that he wore when he 



Boundary — Physical Features — Early Settlements — Churches — Richmond — Fay- 
ette — Its Early History — Business Men — Business — Incorporated — First and 
Present Officials — Banks and Bankers — Court House and Public Square — Facts 
and Incidents — Cholera in 1832 or 1833 — Cholera in 1849 — Cholera in 1855 and 
in 1873 — Meteoric Phenomenon — Secret Societies — Central and titoward Col- 
leges — Their History — Fire — Postmasters — Business Houses of Fayette — 
Public School. 


This is the central portion of the county, and contains seventy-two 
square miles. It remains as first formed in 1821, excepting sections 
19, 20, 21, which were attached to Burton township in 1880. It is 
bounded on the north by Prairie and Burton townships, on the east 
by Bonne Femme and Moniteau, on the south by Moniteau and 
Franklin, and on the west by Boone's Lick and Chariton townships. 


This township is admirably drained, the principal streams being 
Bonne Femme, Adam's fork, Leonard's branch, Salt cre^k, Doe 
creek and Dry creek. These are well distributed in the various 
sections of the township. The timber is in great abundance, and of 
an excellent quality — no prairie. The land is rolling and underlaid 
with a fine stratum of coal, and is well adapted to agricultural pur- 


The pioneer settler of Kichmond township seems to have been, 
from the most authentic sources, one Hiram Fugate, who was one of 
the original settlers of Franklin township — a private in Capt. Sar- 
shall Cooper's company and connected with Fort Kincaid, where he 
remained during the Indian hostilities of 1812. His cabin stood near 
the present site of Central college ; the northen part of Fayette was 
located on the south part of his land, and the southern part of the 
town on a portion of the claim owned by Hickerson Burnham, who 
«ettled in the township in 1819. 



George Craig and Colonel Philip Traraell established salt works 
near the present railroad depot near Fayette, in 1819, and conducted 
the business for several years. The next settler was the father of 
Colonel McKinney, of Texas fame, in the same year. In the spring of 
1819, John Jackson took a claim near McKinney, also James Eeed, 
William Harris, and Joseph Gill. In the spring of 1818, Henry 
Burnham opened a farm north of Fayette and was joined the same 
year -by James Howell, Thomas Low, Joseph Sears, Townsend Brown, 
Win. Reynolds, and Enoch Kemper. Mr. Kemper was county 
assessor a number of years ; he had a family of nine children and 
each alternate child was born blind. 

Thomas Collins and Robert Reynolds each made a settlement north 
of Fayette, in the spring of 1819. In 1820, Colonel Benj. Reeves, 
father-in-law of Judge Abiel Leonard, purchased the farm of Town- 
send Brown, and was a member of the first constitutional convention 
of the state ; he was afterwards elected lieutenant-governor, and 
was one of the commissioners appointed to view the first road to New 

Bennett Clark, father of General John B. Clark, Sr., who came 
in 1818, and located three miles east of Fayette, was one of the first state 
senators from Howard county, and was often in the legislature. 
The same year Andrew Fielding located one and a half miles east, and 
Wm. Snell, in 1819, about two miles northeast of Fayette. David 
Todd, of Cooper's fort, whose brother Jonathan was killed by the 
Indians, settled in the neighborhood of Bennett Clark in 1818. Gar- 
rison Patrick and Watt Ewing settled in the township in 1819. Joel 
Prewitt, the father of Robert Prewitt, settled here in 1821, three 
miles west of Fayette. Also Philip Turner, father-in-law of General 
John B. Clark, Sr. ; Alfred Basey, father-in-law of Judge George 
Miller, of Jefferson City, settled on the Turner farm in 1820, selling 
to Philip Turner in 1821 ; Wm. Hughes, one of the first tanners of 
the county, settled in the vicinity of Mbunt Moriah Baptist church, 
about 1820, and donated the land on which the church was erected, 
and was joined the same year by his brother Roland Hughes . In the 
neighborhood of Judge Ben. Tolson, there was also made a settle- 
ment very early; among these settlers were Amos Deatherage, 1817 ; 
John Tolson, the judge's father, 1819 ; Mathew Howard, 1819 : Pen- 
dleton Bridges, 1814, and about the same dates, John Cleeton, James 
Weathers, Andrew Evans, James Burge, General Ignatius P. Owens, 
Jonathan Bozarth, James Shephard, Enoch Fly, Neheriah Todd, 
Truman Nailor, Thomas Tolson, David R. Downing, George Staple- 


ton, Harrison Stapleton, Moses Hyatt, George Burris, Thomas 
Howard, Henry Saling, Richmond Gage, Hickman Buman, W. B. 
Hauna, Willis Grimes, Hugh Shields, James Masters, and Robert 


This was the name of an old business point which was situated 
south of the present town of Fayette, in what was known as, the 
Spanish needle district. The township took its name after it. It 
contained one small store of general merchandise and a blacksmith 
shop. It now lives only in the memory of the old settler. 


The county seat of Howard county, is located on parts of sections 
11 and 12, in township 50, range 16. It was named in honor of 
General Lafayette, whom all Americans loved because of his patriotic 
and distinguished services rendered their country, in the war of the 
revolution. In 1823, when the town was laid out, the news had 
just been received that Lafayette would soon visit the United States. 
This visit, however, did not take place until the- following year, 1824. 
His landing at New York, and reception by the people, who had gath- 
ered upon the wharfs by the tens of thousands, is most beautifully 
and graphically described by that matchless orator and statesman, S. 
S. Prentiss, in his incomparably grand and eloquent eulogy upon the 
life and services of that great man. 

Fayette was located by Jonathan Crawley, Win. Head, Samuel 
Wallace, Glenn Owens and Samuel Hardin, Sr. Hiram Fugate 
and Hickerson Burnham, each donated twenty-five acres of laud for the 
county seat. Judge Alfred Morrison, who was afterwards sheriff and 
county judge of the county, surveyed the town site, assisted by John 
Jackson, Samuel Hardin and others, who were the chain bearers. 

After the town was laid out, Elisha Witt erected the first house 
which was constructed of logs, and located on the ground where 
Howard college now stands. Although this was the first house built 
in the town, the logs for another house had already been prepared by 
Gen. Ignatius P. Owen, and was erected the day following by the 
general, who had assisted Witt in raising his house. These buildings 
were intended for hotels and were conducted by their proprietors as 
such for many years. General Owen's hotel was located on the south- 
east corner of the public square. These houses were erected in the fall 
of 1824. The pioneer business man of the town was named O'Neal. 


His stock was very small and was sold in a log house on the lot where 
Captain Brooks' livery stable now stands. After remaining a short time 
O'Neal sold to John Nanson, an Englishman. Nanson died in Fayette 
from a cancer. The next merchant was Waddy T. Curran, who sold 
goods in a log hou&e on the corner of the street south of Boughner, 
Tolson & Smith's grocery. A few years thereafter, Curran moved to 
Himtsville, Randolph county, Missouri, where he died. Dr. William 
T. McLain was the first physician ; Samuel T. Crews was the second, 
and John A. Haldermau was the third. Halderman is now minister 
to one of the South American states. Matthew Simonds was the 
original village blacksmith. 

Here smokes his forge ; he bares his sinewy arm 
And early strokes his sounding anvil warm, 
Around his shop the steely sparkles flew 
As out of steel he shapes the bending shoe. 

Lawrence J. Daly taught the first school in the town, in a log 
cabin which now stands in the yard where Mrs. Mary S. Hanna now 
lives. Mr. Daly was a native of Ireland. He was the father of Mrs. 
Samuel C. Major, and Mrs. Dr. John Talbot, the latter now deceased. 
He died in Fayette. Among his pupils were William C. Boone's wife, 
John P. Sebree's wife, Elizabeth Garner, Susan Garner, Stephen 
Garner, Jesse W. Garner, Artimesia McLain, Sallie McKinney, Euphe- 
mia McKinney, Nancy Reynolds, Susan Reynolds, Eleanora Spencer, 
Miss A. Spencer, Joseph Hardin, William Wilson, Thomas Taylor, 
Townsend Taylor, Humphrey Taylor, and Mrs. Mary S. Hanna. 

There were other schools kept in the town between 1825 and 
1834, by both male and female teachers, but at the latter date a most 
excellent educational institution called the Fayette academy was 
established by Archibald Patterson. The building was constructed 
of brick, one story high, and contained two rooms. It was located a 
little to the left and south of Central college. Mr. Patterson came 
from Ohio ; he was a man of classical attainments and quite success- 
iul as a teacher. His school continued until 1844, when he went to 
Marion county, and then to Lexington, Missouri, where he died from 
an accident. 

The first resident minister was Rev. Augustus Pomeroy, an Old 
School Presbyterian, who held services in the school-house spoken of. 
He was also a school teacher. Rev. Ebenezer Rodgers, a missionary 
Baptist preacher held religious services occasionally in the town. He 
resided in the country. Rev. William W. Redmond (Methodist), 


was a circuit-rider at an early day in the county, and was the presiding 
elder in 1826. The first house of worship was erected by the Baptists 
in 1824. 

Washington Shepherd was the first tailor. The first death in the 
town was that of Miss Elraira Whitton ; hers was the first grave in 
the cemetery. 

The first Sunday-school was organized by Rev. Augustus Pome- 
roy. Eeuben Johnson, Elijah Mock and William Taylor were the first 
carpenters and builders. Hickerson Burnham erected the first large 
brick residence ; it occupied the corner where Bell's grocery store now 
stands. The first jeweller was Joel Gill. William Jones, Sr., was the 
firstjwagon-maker. Richard Law built the first tobacco factory. The 
first gunsmiths wei-e Jesse Riddleberger and Gabriel Oldham. Jesse 
Whitton had the honor of erecting the first mill — a horse mill, one 
set of buhrs. James Spencer had a carding machine and mill com- 
bined — inclined tread wheel. John A. Johnson operated an inclined 
tread-wheel carding machine. A man by the name of Purdon ran a 
linseed oil mill, and about this time James Dunn erected a steam saw 
mill. Wash Shepherd and — Hurt had a saddle manufactory. John 
R. White was also a saddler. Marly and Cole were hatters and made 
all kindsjof hats. Boone Fly and S. C. Major operated a furniture 


The town was incorporated by the county court in November, 
1826, with Samuel T. Crews, Elijah Whitton, Lawrence J. Daly, Jos- 
eph Gill and Robert Wilson as trustees. It was reincorporated in 
May, 1830, with James T. Shirley, Alfred W. Morrison, John A. Hal- 
derman, Elijah Whitton and Joseph Gill as trustees. W. R. Snelson 
was the first mayor, elected in 1855. The councilmen were : — 

Langfoot Cook and Gabriel H. Oldham, from First ward. 

W. T. Lucky and Jas. Gregory, Second ward. 

W. T. Lucky, clerk. 

Samuel C. Major, Sr., treasurer. 

Wm. Mitchell, marshal. 


W. F. Mitchell, mayor. 
James Waters, councilman, First ward. 
A. F. Davis, " << " 

Jno. T. Tolson, " Second " 


Win. Shafroth, councilman Second ward. 

John Crump, marshall. 

Joseph Pulliam, treasurer. 

Leland Wright, clerk. 

Jordan Cullar, street commissioner. 


About the year 1838, the " Branch of the Bank of the State of Mis- 
souri at Fayette," was established with Dr.. J. J. Lowry as president 
and C. F. Jackson, cashier. It was operated until 1864, when it was 
discontinued. During that year the bank was broken into by the 
scouts and camp followers of the southern army. The bank, however, 
did not lose anything by the robbery, but Howard county suffered a 
loss of $28,000, the county having on deposit at that bank that much 

The second banking institution in Fayette was the private bank of 
A. Hendrix & Co., established September, 1865. The company was 
composed of A. Hendrix and Thomas J. Payne. 

Payne sold his interest to his partner, A. Hendrix, in 1869, and 
Hendrix continued in business until May, 1876, when he died. 

Mr. A. Hendrix was succeeded by the Hendrix bank, June 1, 
1876. A. F. Davis succeeded the Hendrix bank in August, 1878. 

March 1, 1871, the Fayette bank was organized with E. T. Prewitt 
as president, and Thomas J. Payne as cashier. July 1. 1878, the 
Fayette bank was purchased by Thomas J. Payne and B. P. Williams, 
who now operate it as Payne & Williams. Thomas J. Payne was 
elected president of Fayette bank in September, 1873, and B. P.Wil- 
liams, cashier. 

The two latter banks (A. F. Davis, and Payue & Williams) are the 
only banks that are now doing business in Fayette. Each of these 
are supplied with "safes and time locks, and such other conveniences 
and improvements as are possessed by similar institutions of modern 


There have been but two court-houses in Howard county. A 
temporary wooden structure was provided in 1817, at Old Franklin, 
upon the location of the county seat at that place, but no building was 
erected and designed especially for a court-house, until 1824, when 
one was built at Fayette, soon after the town became the seat of 
justice. At that period, the first brick court-house was completed by 


a Mr. Game, who took the contract for building it. That building 
was occupied until 1859, a period of thirty-five years, when the 
present court-house was erected. 

It is a two story brick with main building and wings. It has a 
neat and attractive appearance, and is a building of considerable 
magnitude, containing beside the court-room and jury-rooms, eight 
offices, with floors made of tile. The upper portion of the building, 
which projects in front and forms a portico, is supported by four large 
and lofty columns, which resemble in appearance light gray limestone. 
The roofing is tin, and is flanked on the sides and ends, with a balus- 
trade, made of brick, the whole surmounted with a handsome and 
graceful cupola, upon the summit of which, is stationed a weather 
vane and brazen eagle. 


The town of Fayette was laid out with reference more especially 
to the smoothness of the surface of the land, than with reference to 
the cardinal points of the compass. The public square was thus laid 
out, and the streets had to be adjusted accordingly. The consequence 
is, the streets do not run east and west or due north and south. The 
stranger visiting Fayette, would never know without being told, that 
what he would suppose to be the northeast corner of the public square, 
is not in fact the northeast corner, but the. corner of the square point- 
ing due north. So difficult has been this question of a correct 
solution at all times, even to those who reside in the town, that the 
•county court, some years ago, had the initial letters representing the 
points of the compass placed upon the cupola of the court-house, so 
that the mystery could be solved at a mere glance. Although the 
surveyor did not lay off the town according to the points of the 
compass, he succeeded most admirably in selecting a most elegant 
site for the public square. It embraces about one acre of ground, 
which is enclosed with a neat and substantial iron fence. It is covered 
with a luxuriant growth of blue grass, and is interspersed with shade 
trees, which add much to the beauty of the place. A broad brick 
pavement surrounds the square, just outside of which stands a row 
of soft maples, which afford an abundant shade. 


Fayette had a fire engine in 1838. 

A public meeting was held in Fayette, April 17, 1841, to express 
public sorrow at the death of President Harrison. 

General Eobert Wilson was president of the meeting. 


The committee on resolutions was composed of General John B. 
Clark, Joel Prewitt, Dr. Samuel T. Crews, James Brown, S. C. Major 
and Colonel J. H. Birch. 

The 4th of July, 1842, was celebrated at Fayette in a grand 

Thomas L. Belt was the orator of the occasion. 

Adam Hendrix read the declaration of independence. 

Among the toasts was the following : — 

«' The memory of Boone, Cooper and Hancock — while the tall 
forest stands around us, here and there interspersed with the improve- 
ments of the pioneer, these names cannot be forgotten upon the waters 
of the great Missouri." 

In the fall of 1843, Claiborne F. Jackson, Leland Wright, John 
Jackson, J. J. Lowry, N. G. Elliott, Robert Lynch and others, 
extended a written invitation to Colonel Thomas H. Benton, to come to 
Fayette and partake of a public dinner in his honor. 

W. R. Singleton made a map of Howard county in 1844. 

Mrs. Torode taught school in Fayette in 1845. 
, Sons of Temperance, Howard county division, No. 34, was 
organized in Fayette December 31, 1848. The officers were: W. T. 
Lucky, W. P. ; R. Lynch, W. A. ; W. McNair, R. S. ; S. T. Preston, 
A. R. S. ; J. Bradley, F. S. ; A. Mitchell, T. ; Rev. A. Scarritt, C. ; 
E. K. Atterbury, A. C. ; W. W. Mitchell, I. S. ; D. Doffmyer, O. S. 

On July 11, 1852, the people of Howard county assembled at the 
College chapel at Fayette, to pa,j appropriate honors, upon receiving 
news of the death of Henry Clay. Addresses were delivered by 
Robert T. Prewitt, General John B. Clark and Major C. F. Jackson. 

On Monday, the 4th day of June, 1855, the people, irrespective 
of party, met at the court-house at Fayette to express their views in 
reference to the " Fanatics of Kansas, Missouri and elsewhere." The 
following gentlemen were appointed a committee on resolutions : 
W. M. Jackson, G. M. B. Mangh, N. G. Elliott, F. M. Grimes, J. J. 
Lowery, Sr., Jno. B. Clark, Jr., G. W. Morehead, J. F. Finks, 
SetonE. Graves, Joseph Cooper, Morgan A. Taylor, Taylor Hughes, 
Thomas Payne, C. C. P. Hill, H. L. Brown, Rice Patterson, J. W. 
Henry and others. Owen Rawlins was president, R. C. Hancock, 

A subsequent meeting of a similar character was held at the same 
place, when a large number of delegates from Howard county were 
appointed to attend the Pro-slavery convention which met at Lexing- 
ton, Missouri, July 12, 1855. 



Cholera made its appearance in Fayette the first time, ia 1832 or 
1833. There was one case in 1849. Dr. C. R. Scott, of Fayette, 
made a visit to his native State, Virginia, duriug that year, and took 
the disease while returning home; he died after his return. The 
cholera again made its appearance in August, 1855. Among those 
who died in the town were Mrs. Catherine Marley and John A. John- 
son. Harrison and Cleveland Stapleton died in the country. It 
made its appearance again, in its most virulent form, in 1873, there 
being fifty-three deaths out of fifty-six cases. A physician who 
passed through it and witnessed its effects in all its various phases 
during that year, gives the following account of the same : — 

[Prepared by U. S. "Wright, M. D.] 

This epidemic was brought to our town July 19, 1873, by a 
Swede, who had been a laborer on the railroad, which was then being 
constructed through the town. From the best information, he had 
been drinking several days when he came to Fayette, arriving here on 
the night of the 18th, from Boonville. I was called to see him early 
on the morning of the 19th, and found him in a collapsed state, 
called a consultation and did all we could, but the patient never 
rallied, dying in five or six hours. This man died in a boarding- 
house, constructed from the lumber of an old livery stable, built on 
the same ground, consequently the surroundings seemed to be quite 
favorable to an outbreak of the disease. There were, perhaps, fifty 
men boarding at this house. It was only a few days when two more 
of the railroad men (laborers) were attacked in the same manner and 
died in twenty-four hours or less time. This produced a great ex- 
citement among the citizens, which amounted almost to a panic in a 
few days thereafter. The colored people had a picnic near the town, 
and the next day the medical authorities positively announced that 
five negroes had died with the dreaded disease, and that several others 
of that race had the symptoms of cholera. The citizens organized a 
sanitary committee under the auspices of the medical faculty, and 
used their best efforts to abate the ravages of the oriental plague in 
Fayette. Nurses for the sick and dying were provided, and others 
were appointed whose duty it was to see the dead decently interred. 
About three-fourths of the population of the town fled, and remained 
away until they supposed the disease had run its course, when they 


would return, waiting just long enough for another outbreak when 
they would again flee. The disease continued to attack and kill our 
people until the 9th of September, when the last case occurred in the 
community. As soon as the news had been heralded abroad that all 
danger was past, the absent citizens returned. Fifty-three persons 
had been carried off by the disease, and among this number were 
some of the best- citizens of the town. As far as known, there had 
been fifty-six cases of cholera, but three recovering, showing the 
malignant character of the disease. There were, however, many cases 
of cholerine, which would have turned into genuine cholera had it not 
been for the physicians and kind nursing. 

The cause of the epidemic seems to be still veiled in mystery. 
There were, at the time, quite a number of laboring men gathered in 
camps and boarding-shanties, engaged in building railroads, in and 
near the town, and also many negroes crowded together in every 
available house in the city ; these facts, coupled with the further fact, 
that the town was poorly supplied with privy-vaults, and those in use 
were neglected and uncleanly — I think furnished at least some of the 
causes for the pestilence prevailing here, after its germ had been 
imported. The town at that time was almost wholly supplied with 
water from wells, and this drinking water question is known to be an 
important factor in the spread of this plague. Ours is a limestone 
district, but it is now thought that the geological structure of the soil 
has but little influence upon the disease, and it is admitted that it is 
the physical rather than the mineralogical structure that produces 

Another cause for its propagation here may have been found in 
the number of stagnant pools of water in the vicinity, caused by the 
railroad dumps at many points along the line of the road. The 
disease here was very unmanageable, as the cases advanced very 
rapidly into the collapsed condition. Calomel, given in small doses, 
seemed to be the most efficient remedy. With my experience with 
cholera, I would advise immediate flight, as the best plan of getting 
rid of so formidable an adversary, upon the part of the citizens of any 
community, whenever the disease appears. 


Between three and four o'clock on Wednesday morning, Novem- 
ber 13, 1833, there occurred in Fayette, and in every town and county 
throughout the United States, a meteoric phenomenon, the splendor 
of which never passed from the memory of those who witnessed it. 


It has since been known and remembered, as " the falling of the 
stars." In the firmament above, and all around the horizon, were 
beheld innumerable balls of tire of a whitish, pallid color, rushing 
down and across the sky, drawing after them long luminous trains, 
which clothed the whole heavens in awful majesty, and gave to the 
air and earth a pale and death-like appearance. An inconceivable 
number of meteors shot athwart and downwards from the heavens, as 
though the whole framework of the blue and cloudless arch above 
had been shaken. These luminous bodies had the appearance of* 
flying through the air with great rapidity, occasioning the greatest 
wonder among the beholders, mingled with fear and consternation. 
Some described them as the slow and sparse descent of large flakes of 
snow, and that each flake, becoming ignited in its passage, fused like 
a bombshell before bursting, leaving a long, lurid light in its 
wake, and that tens of thousands of these, continued to descend' and 
scatter, each becoming extinct before reaching the earth. 


Lafayette Lodge, No. 47, A. F. and A. M., organized October 
17, 1842. Charter members — Priestly H. McBride, G. M. ;• Samuel "" 
T. Crews, David Kunkle, Win. G. -Kerley. 

First officers — Samuel T. Crews, W- M. ; David Kunkle, S. 
W. ; W. G. Kerley, J. W. ; Wm. Taylor, Treasurer ; James H. San- 
ders, Secretary ; A. H. McDonald, S. D. ; I. L. Johnson, J. D. ; L. 
Crigler, T. 

Present officers— Theo. F. Woods, W. M. ; M. A. Boyd, S. 
W. ; Uriel S. Wright, J. W. ; Thos. G. Deatherage, Secretary; Thos. 
J. Payne, Treasurer; John Talbot, S. D. ; James Waters, J. D. ; 
Wm. F.fTieman, T. 

Temple commandery, No. 38, organized March 15, 1882, with 
S. B. Cunningham, A. F. Davis, Jno. B. Clark, Jo. W. Finks, Jno. 
S. Elliott, R. P. Williams, J. T. Smith, W. A. Mathaws, Jas. B. 
Brooks, W. A. Dudgeon and J. C. Ferguson. 

Present officers — Sid. B. Cunningham, E. C. ; Arthur F. Davis, 
M. C. ; Julius C. Ferguson, C. G. ; E. P. Williams, P.; Jas. T. 
Smith, E. ; M. A. Boyd, Treasurer ; Jas. B. Brooks, S. W. ; Robert 
C. Clark,*J. W. ;£L. S. Prosser, S. B. ; W. F. Mitchell, S. B. ; W. 
A. Dudgeon, W. 

Fayette| Chapter, No. 94, organized with the following charter 
members —W. A. Dudgeon, J. C. Ferguson, Thomas G. Deatherage, 


K. C. Clark, R. P. Williams, S. B. Cunningham, James B. Brooks, 
J. L. Morrison, Jo. H. Finks. 

First officers — W. A. Dudgeon, H. P.; J. C. Ferguson, K. ; 
Thomas G. Deatherage, S. ; R. C. Clark, C. H. ; R. P. Williams, P. 
S. ; J. B. Brooks, R. A. C. ; S. B. Cunningham, secretary ; J. L. 
Morrison, treasurer; Theo. F. Woods, M. 3d. V.; J. T. Smith, M. 
2d.V. ; J. T. Bailey, M. 1st. V. ; N. B. Corprew, G. 

Present officers — William A. Dudgeon, H. P. ; Julius C. Fergu- 
son, K. ; Nestor B. Cooper, S. ; M. A. Boyd, C. H. ; R. C. Clark, 
P. S. ; John Talbot, R. A. C. ; Theo. F. Woods, M. 3d. V. ; James 
B. Brooks, M. 2d. V. ; Uriel S. Wright, M. 1st. V. ; S. B. Cunning- 
ham, secretary; Walter C. Knaus, treasurer; W. F. Tieman, guard. 

A. O. U. W. charter members of Ciucinnatus Lodge, No. 143, 
A. O. U. W.— John A. McKinney, H. A. Norris, C. E. Burckhartt, 
Joel W. Morris, C. J. Walden, John Dinkle, John C. Herndon, L. S. 
Prosser, James Waters, N. B. Cooper, Thomas Ward, W. C. Arline, 
A. F. Willis, W. B. Anderson, S. C. Major, A. J. Furr, J. F. Agee, 
0. G. Willis, Thomas B. Brooks, John B. Dickerson and James P. 

First set of officers — John C. Herndon, P. M. W. ; L. S. Pros- 
ser, M. W. ; N. B. Cooper, G. F. ; James Waters, O. ; W. C. 
Arline, G. ; C. J. Walden, recorder; Joel W. Morris, F. r J. A. 
McKinney, R. ; John Dinkle, I. W- ; H. A. Norris, O. W. ; J. A. 
McKinney, medical examiner. 

Present officers — H. A. Norris, P. M. W. ; Thomas Ward, M. 
W. ; James Waters, G. F. ; James F. Agee, O. ; A. F. Willis, 
recorder; C. Rosenbaum, R. ; U. S.Wright, F. ; F. Marsden, G. ; ' 
James Armstrong, I. W. ; M. L. Skillman, O. W. 

Howard Lodge, No. 10, I. O. O. F., charter members — Thomas 
M. Davis, C. H. Green, David Kunkle, James S. Jackson, James M. 
Major. Established April 8, 1844. 

First officers — Thomas M. Davis, N. G. ; C. H. Green, V. G. ; 
J. S. Jackson, Treasurer; D. Kunkle, Secretary; J. M. Major, 
Warden ; H. Finney, Con. ; G. W. Hood, W. S. N. G. 

Present officers, (1883)— John D. Tolson, N. G. ; William 
Shafroth, V. G. ; Jacob Mortenson, treasurer ; T. R. Betts, secre- 
tary; R. E. Keiser, warden. 

Sons of Temperance, Howard division, No. 34, was organized in 
Fayette, December 31, 1848. The officers were : W. T. Lucky, 
W. P. ; R. Lynch, W. A. ; W. McNair, R. S. ; S. T. Preston, A. R. 


S. ; J. Bradley, F. S. ; A. Mitchell, T. ; Rev. A. Searritt, C. ; E. K. 
Atterbury, A. C. ; W. W. Mitchell, I. S. ; D. Dofflmyer, O. S. 


Central and Howard colleges, gradually grew out of an effort in 
1840 and 1843 (according to the statement of Eev. Carr W. Prit- 
chett), to establish at Fayette the state university. 

The question of the location of the university awakened the 
liveliest interest, in several counties of the state — notably in Boone, 
Callaway and Howard. Each of these, including Cooper and Cole, 
made their bids in laud and money. Boone county bid $117,900; 
Callaway, $96,000; Howard, $94,000; Cooper, $40,000; Cole, 
$30,000. Failing in their efforts to secure the location of the state 
university, at Fayette, the people determined to build up a school in 
their own midst, that would be an honor to themselves and to the 
state. A building was erected which was offered to the state during 
the contest, for the location of the university. This was burned down 
soon afterwards, but rebuilt previous to 1844. For a time, a school 
was conducted in it, by Mr. Patterson, afterwards president of 
Masonic college. In 1844, it was sold for debt, and was purchased 
by Capt. William D. Finney, and by him transferred, under most 
generous conditions, to the Methodist Episcopal church, for school 
purposes. In the fall of 1844, Howard high school, the mother of 
both Central and Howard colleges, was organized by William T. 
Lucky. He began with only seven pupils. In a year or two, Presi- 
dent Lucky, was joined by his brother-in-law, Rev. Nathan Searritt. 
The school attained a remarkable prosperity. In 1847-48, Prof. 
William T. Davis became associated with President Lucky, and the 
financial affairs were conducted under the style' of Lucky & Davis. 
In 1851, President Lucky temporarily retired, and Rev. Carr W. 
Pritchett and Prof. Davis were associated in its management under 
the style of Pritchett & Davis. In 1852, President Lucky resumed 
his place, and the management was under the style of Lucky & 
Pritchett. At this period, the school was very prosperous, having 
an annual enrollment of about 350 pupils. January 26, 1854, the 
large building of Howard high school was destroyed by fire. It 
stood on the present site of Central college. This calamity caused 
great inconvenience and loss, but the large school was continued in 
the churches and other buildings, until provided for, by the erection 
of the north addition to the building of Howard college. The main 
part of this building was erected in 1852, for a boarding house for 

Il^inia^iJ:!.'' 1 !' 11 .^! 11 ' 1 ' 111 ! 1 '!' 1 ''. '■'''■': 


the young ladies of Howard high school. In the spring of 1855, 
the separation of the male and female departments took place. The 
male department was under the control of Prof. C. W. Pritchett, 
and the female department was conducted by W. T. Lucky. The 
male department in 1857, became the provisional organization of 
Central college, and the female department, became Howard college. 


At an educational convention held in St. Louis, in 1853, it was 
determined to establish an institution of learning of high grade, to 
be located at some central point, easily accessible from every point of 
the state. The name accordingly given it was " The Central Col- 
lege." It was, moreover, to be central to a number of high schools 
located in different parts of the state, and which were designed to be 
"feeders" to the college. A preparatory department was also estab- 
lished in connection with the college. 

The college began operations with Rev. Nathan Scarritt, A. M., 
president pro tern., in 1857. He resigned during the year and the 
entire control passed into the hands of Prof. Pritchett. The second 
president was Eev. A. A. Morrison, A. M., who also resigned in 
1860, when the entire organization devolved upon Prof. Pritchett. 
Pritchett was succeeded by Eev. W. H. Anderson, A. M., in the fall 
of 1860. There was a large number of students and increasing pros- 
perity until the war cloud burst in 1861, when, shortly after the 
graduation of the first senior class, it was deemed best to suspend the 
regular college exercises. A collegiate course was taught, however, 
in the college building by Eev. Dr. Anderson and Eev. C. W. 
Pritchett, for a couple or more of years during the war. The 
threatening difficulties led to a suspension of all exercises at length, 
and the college building was occupied by the military. At the 
conclusion of the war the citizens of Fayette generously put the 
building in a state of repair, and an excellent classical seminary 
was opened under the control of Eev. H. A. Bourland. Prof. F. 
X. Forster succeeded him in the management of it. Its success 
led to hopes of reviving the college proper. An educational 
convention was accordingly called in June, 1868, attended by 
the leading men of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, in Mis- 
souri. Bishop Marvin presided, and Dr. Wm. A. Smith, ex-Gov. 
Polk, and many other eminent men, took an active part in its pro- 

The convention recommended that the board of curators reopeiv 


the college whenever a subscription of $100,000 for an endowment 
fund should have been secured. Dr. Wm. A. Smith was then elected 
president of the college, and addressed himself vigorously to the 
work of securing the necessary endowment. Much enthusiasm pre- 
vailed, and two gentlemen in the convention gave $5,000 each. 
These were the late Adam Hendrix, Esq., of Fayette, and the late 
Hon. Trusten Polk, of St. Louis. Over $40,000 of the amount was 
subscribed by leading Methodists in St. Louis. Macon, Mexico, Chilli- 
cothe, St. Joseph, and otner places responded liberally, and many 
began to hope that the necessary amount could be raised in a single 
year, when the broken health of Dr. Smith compelled him to desist 
from his labors. He accordingly sought rest for a few months in 
Virginia, where he had long labored as the honored president of 
Eandolph-Macon college. He lingered only a short time, when he 
died, lamented by thousands in every part of the land. Rev. W. M. 
Rush, D.D., succeeded in the agency of the college, and, by the 
fall of 1870, the board of curators were able to report the necessary 
subsci'iption of $100,000 endowment. Dr. Rush continued in the 
field as agent, to collect the endowment, while Rev. John C. Wills, 
D.D., of the Southern university, in Alabama, was elected president 
of the college. About half of the original endowment was collected 
and funded, Fully $25,000 of the remainder was in St. Louis real 
estate, which, with the other subscriptions, were so seriously affected 
by the financial crisis of 1873, that they greatly depreciated in value. 
The real estate promises to recover its value, but several large sub- 
scriptions were lost by reason of the panic. The board of curators 
still hope to realize from the uncollected endowment notes. 

While the college has not been financially a success, it has made 
a record for thorough scholarship and excellent discipline that is an 
honor to the whole state. Dr. Wills proved himself an admirable 
educator. He was aided in the faculty by such men as Profs. Forster, 
Miller, Corprew, and Mumpower, besides competent instructors in the 
preparatory department. The "school system" so long in vogue 
in the University of Virginia was adopted in place of the few years' 
curriculum of many of our American colleges. The faculty believed 
that under this system, more and better work would be done, and they 
seem well satisfied with the results. There has been an average attend- 
ance of about 130 students for several years past. 

Dr. Wills, whose health began to fail in the winter of 1877, died 
in February, 1878. Despite his lamented death, the discipline which 
he had established in the college was so perfect that during the rest 


of the year, under the management of Prof. Forster, there was not the 
slightest disorder. The board of curators at their meeting in St. 
Louis, April 26, 1878, considered a proposition from the board of 
trustees of Pritchett institute of Glasgow, which looked toward the 
removal of the classical department of the college to Glasgow, on 
which condition the endowment of the institute was to go to Central 
college, and the two institutions were henceforth to be consolidated 
under the name of Central college. The further condition was that 
co-education should be introduced into all the departments of the 

The board, on advice of legal counsel, saw that such a removal 
would cost them part, if not most, of the endowment of the college, 
and determined not to accept the offer. The people of Fayette and 
vicinity in the meantime raised a subscription of $10,000 on condition 
that the college should not be removed, which subscription was accepted 
by the board of curators. 

An election for president of the college was held in 1878, when 
Rev. Eugene R. Hendrix, A. M., was unanimously chosen. He was 
formerly a student at Central college, but graduated at Wesleyan 
university, Middletown, Conn., where he went to pursue his studies 
during the war. He was also elected " Marvin professor of Biblical 
literature." In the beautiful catalogue which was issued in 1878, we 
have seen an outline of the work of this new department which was 
then added to the college. There are young ministers from the Bap- 
tist and Cumberland Presbyterian churches as well as from the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church south, who are students, and doubtless this 
class will be largely increased. 

In the spring of 1878, when the present administration began, 
the productive endowment of Central college was $45,000, and the 
attendance of students as already stated, about 130. There was, 
moreover, a debt of some $12,000, including $1,700 yet due on the 
contract, for the erection of the college building some twenty years 
before. The outlook was not encouraging but to those who had faith 
in the final success of -the college. This faith was shared alike by the 
board of curators and the faculty. Three years later the patronage 
had increased to over 180 students, the debt had been entirely paid 
and the productive endowment had grown to over $60,000. In the 
meantime " Will's hall," a boarding-house for young men of limited 
means, and a commodious gymnasium had been erected. To accom- 
plish these ends members of the board and others contributed sums 


ranging from $100 to $5,000, several persons agreeing to give $1,000 
each annually for an indefinite period. 

In November, 1881, Mr. Robert A. Barnes, of St. Louis, who 
had previously made large donations, to the college library, gave 
$25,000 to endow the " Robert A. Barnes " chair of Greek and Latin. 
In November, 1882, he gave $20,000, in honor of his mother, to 
endow the " Mary Evans Barnes " chair of English and modern lan- 
guages. These timely gifts, with others, prompted the board to enlarge 
the college campus by the purchase of some four additional acres, 
and to take immediate steps for the erection of a new college chapel 
to cost some $20,000. 

The standard of scholarship in Central college has always been 
very high. Indolent students are not allowed to remain. A consid- 
erable proportion of the students send themselves to college, and their 
industrious example is contagious. To aid meritorious students who 
would otherwise be unable to complete their course, Mr. A. F. Davis, 
of Fayette, gave $5,000 in January, 1883,- the income to be loaned 
without interest to such students as may be recommended by the 
faculty. This will be known as the " Arthur F. Davis Student's 
Loan Fund," in memory of the deceased son of the generous donor 
of the fund. 

The different chairs of the college are filled by professors who 
are specialists in their departments, and well equipped to guide the post- 
graduate studies of young men who annually aspire for such instruc- 
tion. Original work is expected from year to year of each occupant 
of a professor's chair. This, first in the form of public lectures de- 
livered before the whole body of students, and afterwards, in some 
instances, addressed to a yet wider public through the press, constitute 
an attractive feature of the college. 

The college library now numbers some 3,000 volumes. An 
alumni alcove is given to works of reference. On the completion of 
the new chapel the library will find better accommodation in the 
present chapel, which will make a most attractive library room. In 
the matter of library, as well as that of mineralogical and zoological 
collections, and of scientific apparatus the foundations have been laid 
with reference to superstructures of ample size. In short, the college 
has sought the real and the permanent in all the work done. 

President Hendrix, though young in years, brings a ripe experi- 
ence, thorough culture, and a zealous and tireless energy to the work. 
With such a man, therefore, to look after its interests the grandest 
success may be expected for Central college in the future. 



Rev. Nathan Scarritt, D. D., president from July, 1857, to June, 
1858, professor of ancient languages ; C. W. Pritchett, professor of 
mathematics ; Eli Offut, principal of preparatory department. 

Rev. A. A. Morrison, D. D., June, 1858 ; C. W. Prichett, professor 
of mathematics ; A. J. Dyas, adjunct ; I. A. Reubelt, professor of 
languages ; H. B. Parsons, adjunct. 

Rev. A. A. Morrison, D. D., 1859, 1860; A. C. Dyas, professor 
of mathematics ; C. W. Pritchett, professor of natural science ; J. A. 
Reubelt, professor of languages; H. B. Parsons, adjunct. 

Rev. W. H. Anderson, D. D., June, 1860, 1861; A. C. Dyas, 
professor of mathematics ; C. W. Pritchett, professor of natural 
science; A. F. Brackman, professor of languages. 

Rev. W. A. Smith, D. D., June, 1868, 1870, who conducted for two 
years a classical seminary, until the new college was reopened and 
completed. The teachers were Professor F„ X. Forster, assisted by 
Professor Rowland Daggett, Professor F. A. Taylor, Mrs. J. P. Ful- 
ler, Miss A. E. Cooper, Miss Lou C. Forster. 

Rev. J. C. Wills, D. D., 1870, February, 1878. Profs. F. X. 
Forster, F. A. Taylor, and Dr. W. G. Miller, were elected members 
of the faculty ; H. D. Groves and J. L. Taylor, tutors. In the 
absence of the president, Professor Forster was appointed dean of the 

Rev. E. R. Hendrix, D. D., 1878. O. H. P. Corprew, professor 
of Greek and Latin ; Edward A. Allen, professor of English and 
modern languages ; Wm. B. Smith, professor of mathematics ; James 
T. Anderson, professor of chemistry, physics, and astronomy ; J. W. 
Kilpatrick, professor of natural history, mineralogy, and geology ; 
T. G. Mumpower, principal of preparatory department ; T. H. Har- 
vey, fellow and adjunct professor of Greek and Latin. 
Dr. Hendrix is the present (1883) president. 


Rev. E. R. Hendrix, D. D., president, ex-officio ; Rev. D. R. 
McAnally, D. D., vice-president; Rev. W. M. Rush, D. D. ; Rev. 
T. M. Finney, D. D. ; Rev. C. C. Woods, D. D. ; W. M. Eads, Esq. ; 
W. McDonald, Esq. ; Samuel Cupples, Esq. ; A. F. Davis, Esq. ; 
Rev. Nathan Scarritt, D. D. ; J. E. Ryland, Esq. ; W. O. Gray, 


E. R. Hendrix, D. D. ; Rev. W. M. Rush, D. D. ; A. F. Davis. 



Samuel Cupples, Esq. ; Rev. T. M. Finney, D. D. ; A. F. Davis. 


IN 1857. 

1857-58, matriculates, 144, graduates, — ; 1858-59, matricu- 
lates, 95, graduates, 1 ; 1859-60, matriculates, 110, graduates, — ; 
1860-61, matriculates, 112, graduates, 5 ; 1870-71, matriculates, 104, 
graduates, — ; 1871-72, matriculates, 105, graduates, 3 ; 1872-73, 
matriculates, 125, graduates, 3; 1873-74, matriculates, 111, gradu- 
ates, 1 ; 1874-75, matriculates, 107, graduates, 2 ; 1875-76, matricu- 
lates, 140, graduates, 2; 1876-77, matriculates, 131, graduates, 2 ; 
1877-78, matriculates, 138, graduates, 2 ; 1878-79, matriculates, 130, 
graduates, 1; 1879-80, matriculates, 155, graduates, 10; 1880-81, 
matriculates, 183, graduates, 5 ; 1881-82, matriculates, 168, gradu- 
ates, 3. Total for 16 years — Students, 2058 ; graduates, 40. 


1859 — S. C. Major, Jr., B. S., Fayette, Mo. 

1861 — E. R. Barton, A. B., Colorado; O. M. Harrison, B. L., 
Glasgow, Mo. ; F. M. Hendrix, A. B., deceased ; R. F. Luckett, A. 
B., St. Charles, Mo. ; Davis Rathbun, A. B., . 

1872 — D. H. Eby, Ph. B., Hannibal, Mo.; J. T. Forest, Ph. 
B., Fayette, Mo. ; J. R. A. Vaughan, A. B., St. Louis county, Mo. 

1873 — J. P. Godbey, Ph. B., Bates county, Mo. ; J. A.Poage, A. 
B., California; T. G. Mumpower, A. M., Fayette, Mo. ; J. R. A. 
Vaughan, A. M., St. Louis, Mo. 

1874 — W. O. Gray, Ph. B., Louisiana, Mo. 

1875 — S. M. Godbey, A. M., Cooper county, Mo.; W. C. 
Arline, Ph. B., Fayette, Mo. 

1876 — C. B. Rush, A. M., Prescott, Arizona; R. J. Coleman, 
A. B., Fayette, Mo. 

1877 — R. H. Hamilton, Ph. B., Lebanon, Tenn. ; W. D. Van- 
diver, Ph. B., Caledonia, Mo. 

1878 — C. R. Forster, A. M., Fayette, Mo. ; Josiah Godbey, Jr., 
A. M., Cooper county, Mo. 

1879 — R. H. Payne, A. M., St. Charles, Mo. 

1880 — R. E. Ball, A. M., Carrollton, Mo. ; T. S. Dines, A. M., 
Brunswick, Mo. ; S. B. Ferrell, Ph. B., O'Fallon, Mo. ; W. F. Hen- 
drix, Ph. B., Fayette, Mo. ; J. N. Holmes, Ph. B., Arrow Rock, Mo. ; 


J. D. Lindsay, A. M., Clinton, Mo. ; J. F. Linn, Ph. B., Pleasant 
Hill, Mo.; J. G. Reynolds, Ph. B., Arrow Rock, Mo.; J. W. 
Vaughan,Ph.B., St. Louis county, Mo. ; T.Ward, Jr., A. M., Fayette, 

1881— J. B. Finley, A. B., Weston, Texas; B. C. Hinde, A. 
B., Fulton, Mo. ; W. H. Pritchett, A. M., Fayette, Mo. ; W. C. Scar- 
ritt, A. M., Kansas City, Mo. ; G. M. Smiley, Ph. B., Smithton, Mo. 

1882 — Hubert M. Harvey, Ph. B., Saline county, Mo. ; Thomas 
Hundall Harvey, A. M., Saline county, Mo. ; Benjamin C. Hinde, A. 
M., Fayette, Mo. 


A. C. Miller, school of English; S. McHenry, school of physics 
and astronomy; J. E. Squires, school of moral philosophy. 


1881 — Professor ' Isaac S. Hopkins, A. M., Emory college, 
Oxford, Ga. 

1882 — Professor Wallace W. Duncan, A. M., Wofford college, 
Spartansburg, S. C. 


This splendid seminary for young ladies was chartered by the 
Missouri Legislature in 1859, nearly twenty years ago, and is now 
presided over by the Rev. Joseph H. Pritchett, assisted by an able 
and experienced corps of teachers. It is a twin offshoot with Central 
college from the old Howard high school, which was founded by 
Wm. T. Luckey as early as 1845, and which for ten or fifteen years 
made an enviable history among western institutions, being always 
distinguished for its successful discipline and advanced curriculum. 

Till the beginning of the civil war the college grew more prosper- 
ous every year under the new dispensation, but like most other insti- 
tutions belonging to the Southern Methodist church, it suffered very 
greatly during the war — being despoiled of everything. The grounds 
were left exposed, the building dilapidated ; and, worse than all, the 
whole property was subjected to a heavy debt. Five years after the 
war, the Rev. Moses U. Payne paid off the debt from his own private 
purse and restored the property to the church on the condition that 
the school should thereafter be conducted upon the manual labor plan. 
In order to cany out this provision, Mrs. J. P. Fuller and Miss A. E. 


Cooper were chosen joint principals, who, with a competent corps 01 
teachers, conducted the school three years. This plan being found 
impracticable, Mr. Payne so modified his conditions as to consent that 
the school should be conducted as the church should conclude best. 
The school was, therefore, continued under the management of Miss 
Cooper as sole principal from June, 1873, to June, 1874, when Prof. 
E. H. Pitman, of St. Charles county, Mo., was induced to accept the 
presidency. His labors began under very flattering auspices, bringing 
to the school, as he did, a fine reputation as an experienced and suc- 
cessful educator. Hopes were generally entertained that his presi- 
dency would be permanent, as the school had already suffered much 
at home and abroad from frequent changes. 

Owing to bad health and other discouragements, however, Prof. 
Pitman retired in 1876, and the Eev. Joseph H. Pritchett, was elected 
president of the college. The selection was wisely and judiciously 
made. There were many serious embarrassments attendant upon the 
office, and none but a man of tireless energy and decided executive 
ability could have brought order out of the chaos which prevailed. 
This, the able and efficient head of the institution, supported by a 
superior faculty, successfully did. The school more than realized the 
expectations of its friends the first year of the new administration. 
Its second year had been one of marked prosperity. There had been 
more pupils in attendance, and the classes had been larger and better 
organized than at any time since the suspension of the college during 
the war. 

The necessary steps have been taken and a good foundation laid 
for securing a library, scientific apparatus and a museum. A reading 
room has been provided, where the young ladies of the boarding 
department may have access to the best standard and periodical liter- 
ature of Europe and America. 

Howard college justly claims to stand at the head of western 
schools for the education of females — especially so in the extent of 
its curriculum and the thoroughness of its instruction. It lays par- 
ticular stress upon fundamentals and essentials in intellectual and 
moral culture — nothing for mere show or parade. There are eight 
teachers employed, and instruction is given in English literature, 
higher mathematics, two ancient and two modern languages, mental 
and physical science ; besides a primary school, and a school of art, 
including music, painting, drawing, etc. 

President Pritchett resigned in 1881, and the following year H. K. 
Hinde became the president of the college. Dr. Hinde is doing all 


he can to build up the school and make it more perfect in every 

The building, however, is out of repair and needs renovating in 
order to make it look neat and attractive. It is a large four-story 
brick, built in the shape of the letter "L," and is located near the 
Central college, a little to the right and south, fronting southwest. 


1882-83— H. K. Hinde, A. M., M. D., president, professor of 
mental and moral philosophy ; Charles K. Forster, A. M., professor of 
ancient and modern languages; B. C. Hinde, A. M., professor of 
physical science ; Miss M. W. Ewin, teacher of mathematics ; Miss 
Mary G. Williams, A. B., teacher of English language and literature ; 
Miss Willie Hardison, principal of school of instrumental music ; Miss 
Emma Mann, principal of school of vocal music ; Miss Annie E. 
Howell, principal of school of painting and drawing ; Miss Emma D. 
Jackson, principal of primary department ; Mrs. H. K. Hinde, 


Rev. B. F. Johnson, president ; T. A. Swinney, vice-president ; 
John Herndon, secretary ; Rev. T. J. Gooch, Rev. Wm. Penn, Rev. 
H. D. Groves, Rev. H. B. Watson, Rev. W. W. Jones, Rev. S. W. 
Cope, Rev. J. Y. Blakey, Rev. M. U. Payne, Rev. J. H. Pritchett, 
C. E. Givens, J. L. Morrison, J. T. Sears, John Marmaduke, W. H. 
Nipper, A. C. Vandiver, Jacob Mortenson, Dr. H. K. Hinde. 


Rev. B. F. Johnson, president; T. A. Swinney, vice-president; 
John Herndon, Rev. Wm. Penn, C. E. Givens, W. H. Nipper, J. L. 
Morrison, Jacob Mortenson. 


Appointed by the Missouri annual conference : Rev. T. J. Gooch, 
Rev. J. A. Mumpower, R. E. Anderson. 


Mrs. J. P. Fuller, Miss A. E. Cooper, associate principals, 
1870-73; Miss A. E. Cooper, principal 1873-74 ; R. H. Pitman, 
president, 1874-76 ; Rev. J. H. Pritchett, president, 1876-81. 



1876. — Miss Katie Wright, M. E. L., Fayette, Mo. ; Miss Emma 
Fisher, M. E. L., Fayette, Mo. ; Miss Daisy Herndon (Mrs. Davis), 
M. E. L., Salisbury, Mo. 

1879.— Miss F. A. Penn, A. M., Fayette, Mo. ; Miss Ella Fisher, 
A. M., Fayette, Mo. ; Miss Annie Eoot (Mrs. Violet), A. M., Stur- 
geon, Mo. ; Miss Minnie Connevey, A. M., Moberly, Mo. 

1880. — Miss Bessie Morrison, M. E. L., Fayette, Mo. ; Miss Dixie 
Duncan (Mrs. Wills), M. E. L., Fayette, Mo. ; Miss Stella McKinney, 
A. M., Fayette, Mo. 

1881. — Miss Fannie Davis, M. E. L., Hannibal, Mo. ; Miss Willie 
Cardwell, A. M., New Florence, Mo. ; Miss Rosa Fisher, A. M., Fay- 
ette, Mo. ; Miss Fannie Prosser, A. M., Brunswick, Mo. ; Miss Min- 
nie Morrison, M. E. L., Fayette, Mo. ; Miss India Swinney, M. E. 
L., Fayette, Mo. 

1882.— Miss Lillie Bryan, M. E. L., Fayette, Mo. ; Miss Sallie 
Denny, M. E. L., Fayette, Mo. ; Miss Jennie Houck, M. E. L., Fay- 
ette, Mo. ; Miss Lulu McCafferty, M. E. L., Burton, Mo. ; Miss Min- 
nie Morrison, A. M., Fayette, Mo. 


Mrs. John Morrison, president ; Mrs. A. F. Davis, vice-president ; 
Miss Emma Jackson, secretary ; Miss Katie Wright, treasurer. 


Fayette has agood public school, under the management of A. F. 
Willis, county commissioner. The school building is a brick struc- 
ture, erected in 1871 ; it is two stories, and contains four rooms. The 
teachers are: Prof. A. F. Willis, principal ; Miss Sudie Morrison, Miss 
Evaline B. Willis Anderson, teacher in colored school. One hun- 
dred and thirty-eight pupils now enrolled ; eighty in daily attendance. 

There is also an excellent school for the colored people. Two hun- 
dred and twenty-three white children are of school age in the district ; 
one hundred and thirty colored children are of school age in the district. 

The public schools of Fayette were opened in 1867, under the man- 
agement of Thos. G. Deatherage, assisted by Miss Lou Forster. 


Unlike many towns not even half so old, Fayette has been wonder- 
fully exempt from fires, none of any consequence occurring until July 


13th, 1882. We copy the following from the Howard County Adver- 
tiser : 

•< Fire ! Fire ! Fire ! Fayette is on fire ! " 

This was the wild cry which startled the inhabitants of our usually 
quiet city and tore them in rude haste from their peaceful slumbers at 
about four o'clock on last Thursday morning, the 13th inst. 

Leaping from their beds and donning the first articles of wearing 
apparel that came to hand, they rushed almost with one accord, and 
without regard to personal appearance, into the streets, and made their 
way by the lurid glare of flames to the principal business block of 
town, on second Main cross street, south of the court-house. Here a 
sight met the gaze which struck terror to the hearts of the bravest 
men. Great sheets of livid flame were bursting forth and darting 
their fiery tongues heavenward from the rear of Norris & Knaus' fur- 
niture establishment, situated about midway of the block. About 
one-half of the block was composed of frame buildings, and the fire 
spread with almost lightning-like rapidity, and in a few moments two- 
thirds of the block was a rolling, surging, roaring mass of flames. 
The scene simply beggars description — men, women and children 
rushing hither and thither, carrying out goods, shouting, screaming, 
and gesticulating ; the blaze throwing a weird, unearthly brightness 
for miles around. 

So intense was the heat, and so panic-stricken did the spectators 
seem, that some time had elapsed before any well directed efforts 
were made to check the devastating course of the devouring element. 
At length the " bucket brigade ". was formed, and did valuable ser- 
vice in throwing water on the roof and rear of the Tolson Hall build- 
ing, by which means the flames were subdued, after eight business 
houses had been completely consumed. 

But a small portion of the contents of the buildings were saved. 
The wildest excitement prevailed for some time, and in the effort to save 
goods and effects they were hurled indiscriminately and promiscuously 
into the streets. After the first panic had somewhat subsided, both men 
and women, without regard to class or condition, went faithfully to 
work to remove everything of value possible to places of safety. 

Following are the estimated losses and the insurance, which are 
believed to be very nearly correct : — 

Wills & Nipper, groceries and queensware — goods partly saved 
in damaged condition ; stock $3,000 ; insurance $1,500. 

Wm. Barnes, barber, loss small ; no insurance. 

J. S. Dickerson, saloon, loss $1,500; no insurance. 

M. Skillman, saddlery and harness, stock partly saved, loss 
$2,000 ; insurance $550. 

Norris & Knaus, furniture, total loss $4,000; insurance $1,600. 

1. N. Houk, Independent office, loss $2,000; no insurance. 

C. J. Walden, Advertiser office, total loss $6,000; insurance 

John Kuehn, saddlery and harness, loss $2,000 ; no insurance, 
stock partly saved. 



Henry Rose, boots and shoes, hats and caps ; goods mostly 
saved ; loss $1,000 ; insurance $1,000. 

John C. Graves, loss on saloon $3,000 ; insurance $1,825. 

The following losses are from moving goods, which were damaged 
to an unusual extent and much rendered entirely useless : — 

L. S. Prosser, dry goods and notions ; stock $25,000 ; damage 
by removal, $1,000 ; insurance $10,000. 

Dudgeon & Swetland, druggists, stock $6,000 ; insurance $4,000 ; 
damaged by removal $1,500. 

Boyd & Shafroth ; stock $6,000 ; insurance $2,500 ; damaged by 

J. H, Robertson, damage to law library, by water, $150. 

" Spot " Jones lost about $300 worth of carpenter tools and mate- 
rials, which were in his shop over Wills & Nipper's ; no insurance. 

William Robertson lost about $300 worth of household goods, 
which were stored in the rear of Dickerson's saloon. 

The losses on buildings are : — 

William Shafroth, one large double brick store house, $8,000; 
insurance $4,000 ; and on two two-story frame business houses, total 
loss of $4,000 ; no insurance. 

Jordan Collar, two one-story frame houses ; value $3,000 ; insur- 
ance $800. 

Dan Kelly, frame house, total loss, $1,200. No insurance. 

B. R. Patrick, two-story frame house, total loss, $2,500. No in- 

J. D. Tolson, damage to store rooms and hall, $1,500. 

The entire loss is estimated at $50,000, of which $15,820 are cov- 
ered by insurance in companies, as follows : 

German-American ..... 

$1,750 00 

Springfield Fire, Mass. .... 

400 00 

Queen, of Liverpool ..... 

700 00 

Ins. Co. of North America .... 

1,700 00 

JEtna, of Hartford ..... 

2,000 00 

Fire Association ..... 

2,300 00 

Home, of New York ..... 

2,300 00 

Phoenix, of Hartford . .... 

1,170 00 

Pennsylvania Fire . . 

3,500 00 


By eight o'clock the fire was under control, and while some of the 
people, weary, dirty, smoke begrimed, with clothes torn and dishev- 
elled and hearts made sore by the terrible catastrophe, returned to 
their homes to breakfast and gather their bewildered thoughts, others 
remained on the scene to guard the property from pillagers and make 
arrangements for its disposal. 

The stocks of Messrs. Dudgeon & Swetland and Boyd & Shafroth 
were returned to their rooms. 


L. S. Prosser's stock is temporarily stored in one of Tolson's new 
rooms on First Main street, where he will remain until his former 
stand is refitted. 

H. Rose is located in the same building, where he will probably 
remain permanently. 

M. L. Skillman can be found in the room two doors south of the 

The small remnant of Wills & Nipper's stock is stored in Mrs. 
Rich's building north of the court-house. 

Kuehn's stock was removed to the room four doors north of the 

Wm . Barnes may be found on First Main street, two doors be- 
low Mr. Prosser. He will be back to the old stand as soon as build- 
ing can be erected. 

Before the ground in the burned district had become cool, Messrs. 
Dickerson and Graves had their forces at work erecting temporary 
wooden structures, in which to do business until more substantial 
buildings can be built. 

E. C. Stowe, photographer, with his usual characteristic enter- 
prise, managed to secure three excellent views of the smoking ruins, 
of which he is having an immense sale. 


To Miss Hattie King belongs the honor of having given the first 
alarm. And bravely did she earn it. She was awakened by the light 
from the fire shining in at her window, and hastily arising, she 
snatched up a linen duster and drawing it about her as she went, ran 
into the street screaming "fire!" and with wonderful presence of 
mind made her way to the scales near the court-house, and seizing the 
scale bell began a vigorous ringing that soon brought the startled peo- 
ple to the scene. 

The ladies deserve great credit for the part they took in the 
morning's work. Their flashing eyes and encouraging voices urged 
the men to strain every nerve to check the raging fire fiend, and their 
hands did noble service in the work of saving. 

J. M. Coller sustained his reputation as a hero in cases of emer- 
gency, and to him, perhaps, more than any other man, are we indebted 
for tne saving of the remainder of the block, and much more valuable 
property. By almost superhuman effort, and at imminent risk of 
his life, he ascended to the roof of Tolson's building, where by the 
aid of other brave and willing hands water was brought, and the fur- 
ther spread of the fire prevented. 

James Tindall (colored) performed a rash and rather foolhardy 
act of bravado. Rushing into Graves' saloon while the walls were 
tottering on their foundations, he seized the large clock and carried it 
out, reaching the street just as the walls fell with a crash, missing 
him but a short distance. 


While many of the better class of colored people rendered good 
assistance, a number of proverbially worthless ones stood about and 
absolutely refused to make any effort, either to check the fire or save 
property. No words of condemnation are too severe for any man, be 
he who or what he may, who will stand idly by and see his neighbor's 
property destroyed, without making some attempt at rescue. 

Fortunately no lives were lost, and the personal injuries sus- 
tained by any one were very slight. 

Harry Bumstead had his right hand burned and shoulder bruised 
by being crowded against a hot brick wall while removing goods. 

Mr. W. A. Dudgeon received a bruise on the arm while helping 
to carry a soda fountain. 

Major M. A. Boyd sprained an ankle while tearing down a stair- 
way in the rear of the Fayette bank, and was the worst hurt of any 


Fayette post-office, with the date of appointment of postmasters. 
Established May 22, 1824 : — 

May 22, 1824, L. J. Daly. 
January 13, 1840, B. F. Jeter. 
March 26, 1841, William Taylor. 
February 20, 1841, Nathaniel Ford. 
March 26, 184-, William Payton. 
April 9, 1850, Henry W. Kring. 
April 17, 1851,- W. T. Mallory. 
October 20, 1863, M. A. Mallory. 
October 25, 1865, Miss Alice Gardenhire. 
September 9, 1867, William A. Dudgeon. 
December 23, 1874, James F. Agee. 


7 Attorneys. 2 Real estate dealers. 

6 Physicians. 2 Shoemakers. 

1 Dentist. 6 Saloons. 

3 Druggists. 1 Restaurant. 
5 Dry good stores. 1 Flour mill. 

2 Banks. 1 Saw mill. 

4 Hardware houses. 1 Photographer. 

2 Agricultural and implement 3 Blacksmiths and wagon-mak- 

dealers. ers. 

2 Hotels. 2 Furniture dealers. 



2 Livery stables. 
2 Harness makers. 
2 Jewelers. 
2 Lumber merchants. 

1 Tailor. 

2 Meat markets. 

2 Grain dealers. 

1 Tobacco house. 

2 Insurance agents. 

Depot of Missouri Kansas and 
Texas railroad. 
Express office. 
2 Millinery stores. 



Boundary — Physical Features — Early Settlements — Glasgow — Its Early History — First 
Churches and Ministers — Town Incorporated — City Officials — Growth and Busi- 
ness— Banks and Bankers— Railroad Bridge, Telegraph, and Telephone — The Ad- 
dress of W. Pope Teaman, D. D. — Salt, Sulphur, and Mineral Springs —Palmer 
House — Stockholders — Description of the Building — Palmer House Opening — Secre 4 
Societies — Early Schools — Pritchett School Institute — Morriion Observatory- 
Lewis College — Public School — Lewis Library — Present Business of Glasgow — 


The territorial limits of Chariton township have not been changed 
since the creation of the same by the county court, in 1821. It is in 
form something like a triangle, and contains about seventy square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by Chariton and Randolph coun- 
ties ; on the east by Prairie and Richmond townships ; on the south 
by Boone's Lick township, and on the west by Saline and Chariton 
counties, being separated from Saline county by the Missouri river. 


The land away from the river is generally high and rolling, and 
was originally covered with a dense forest, the greater portion of which 
has been cut to make room for the well cultivated farms which are 
now seen in every portion of the township. A number of limestone 
quarries have been opened and worked by the local trade. Rock is, 
however, found in many parts of the township. 

Among the streams are Doxey, Bear, Richland, and Hurricane 
creeks, all of which flow westwardly and empty into the Missouri 
river or one of its tributaries. 


Among the early settlers of Chariton township, were Thomas M. 
Cockerill, who located about two miles east of Glasgow. He after- 
wards became a resident of Glasgow. He died about the breaking 
out of the late war. H. Clay Cockerill, the present editor of the 


Glasgow Journal, is a son of his. He had another son and two 
daughters, who are still living. 

Stephen Donohoe located two miles east of Glasgow, and died 
before the war. He left a family, but none of his children are now 
living in Howard county. 

Henry Lewis came from Virginia at an early day and settled also 
in the township. He was an uncle of Major J. W. Lewis, and died 
before the war. 

John Wilhoit and Talton Turner were early settlers, and are re- 
membered to this day as being the only two "Whigs who voted that 
ticket for years in the township. 

Edmond Lewis, Wm. D. Swinney, James Earickson, Daniel 
Estill, James B. Bouldin, Horton E. Barton and John Bull, were all 
among the pioneers of Chariton township, and all emigrated from Vir- 
ginia. Horton R. Turner now resides in Linn county, Missouri. 
John Bull was at an early period a representative in congress. Pat- 
rick Woods was an early settler. So was Austin F. Walden, who was 
at one time a judge of the county court. William Warren was the 
first justice of the peace in the township. 


Glasgow owed its early existence to two facts : the healthfulness of 
its location and the superior advantages that would accrue to that 
location as a future trading point. Other towns had been founded 
near it, one of which (old Chariton) had attained considerable impor- 
tance, and at one time contained from one to two thousand inhabitants, 
but after surviving a number of years, the site was finally abandoned, 
on account of the malaria and other diseases, which annually proved 
to be unusually malignant and fatal. Old Chariton was laid out in 
1817, by Gen. Duff Green (who has since been noted in the history 
of Missouri as one of her shrewdest politicians), Thomas Joyce and 
Major Finley, near the mouth of the Chariton river, two miles north 
of the present city of Glasgow. The town grew so rapidly, and prom- 
ised so much for the future, that William Cabeen, one of the pioneers 
of the place, actually exchanged his lots in St. Louis, for an equal 
number of lots in Chariton. 

Chariton being regarded in 1829, as too unhealthful to live in, the 
town of Monticello was then located, one mile to the rear of it, on high 
land. In 1832, another town was started on a point projecting into 
the Missouri river, at the mouth of the Chariton, which was called 
Thorntonsburg. This name, however, not suiting the citizens of the 


place, many of whom, had emigrated from Kentucky, they determined 
to change it, and finally bestowed upon the bantling for commercial 
honors, the more euphonious, albeit longer appellative, Louisville-on- 
Missouri-river . 

We have often heard it remarked, that too much name was not 
only burdensome, but at times proved fatal to its owner. Whether 
the name in this instance had any effect upon the aspirations of the 
town, we cannot say, but it is a fact that Louisville-on- Missouri-river, 
together with its predecessors, Monticello, Thorntonsburg and Chari- 
ton, have long since been numbered with the things of the past. 

None of the above situations being just what was desired, upon 
which to rear a permanent town or city, they were all abandoned, and 
the present town site of Glasgow was selected, as possessing all the 
requisites necessary for such an enterprise. Accordingly, in the fall 
of 1836, the town was laid out originally on parts of sections 8, 9, 
16, 17, township 51, range 17, by William D. Swinney, James 
Earickson, Talton Turner, John F. Nichols, W. F. Dunnica, James 
Glasgow, T. N. Cockerill, Kichard Earickson, Joseph A. Blackwell, 
Thomas White, James Head, Stephen Donohoe, John Bull, C. D. 
W. Johnson, Benj. G. Pulliam and Wm. J. Moore. The proprietors 
of the land from whom the town site was purchased, were Talton 
Turner and James Earickson. The name Glasgow was given in honor 
of James Glasgow, above named, who was one of the early settlers of 
Chariton and who afterwards moved to St. Louis, where he died. 

The first sale of lots occurred on the 10th of September, 1830, 
the land still being covered with the native forest trees. One hun- 
dred lots, one sixth of the whole number, were offered for sale, &nd 
these were selected with a view to an equal distribution of the lots sold 
and reserved, in the more desirable or less desirable portion of the 

The pioneer business man of the place was a Mr. Walker, who 
erected the typical log cabin on the spot where the blacksmith shop 
of James Davis now stands, and opposite to the Palmer house. Here 
he opened a small stock of goods, and his prime articles of trade were 
whiskey and tobacco, the former being the matutinal drink of the old 
settler, and the latter his chief article of luxury. 

The next building was that of Charles Purdon, which was erected 
on the corner of Howard and Second streets. It was designed as a 
residence and chair factory, Mr. Purdon being a chair-maker. This 
building, which was also constructed of logs, was destroyed by fire 
during the late war. Many of the old settlers still have Purdon's 


chairs, and prize them highly for the solid comfort they afford as 
well as for their durability. The earliest " village blacksmith " was 
Green W. Pluuket, who came from Kentucky. The old citizens who 
now reside here, remember the roar of his furnace and the din of his 
sounding anvil, as he "sharpened" the plow, or shod the horse. 
Plunket is dead. Noah Swacker, who was, however, a contemporary 
of Plunket, still resides in Glasgow. 

The first store and warehouse combined was opened by W. J. 
Moore & Co. Then came Dr. John Bull, Joseph A. Black- 
well, Dnnnica & Barton, Mann & Ball, B. W. Lewis & Bros., 
Lewis, Nanson & Co., Bartholow, Lewis & Co., John D. Perry, 
Damran Bros. & Co., William Spear & Co., White & Earickson, 
H. W. Smith, Skinner & Price, and a number of others, some of 
whom are now dead, while others reside elsewhere ; a very few still 
remain in Glasgow. The first horse-mill and carding machine was 
operated by E. Fisher. Mr. Fisher had the honor also of supplying 
the town and travelling public with the first steam ferry boat, which 
was named " Clark H. Green," after the editor of the Glasgow Times, 
one of the early newspapers of the town. Mr. Fisher is still a citizen 
of Glasgow. The first physician was Dr. James Livingston, who 
went to Grundy county, Missouri. Dr. I. P. Vaughan, was 
also among the first physicians in the town, and has since 
remained here, excepting a short period of time spent in St. 
Louis. He now resides in Glasgow, and is still devoted to his 
profession, in which he has achieved much prominence and 
success. Among the pioneer attorneys, were James A. De Courcy 
and Thomas Shackelford. The former came in 1842, and edited a 
newspaper called the Pilot. Mr. Shackelford came in 1840, from 
Saline county, Missouri, where he was born, but did not begin the 
practice of law until a few years later. He has constantly resided in 
the town and has been one of its most prominent and successful 

Emerson & Thornton (after the latter the old town of Thorntons- 
burg was called) established the first ferry here. Samuel Steinmetz, 
was the original shoemaker of the place, and attended faithfully to the 
soles of his patrons for many years. Jesse Arnott ran the first livery- 
stable, Christian Matthews the first butcher shop, and Dr. Thomas 
M. Cockerill opened the first drug store. Oliver S. Coleman was the 
first tailor to exercise his trade in town. Under him worked Jos. G. 
Williams, who has continued to live in Glasgow since 1837. The first 
hotel-keeper, was Thomas McCoy, who was also a tailor His house was 


located on Commerce, between Second and Third streets, north side, 
and is now standing. Walter G. Childs was the first man who met 
his death by violence. He was a Virginian, and was also the pro- 
prietor of a hotel. Soon after he opened his house, one of the citizens 
of the town happened to be intoxicated, and while in front of the hotel 
became quite noisy. Childs politely requested him to go away. The 
man immediately left, but returned again, soon after procuring a large 
knife, and stepped up to Childs, who was standing near the door of 
his house, and without uttering a word of warning plunged it into his 
breast, killing him. The murderer started in the direction of the river, 
pursued by a few outraged citizens who had seen the bloody deed, and 
leaped into the water. The parties began to pelt him with rocks, 
sticks and other things that they could get hold of, until he was finally 
struck on the head with a chair hurled at him from the bank. After 
this he sank and was seen no more. Louis Robion opened the first 
saloon. John F. Nichols started the first tobacco manufacturing 

Glasgow possessed at an early date ( 1837) very good mail facilities 
for a remote and distant town from St. Louis. A tri-weekly stage 
was put on the route between the town and St. Louis. The stage 
was large enough to carry nine persons, and the fare was $10 to St. 

W. F. Dunnica, now an old and respected resident of Glasgow, got 
aboard of the stage soon after the line had been established, bound 
for St. Louis, but after going about twenty miles the stage broke 
down. He, with others, " footed " it to Columbia, went to the river, 
bought a skiff, and continued their journey to St. Louis, where they 
arrived in good time. 


The first religious denomination to bear aloft the banner of peace 
in Glasgow was the Methodist. Rev. Thomas Patton and Rev. Ben- 
jamin Johnson, the circuit riders for this district, held services here 
prior to 1840, and met at the houses of some of the citizens. Mr. 
Patton is dead, and Mr. Johnson went to California. Rev. Charles 
D. Simpson, Old School Presbyterian, held religious services soon 
after. He was, as stated elsewhere, among the early school teachers. 
He died in St. Louis. The first church edifice was erected by the 
Methodists, on Fourth and Commerce streets (lot 1, block 27), frame 
building, and is still standing and used as a boarding-house. The 
Old School Presbyterians built the next church in 1843. 



The first government of the town was derived from the county 
court, the immediate governing or corrective power being in the hands 
of a constable and justice of the peace. On the 27th of February, 
1845,- the legislature passed "An act incorporating the city of Glas- 
gow," which act established the city limits, provided for the election 
of officers, and defined their powers and duties. 

In 1853, an amendatory act was passed, extending the corporate 
limits as follows : "Beginning at the main channel of the Missouri 
river, opposite Gregg's creek ; proceeding thence up said creek one 
mile ; thence due north to Bear creek ; thence down Bear creek to 
the main channel of the Missouri river ; thence down said channel of 
the Missouri river to the place of beeinnino-." 

The city government was organized by the election of H. W. Smith 
as mayor, and R. P. Hanenkamp, Jacob Zimmerman, Dr. I. P. 
Vaughan, James S. Thomson, George B. Dameron, E. Billingsley, 
and Jesse Arnott, council. James S. Thomson was chosen president 
of the board, and Rev. C. D. Simpson, secretary. 

The present officers of the city government are : A. B. Southworth, 
mayor ; N. B. Weaver, C. H. Lewis, James Fitzpatrick, H. Stackland, 
John W. Baker and Simeon Openhimer, councilmen. R. H. Nanson, 
marshal; H. C. Grove, clerk; M. Leahman, treasurer; and J. J. 
Hawkins, city attorney. 


The town continued to grow in business and importance until the 
North Missouri railroad was constructed, twenty-seven miles north, 
thereby cutting off much of the trade, which had come from that direc- 
tion to Glasgow, for many years. 

The next blow was the building and completion of the west branch 
of the Wabash, which also took away much of the business of the 
town. For many years Glasgow was the shipping point for a great 
section of country, and was also a market to the farmers, who sold to 
the merchants their tobacco, pork, apples, etc. After building the 
railroads above named, the produce and surplus of the farmers along 
the lines of these roads found a better market, as they thought, in 
Chicago and St. Louis, and, consequently, withdrew their business 
from Glasgow. 



Since the coming of the Chicago and Alton railroad to the town, 
Glasgow has bravely maintained its own, and has a population of 
about 1,800 souls. The schools (Lewis college and Pritchett school in- 
stitute) are located here (a full history of which is given in this chap- 
ter), and add much to the business as well as to the educational and 
literary interests of the place. 

The following will show something of the business and improve- 
ments of the town from 1849 to 1857 : — 

The improvements made in the town in 1849, were as follows: 
The Glasgow female seminary and Odd Fellows' hall, at a cost of 
$3,600. A large brick hotel erected by Turner and Earickson, at a cost 
of $7,000, on the corner of Howard and Water streets. Captain 
John F. Nichols erected a two-story brick warehouse. Johu Harrison 
commenced the erection of a large brick flouring mill. 

The amount of business for that year was as follows : — 

Tobacco, hogheads shipped, 5,230. 
Hemp, bales, 3,577. 
Bacon, casks, 118. 
Bale, rope, coils. 1,250. 
Lard, barrels, 259. 
Lard, kegs, 320. 

Green apples, barrels, 4,471. 
Dry apples, bushels, 4,089. 
Wheat, bushels. 21,670. 
Dry hides, 953. 
Pork, barrels, 450. 


The following will show the superior facilities for river transpor- 
tion in 1850, over the present time: — 

Port of Glasgow — Came up. 

Sacramento, April 19. 
St. Paul, April 19. 
Lightfoot, April 21. 
Monroe, April 21. 
J. L. McLean, April 21. 

Went down. 

Gen., April 22. 
Minnesota, April 22. 
El Paso, April 22. 
Pocahontas, April 23. 
Tuscumbia, April 25. 

Mary Blane, April 18. 
Haydee, April 20. 
Jas. Mil linger, April 20. 
Hungarian, April 20. 
St. Ange, April 21. 
Princeton, April 21. 

Alton, April 22. 
Cambria, April 22. 
Robert Campbell, April 22. 
Gen. Lane, April 23. 
NePlus Ultra, April 23. 


The population of Glasgow in November, 1852, was 800 ;includ- 
ing North Glasgow, 1,000. 

Population in 1856, Glasgow, 967. 

Population in 1856, Fayette, 706. 

Population in 1856, New Franklin, 221. 

Population in 1856, Roanoke, 128. 

The Central Missouri Insurance Company of Glasgow was incor- 
porated in 1857. 


The, first bauking house was a private institution, operated by 
Weston F. Birch & Son, from 1854 to 1859. During the latter 
year, the Western bank of Missouri was organized ; its principal 
stockholders were Wm. D. Swinney, Weston F. Birch, James T. 
Birch, Thomas E. Birch and George W. Ward. 

The second bank was the Exchange bank, which was established 
in 1857, with W. C. Boon, DabneyC. Garth, Talton Turner, Richard 
Earickson, Benj. W. Lewis and others as stockholders. 

Thomson & Dunnica succeeded the Exchange bank in 1863. 
Birch, Earickson & Co. started a bank in 1865. Glasgow Savings 
bank was established in 1871 ; capital $75,000. Directors : G. W. More- 
head, Thos. Shackelford, J. H. Turner, Jr., J. W. Southworth, Sydney 
Shackelford, Geo. B. Harrison, Thos. E. Birch. Thos. Shackelford, 
president ; Thomas E. Birch, cashier ; George B. Harrison, assistant 

Howard county bank succeeded Thomson & Dunnica in 1877. 
Capital, $35,000. J. S. Thomson, president; Joseph Stettmund, 
vice-president; J. P. Cunningham, cashier; A. W.Hutchinson, book- 
keeper; J. H. Wayland, secretary. Board of directors: J. S. 
Thomson, J. P. Cunningham, J. H. Wayland, R. W. Swinney, Joseph 
Stettmund, Monte Lehman. 


Glasgow is the terminal point of the great Wabash system of 
railroads. The Chicago and Alton railroad crosses the river at this 
point, the company building a bridge in 1878, which cost about 

The Western Union and Mutual Union telegraph companies, are 
represented. The town will be supplied with telephonic facilities 
soon, connecting the pi'incipal business houses, the hotels and springs. 



When the railroad bridge at Glasgow was completed, about 7,000 
persons met in a grove below the town, to celebrate the event in an 
appropriate manner, by speech-making, a dinner, and general rejoic- 
ing. The chief feature of that occasion, was the eloquent and happy 
address of Dr. Yeaman, which we here give in full: — 

Ladies, Gentlemen — Fellow-citizens: To me has been assigned 
the pleasant duty of giving you a welcome to this interesting occa- 
sion. In behalf of those to whom we and the wide world are in- 
debted for this magnificent enterprise, the completion of which we 
celebrate to-day, I welcome all. In behalf of the citizens of the old 
and cultured town of Glasgow, I welcome you. To the smiling hills, 
generous fields, bowing forests and hospitable homes of Howard 
county, you who are visitors are thrice welcome. 

I have said we welcome you to this interesting occasion. This is 
truly an occasion of rare interest. We have not met as partisans to 
celebrate the temporary triumph of a part of the people over another 
part ; not to do homage to the valor and success of some standard 
bearer ; not to wreath with laurels the brow of some personal favor- 
ite ; nor for any purpose other than one in which all persons of all 
sections and all parties may and do have a real and practical interest. 
A great achievement in science and art has been made, and a won- 
derful advance step in higher civilization has been taken. 

The ever westward course of empire, in its irresistible onwardness, 
has chosen our central state of the Union, our own longest river of the 
continent, and our own classic town of Glasgow, as the theatre for the 
enactment of the greatest performance of the greatest science of a 
progressive age. I do not exaggerate. I do not use strong terms 
simply because they are most convenient for speech-making. I 
mean what I say. A great steel bridge, spanning a great river for 
railroad crossing, is an achievement in the science of civil engineer- 
ing and the art of construction, that marks the progress of thought 
and_ learning, and surely indicates that steady development of mind 
and wise utilization of matter, upon which is dependent the victories 
for which man is so eminently suited by his God-like endowments. 
The adaptation of the tangible results of mind-work to the promotion 
of man to the higher phases and planes of progressive life, is an 
essential factor in the forces of true improvement. 

The means and facilities for safe and rapid transit of persons and 
commercial commodities, are high in rank with those conditions of 
life which we seek to sum up and express in a single word — civiliza- 
tion. Prominent among these means and facilities is the structure 
familiarly known as a bridge. Next in the march of progress, after 
the improved road, came the bridge. The necessity for this structure 
must have been felt at a very early period in the history of civilized 


nations, but it was not until a comparatively late one that the art of 
bridge building can be said to have assumed any very definite charac- 
ter. From Greek histoi'ians we learn of bridges built by Semiramus, 
Darius, Xerxes, Pyrrhus and others. But it would appear that the 
style of these structures was rude and unscientific. It consisted sim- 
ply in the erection of piers, upon the tops of which were laid hori- 
zontal beams of timber or large flat stones. During the monarchy 
and the early days of the republic of Rome, bridge building remained 
in this primitive condition ; yet the arch was essentially a Roman in- 
vention, and it was not until after their civilization had distinctly 
developed itself that the art of bridge building could be said to have 
existence on anything like a scientific basis. It is not improbable that 
the first stone bridge of large span was the Pons 8enatorius, or 
Senator's bridge, built by Caius Flavius Scipio. From this time on, 
during the days of the glory of Rome, this important physical ex- 
pression of civilization made steady improvements, subject to the 
hindrances interposed by the civil and military vicissitudes of the 
republic. Some of the Roman structures were remarkable for their 
imposing effect and substantial work, and evinced a skill in engineering 
that still challenges admiration. The principal material used in afi 
of the great bridges of the ancients was stone, and this was the prin- 
cipal material used by the scientific corps of the Ponts et Chaussees 
of France, under whose skilful engineering; the beautiful bridges of 
Blois, Orleans, Tours, Mohlins and others were designed and built 
in the eighteenth century. 

But it was not until about the year 1775, that cast iron was used 
among the ordinary building material of bridges ; this was by Mr. 
Pritchard, of Shrewsbury, England, in the erection of Coalbrookdale 
bridge, and thus was laid the foundation of anew and valuable style of 
construction. Mr. Pritchard' s example was followed by Thos. Wil- 
son, at Sunderland, 1795, and shortly afterwards cast iron was 
largely applied by Telford and his contemporaries. 

It is to the present century that the world is indebted for the 
highest attainments of science and art in meeting the demands created 
by the wonderful progress of civilization, promoted by the application 
of steam to railway locomotion, for bridges that combine all the 
elements of safety, durability and rapidity of construction ; and to 
our own land may the world turn for the highest exhibitions of learn- 
ing and skill in this department of public works. 

Great bridges are not built by novices. There is no department 
- that requires greater or more skilled brain work. We cease to look 
to the fascinations of poetry, the charms of eloquence, or the wisdom 
of the forum, for the exhibitions of the power of close and systematic 
thought. It is to great works of the present day like that which we 
celebrate, to which we turn as the practical utilitarian monuments of 
true greatness. Poetry, eloquence, law and government, are factors 
of civilization, but not its highest forms. The discovery and practical 
application of hidden forces to the real and actual demands of a 


ceaselessly progressive life, is a step far in advance of those original 
elements of improved society, yet all are necessary to the complete 

If we would appreciate the soundness of this superiority of men- 
tal achievement, let us contemplate, for a moment, some of the points 
to be settled in designing a bridge. And first, it must be known 
what is the water-way absolutely required by the most unfavorable 
circumstances of the particular case. This space, as to its dimensions, 
will depend upon several conditions : the area of the district contri- 
buting to the stream ; the quantity and condition of its rainfall ; the 
configuration and the geological character of the water-shed, the 
drainage of which must be passed under the bridge. Again, the form 
to be given to the piers and arches is not merely a matter of taste. 
Here, close calculation must be made of the extent and peculiar 
direction of water pressure ; also of the artificial weight, which, under 
the most urgent demand, may be brought to bear upon the structure, 
and then the properties, susceptibilities, capabilities and liabilities of 
the material which it is proposed to use in the construction ; these 
and many other minute and equally important points must be studi- 
ously and cautiously settled. 

But I now come to apply my hurried thoughts to the grand struc- 
ture whose proportions of wonder and beauty are before us to-day. 

Behold the first large steel bridge ever erected in the world ! To 
the enterprise and public spirit of such minds as those who manage 
the affairs of the Chicago and Alton railroad company, is the world 
indebted for this brilliant achievement. To the learning and skill of 
General Wm. Sooy Smith is the company and the public indebted 
for the conception, suggestion, prosecution and completion of the 

It is true that steel has entered, more or less, into the construc- 
tion of bridges for many years ; but until a very recent date it was used 
only in the parts exposed to the greatest strain. But up to the time 
that the Glasgow bridge was designed, no engineer had been so bold 
ns to plan any great bridge entirely of steel. Indeed, previous to that 
time there was no steel which possessed all of the requisites of a first- 
class bridge material. There was steel much stronger than any other 
metal, but it was brittle at low temperatures. The^miuds of engineers 
throughout the world were eagerly looking out for a steel, the compo- 
sitions of which united the necessary toughness at all temperatures 
with extraordinary strength. Not until the scientific experiments of 
an American and a Western man, Mr. A.F. Hay, of Burlington, Iowa, • 
resulted favorably, was the long-sought boon found. "When this steel 
was produced, it was subjected to the most careful tests, and was found 
to be capable of being bent double without crack or flaw when reduced 
to the lowest temperature attainable by freezing chemical combina- 
tions. These tests and experiments were made by General Smith, who 
recommended it for bridge building purposes ; his suggestions were 
approved and adopted by Mr. Blackstone, president of the Chicago, 


Altonand St. Louis railroad company, who is himself a civil engineer of 
eminent ability, as well as an executive officer of distinguished suc- 

There is a little incident in the history of the bridge before us, of 
which Americans may be justly proud. During the national centen- 
nial exposition, General Smith met the celebrated English engineer, 
Mr. Barlow, and, in a conversation on the subject of steel bridges, 
banteringly said to him : " Look out, Mr. Barlow, or we will build a 
great steel bridge in America before you will in Europe." It was but 
a few days ago that the general had a letter from Mr. Barlow, asking 
as to the " progress on the proposed steel bridge at Glasgow." Com- 
mendable was the proud gratification that must have swelled the gen- 
eral's heart in answering back, " Trains are crossing it." (Here the 
speaker was interrupted by prolonged applause.) 

We feel kindly toward the government and people of her British 
majesty ; yet how can we refrain from a little exultation at the con- 
stantly recurring evidences of America's more rapid progress? (Ap- 

The two or three very small and comparatively unimportant steel 
bridges that hav ebeen built in Europe, still leave the Glasgow bridge 
the only great structure of the kind in the world. 

Since the designing of this bridge, a small steel bridge, built at 
the suggestion of General Smith, has been completed in Chicago. 

But, my hearers, let us go down from the superstructure, let us 
leave these thousands of tons of steel, these marvellous adjustments and 
curious combinations of force, and we will look at the basal structure. 
Those piers excite our admiration as we behold the beauty of their 
symmetry, and wonder at the gracefulness of their forms, as they 
stand upholding the elegant superstructure, with its passing burdens 
of wealth and thousands of living souls, in seeming consciousness of 
their great mission. 

Those graceful columns see safely across the great river uncouuted 
millions of the treasures from the hands of industry, and the hopes 
and the fears, the joys and griefs, the ambitions and disappointments 
of many thousands of our fellow-mortals. Long after the youngest 
person in this vast concourse of souls has stepped from the stage of 
life's varied drama, will those piers bear up and see safely over our 
unborn descendants. As sentinels, too, they stand reminding us that 
the works of man endure more than the workman, and silently say to 
us, lay broad and secure your foundations. 

Well, we must go under the water. Those piers rest not upon 
the sandy, muddy bed of the river. Down through the sand and mud 
and debris to the bed-rock, men went excavating and taking up the 
bed of the river here and there, that each pier might have a safe foot- 
hold upon the foundations of the earth. The process known as the 
"pneumatic,", of securing subaquatic foundations, is au invention of 
an English physician, Dr. Potts, made more than a quarter of a century 
ago, and introduced into this country by Chas. Pontz, about the year 
1857, for bridging the great Pedee and the Santee rivers. 


The wonder of this species of engineering is the pneumatic 
caisson, by which foundations are built above the surface of the water, 
and let down to the bed-rock that supports the bed of the river. The 
first of these scientific wonders was designed by General Smith, 
the engineer of the structure before us. This he proposed to sink for 
the foundation of a light-house on Frying-pan shoals, but the war in- 
terrupted and the work was not accomplished. After the war was 
ended and the people had returned to the arts of peace, the general 
designed and sunk the first pneumatic caisson ever built. This was 
used for putting in a sea-wall protection for the Waugoshance light- 
house in the straits of Mackinac. It surrounded the entire light- 
house, which stands two and a half miles from shore, and is regarded 
as one of the boldest and most successful feats in American engineer- 
ing. (Applause.) 

Quickly following this almost marvelous achievement, were the 
foundations of the New York and Brooklyn suspension bridge, and 
of the- great railroad and commonway bridge of St. Louis. Mean- 
while, substructures of the Omaha, Leavenworth and Boonville 
bridges were put in, under the supervision of the same master, by 
the same process. Many other important bridges, both in this country 
and abroad, were constructed upon piers founded in this way. The 
pneumatic process has undergone much improvement and develop- 
ment since its invention by Dr. Potts, and most of the appliances 
used in putting in the foundations of our bridge, are the inventions of 
the engineer who built it. 

But now we must come up' out of the water. The work is com- 
plete before us. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. Beauty is here 
combined with strength, durability and utility. Such combinations 
awaken admiration and inspire confidence. 

The metal of which our bridge is composed, has double the 
strength of the very best wrought iron ; it stretches as much before 
breaking, expands and contracts less with change of temperature, 
corrodes less rapidly, does not weaken under heavy strains, and is far 
more uniform in quality. 

All the parts of that magnificent structure subject to tension 
have been tested fifty per cent beyond the heaviest load they will 
ever have to bear, and it is estimated that the margin of its safety is 
fifty per cent greater than in the iron bridges of its class in this 

We thank Gen. Smith ; we thank Mr. Blackstone ; we thank the 
Chicago, Alton and St. Louis railroad company, for this contribution 
to the future development of a great state. The western division of the 
Chicago and Alton railroad is the best built and best equipped railroad 
in this mighty west. It runs through the heart of the best State of 
the union. The counties of Pike, Audrain, Boone, Howard, Saline, 
Lafayette and Jackson, combine all the resources of wealth of which 
any country can boast, and they are peopled by men and women who, 
for true patriotism, noble generosity and genuine hospitality, are not 
surpassed by the noblest of the noble. 


It is an honor to any corporation to own and use property in such 
a country and among such a people. We welcome the corporation 
and we wish it success. And General Smith, whose sojourn in Glas- 
gow has been a pleasure to our people, will at all times receive that 
hearty welcome merited by genius, culture and enterprise. 

Fellow-citizens : As the two great geographical divisions of our 
state are at many points united by strong and beautiful spans on 
great arches, so may the two great sections of the union, linked by 
steel and iron bars, and rails and wires, be more firmly bound by the 
strong chords of fraternal spirit, national love and a proper regard 
for national honor ! (Applause.) 

We must bridge a great chasm with a great moral and social 
structure. The substructure must be laid deep in the hearts of the 
people on both sides ; the piers must be built of patriotism and con- 
nected by arches of wisdom, and these must support a track for the 
car of a common humanity. Such a bridge cannot be built by de- 
magogues — no seekers after public plunder need apply. We want 
engineers skilled in the affairs of state. We must have workmen 
inspired by the noble enthusiasm of true national love and pride. We 
want and must have a common country bound together by the chords 
of common interest and fraternity, and he who seeks to rekindle the 
flames of sectional animosity must be anathematized as a miscreant 
and traitor, and be to the people as a heathen and a publican. 

Such a bridge must and will be built, of which we take the one 
before us as a physical expression ; and he who seeks to combine a 
solid section of the union against a solid section, will meet his 
merited doom at the verdict of an intelligent citizenship, ever de- 
manding unity of spirit in organic union. 

(With this conclusion of the address, the speaker retired, follow- 
ed by immense applause.) 


These springs which are located near the city, were discovered 
more than half a century ago, and are now highly spoken of, on 
account of their medicinal virtues. As early as 1842, they were rec- 
ommended by a number of the best and most prominent citizens of 
the town, but until recently (1882), no special effort has been made 
to brine: them into notice. Bath-houses will be erected at the different 
springs by their proprietors, which will be equipped with all modern 
and scientific appliances, and everything will be done for the comfort 
and convenience of the sick and afflicted, who njay patronize them. 
Below will be found a partial analysis of the springs prepared by 
Prof. T. Berry Smith, of Pritohett institute, Glasgow, in March, 
To the Editor of the Glasgow Journal: 

Last fall I made a partial analysis of some of the mineral waters 



around Glasgow. I have no balances delicate enough to attempt to 
find per cents by weight of ingredients, and can only judge approxi- 
mately of quantities present by comparison of the precipitates. I 
make out a rudely comparative table : — 


Iron Oxide. 

Epsom Salts. 

Plaster of Paris 
and Limestone. 


Sulph. Gas. 

Flow per Day 

J. F. Lewis' .... 

Red Bridge — 








Very small. 
Very large. 




1,000 gallons. 
2,500 gallons. 

750 gallons. 

It will be observed that the spring near Mr. Barton's is a chaly- 
beate spring, containing large quantities of iron and lime. All of the 
others abound in salt and free sulphuretted hydrogen gas, with medium 
quantities of iron, sulphate of magnesia and sulphate and carbonate 
of lime. The approximate flow per day of twenty-four hours is also 
given. I'couldnot give this in reference to Marr's well spring as it is 
an artesian well 181 feet deep. It contains more iron than either J. 
F. Lewis' or the Eed Bridge springs. The gas escapes and iron set- 
tles when the water is kept in bottles and exposed to the air, there- 
fore to get these to best advantage, the water must be used at the 
springs. I hope some time to be able to make more accurate analyses. 


One of the largest, most costly and elegantly furnished hotels in 
Missouri, outside of the three largest cities of the State, is the Palmer 
house, at Glasgow. 

On June 1, 1881, a joint stock company was formed, the shares 
being limited to $100 each, and taken up by forty-four original stock- 
holders, composed of J. P. Cunningham, J. J. Hawkins, Caples & 
Hawkins, John F. Lewis, J. M. Swinney, Strouse & Co., Dr. J. W. 
Hawking, N. B. Weaver, R. B. Caples, Joseph C. Drake, R. S. Mc- 
Campbell, C. H. Southwortb, T. W. Morehead, Wm. A. Meyers, 
George B. Harrison, Jos. Steadman, Thos. Shackelford, Yeaman & 
Bowen, John H. Turner, John Walcker, Jas. C. Collins, E. Poirier, 
T. M. Morgan, Philip Wahl, Major J. W. Lewis, Logan D. Dameron, 
Lehman & Miller, Jos. Steadman Jr., George Steinmetz.H. W. Cock- 
erill, J. W. Heryford, F. W. Heryford, C. Dautel, Joseph F. Hender- 
son, H. G. Gleyre'E. Poirier, J. F. Henderson, James S. Thompson, 
H. Clay Cockerill, Litman & Baer, Dr. James W. Southworth, Wm. 
Wengler & Sons., Geiger & Winand, Thos. Biggs, and Henry S. 
Pritchett. The board of directors were Thomas Shackelford, J. S. 
Thompson, Major J. W. Lewis, John H. Turner, J. W. Heryford; 


officered as follows : Thomas Shackelford, president ; J. S. Thompson, 
vice-president and secretary; J. W. Heryford, treasurer and superin- 
tendent. Work was commenced without delay, and the building was 
finished during the latter part of the year 1882. 


fronts west on Main street, overlooking the Missouri river and a 
beautiful stretch of country on the Saline county shore, is built of 
brick, the main portion being four stories high, with handsome veran- 
das from second and third stories. The dimensions of the main 
building proper, are 54 X 135 feet, with an "L," 45 X 46 ; the main 
entrance being in the centre on Main street, with the ladies' entrance 
on the north and one on the south leading to the ladies' ordinary. 


Running the entire length of the centre of the building is a passage- 
way eleven feet wide, with fifteen feet ceiling; in this are located all the 
water and gas pipes proper; it is also a means of ventilation. Front- 
ing on Main street, are six business rooms. To the rear of this hall 
and under the " L," is a roomy basement, where are located the Cole- 
man gas generator, the electric batteries, laundries, etc. 


is reached by three different avenues ; north and south entrances, and by 
the main stairway in front fifteen feet wide. This stairway leads to the 
main hallway, running the entire length of the building, and is eleven 
feet wide and twelve feet in the clear. To the right of the entrance is 
located the office, which is supplied with an electric annunciator as well 
as speaking tubes. The office is 22 X 22 feet in dimensions. To the 
left of the entrance is a large reading-room, a ladies' parlor, and a 
ladies' reception room. To the east across the hall are rooms en suite. 
To the south of this is the dining-hall 24 X 45 feet, with two en- 
trances. The ladies ordinary has a southern exposure, and also south 
entrances, size 15 X 35 feet. To the west and between the ordinary 
and main hallway are the sample-rooms. 


A large hall runs the entire length of the building ; the north 
vnng of the third story is set apart for the ladies and family use. In 


the centre of main building is a large court way to a veranda in the 
front. Across the hall is a "drummer's room," which is large, with 
aute-rooms. The south wing in third story is taken up with single 


is used exclusively for sleeping apartments. The house is equipped 
with bath-rooms, hot and cold water, and the entire building is one 
which would be creditable to a much larger town or city. 


One of the most important events that ever occurred in the his- 
tory of the town was the opening of the Palmer house to the public, 
which took place on the 9th day of March, 1883. The Glasgow 
Journal, of March 16, 1883, said : — 

As was anticipated, there was a large attendance at the opening of 
the Palmer house on Friday evening, some six hundred guests assem- 
bling in its spacious rooms, a large number of whom came from neigh- 
boring cities. The morning train on the Chicago and Alton railroad 
from the west brought in a number of guests, and still more came in on 
the night train. The evening trains on both roads were literally 

The guests began assembling in the parlors soon after eight, and 
continued to pour in rapidly until eleven o'clock. Dancing began 
about nine, in the large dining-room which was reserved for the pur- 
pose, and continued until nearly daylight. The music was furnished 
by the Coates' opera house band of Kansas City. The ball-room 
proved of ample dimensions, ten and twelve sets occupying the floor 
at a time, and the dancers passed away the hours merrily. 

The supper, prepared and served under the skilful direction of 
Mrs. Wilhite, was all that could be desired, and reflected credit upon 
the lady. As the large dining-room had been transformed for the time 
into a ball-room, it was necessary to use a smaller room, which would 
accommodate but sixty or seventy persons at a time. Some ten or a 
dozen tables were spread in all, but with care and skill, the changes 
were effected rapidly and without confusion. 

On every side we heard praises from the guests from abroad, ar.d 
surprise at the size and elegance of the building. We may safely 
claim that no one was disappointed, and the expectations of the 
majority were greatly surpassed. 

Much of the pleasure of the evening is to be attributed to the 
efficient work of the various committees, and especially to the ladies 
who were appointed to assist the reception committee. There was a 
sufficient number to see that none of the numerous guests were neg- 
lected, and none shirked their duty. 


Altogether, we have never seen an entertainment of its size pass 
off as pleasantly as did the opening Friday night. Our citizens endea- 
vored to make it as enjoyable as possible, and our guests seemed to 
appreciate their efforts. 

It was impossible, of course, to obtain the names of half who 
were present, but among guests from neighboring towns we noticed S. 
C. Boyd, F. P. Sebree, A. J. Trigg, Leslie Orear, J. C. Patterson, 
editor of the Progress, Adolph Striker, R. V. Montague, D. Monta- 
gue, J. P. Strother and lady, S. Bachrach, H. Lowenstein, M. Hage- 
dorn, Misses Drusilla Hutchison, Cora Hutchison, Lizzie King, Russie 
Boyd, and Maud Striker, Marshall; F. H. Gilliam and lady, W. T. 
Swinney and lady, G. B. Porter and lady, Miss Katie Swinney, and 
Samuel Daniels, Gilliam ; A. E. Rector and lady, C. Whit Williams, 
editor of the Index, Dr. T. B. Carter, and Jonas Stern, Stater; A. 
J. Rodman, Wm. Walker, D. M. Willis, Chas. Harris, Ledru Silvey, 
Misses Pattie Woodson, Hattie Salisbury, Laura Earickson, and Josie 
Wilson, Salisbury; N. B. Parks and lady, J. D. Butler and lady, A. 

C. Vandiver, editor of the Courier, and Dr. C. T. Holland, Keytes- 
ville ; Judge J. B. Hyde and lady, and Dr. T. E. Martin, Dalton ; Miss 
Emma Heryford, A. J. Payton, and L. Swearinger, Forrest Green ; I. 
N. Houck, editor of the Fayette Independent, W. A. Dudgeon and lady, 
S. B. Tolson, R. C. Clark and S. C. Major, Fayette ; Mrs. E. R. Way- 
land and daughter, Col. J. R. Richardson, and D. J. Briggs, Roanoke ; 
E. R. Lewis and lady, E. E. Samuels, E. Taylor, Huntsville ; Wm. Mc- 
Murray, and Henry Runkles, Mexico ; Mrs. J. A. Race and daughter, 
Moberly ; Chas. Dewey and sister, Kansas City; C. A. Honaker and' 
lady, Leadville ; J. R. Hawpe and lady, Shackelford ; Frank Massie, 
Kentucky; Misses L. and M. Walker, Pleasant Green, Cooper 


Glasgow has a number of secret orders. The Odd Fellows (the 
oldest), the Masonic, A. O. U. W., K. of H., K. of P., the German 
and Irish Benevolent Societies, and a lodge of Good Templars. 

Morning Star Lodge No. 15, I. O. O. F., organized in 1846. 
Charter members — Samuel Steinmetz, Thomas Davis, Ashley, Phil- 
lip Foust, H. House. The charter was surrendered about the year 
1872, and the lodge reorganized thereafter in 187-. 

Present officers — Lewis Littmann, N. G. ; George Binks, V. G. ; 
W. A. Smith, secretary ; A. C. Gillies, treasurer ; A. B. Southworth, 

D. G. M. 

Livingston Lodge No. 51, A. F. and A. M., organized October 12, 
1876. Charter members — Chas. H. Lewis, G. W. Morehead, John 
H. Turner, Jr., and others whose names could not be obtained. 

First officers — J. W. Norris, W. M. ; John Seibe, S. D. ; T. W. 
Morehead, S. W. ; Wm. Turner, J. D. ; T. W- Morgan, J. W. ; J. 


J. Hawkins, S. S. : C. F. Mason, treasurer; W. T. Maupin, J. S. ; 
J. C. Cunningham, secretary ; Jacob Essig, tyler ; J. O. Swinney, 

Present officers— J. H. Turner, W. M. ; John E. Pritchett, S. D. ; 
Daniel Langfeld, S. W. ; John Seibe, J. D. ; J. H. Turner, Jr., J. 
W. ; James O. Swinney, chaplain; Thos. G. Digges, treasurer; E. 
E. Turner, tyler ; J. H. Wayland, secretary. 

Knights of Pythias — charter granted Ivanhoe Lodge No. 31 
January 26, 1874. Charter members — I. and Clay Cockerill, Monte 
Lehman, C. W. Vaughan, James E. Donohoe, A. B. Southworth, 
James W. Eastin, John Chamberlain, A. C. Feazel, P. E. Sears, 
Frank Porier, W. W. Cockerill, George D. Eastin, Clarence South- 
worth, P. Baier, Jr., B. F. Eamord, E. Anderson, Wm. Lehman, E. 
L. Steinmetz, James O. Finks, I. and G. Gleyre, C. T. Holland, J. 

B. Lewis. 

Present officers — A. C. Gillies, P. C. ; A. Littman, C. C. ; C. 
G. Miller, V. C. ; L. Littman, P. ; J. S. Henderson, K. E. and S. ; 
M. Lehman, M. of F. ; E. A. Wengler, M. of Ex. ; Abe Strouse, 
M. of A. ; L. Bowler, I. G. ; Jos. E. Stettmund, O. G. 

Meet every Thursday. Endowment rank meet once per month. 
Forty-nine members. 

Knights of Honor — Golden Lodge 2051. Charter members — 
T. E. Birch, Jr., John H. Bowen, John W. Cox, James C. Collins, 
H. C. Grove, A. W. Hutchison, John W. Hawkins, O. M. Harrison, 
J. C. Hall, A. E. Johnson, G. F. Kuemmel, J. C. Marr, T. A. Mere- 
dith, George Phipps, J. M. Swinney, A. Steckling, W. N. Wickes, 
S. M. Yeaman, W. Pope Yeaman, D. L. Stevenson. 

Officers — H. C. Grove, dictator ; A. E. Johnson, vice-dictator ; 
T. E. Birch, Jr., reporter; A. W. Hutchison, financial reporter; 
George Phipps, treasurer. 

A.O.U.W. — Glasgow Lodge No. 112 ; charter members — Louis 
M. Kail, Larkin Garnett, Max Keller, "Wm. A. Smith, H. G. Gleyre, 
Theo.E. Osborne, B. C. Weiler, Thos. H. Wilson, Geo. W. Penn, Jas. 

C. Hall, J. W. Wright, M. B. Collins, J. S. Henderson, E. B. Mcllhany, 

D. L. Stevenson, R. T. Bond, W. H. Tatum, G. F. Keummel, Monte 
Lehman, T. Berry Smith. 

Officers— Dr. M. B.Collins, P. M. W. ; Geo. F. Keummel, M. W. ; 
Geo. W. Jones, Foreman ; Thos. E. Birch, Jr., O. ; Jos. S. Henderson, 
recorder; Gustav Rail, Eec. ; Wm. Lutz, Fin. ; M. Lehman, guide; 
S. H. Trowbridge, I. W. ; J. C. Collins, O. W. 



One among the first schools kept in the town of Glasgow, was 
opened by Rev. Charles D. Simpson, an Old-School Presbyterian min- 
ister. This was between the years 1840 and 1843. The most impor- 
tant school up to 1850, was known as the Glasgow female seminary. 
The building — a large, handsome brick which cost $3,600 — is still 
standiug on the brow of the hill. It was erected in 1848-49, with Odd 
Fellows hall in the second story. The first principal of the school 
was Rev. A. B. Frazier, who was succeeded by Revs. George S. Savage 
and French Strother, and others. The building is now unoccupied. 
The boarding-house connected with the seminary is a large brick 
building. It was erected in 1852, and cost $3,500. 


The collegiate school, known as Pritchett school institute, owes 
its origin solely to the enterprise and benevolence of Rev. James O. 
Swinney. The year 1865, following on the close of the great civil 
war, found the country sadly in want of the means of academic and 
collegiate education. It was to aid in meeting this want that this 
school was inaugurated. It was begun in the autumn of 1866, and for 
several years was conducted in the building known as the Glasgow 
female seminary and Odd Fellows' hall. This building and the ad- 
jacent grounds and buildings were secured for it by the influence and 
at the sole cost of Mr. Swinney. The original plan and aims of the 
school will be best learned from its first published circular — a liberal 
extract from which is the subjoined : — 

This new school for youth of both sexes, begins its first session Mon- 
day, September 17, 1866. For nearly twenty years the principal has 
been an earnest laborer in the cause of education in central Missouri. 
Relying on his extensive acquaintance, he submits to the appreciative 
communities of the State some of the claims of his school to their 
confidence and patronage : 

1 . Its permanency. — To make it permanent and to begin a found- 
ation for present and future usefulness, Rev. J. O. Swinney has gen- 
erously donated to it $20,000 in endowment and school property. 
The principal, assisted by instructors of thorough competency, expects 
to devote to it the best energies of his remaining life. The hope is 
cherished not only by himself but by his generous friends, that it will 
be, not only an institution of blessing to the present generation, but 
one to increase in resources and usefulness for generations to come. 


2. Accommodations. — The school building is amply commodious 
for the number of pupils to be received, is eligibly situated, and is to 
be fitted and furnished in superior style. 

3. School Plan. — It aims to combine the advantages both of the 
grammar school and college. The instructions comprise, (1) English 
language and literature; (2) mathematics; (3) ancient classics; 
(4) modern languages ; (5) natural science ; (0) metaphysics and 
moral philosophy; (7) logic, rhetoric, and political economy; 
(8) instrumental and vocal music. As soon as a charter is obtained 
a detailed course of study will be published. That large class of pu- 
pils who are in elective studies can receive certificates for such 
branches as they complete; and the smaller number, who aspire to a 
a full, collegiate course, can here receive, when they are earned, all the 
customary school honors. 

4. Admission. — We neither seek a large school nor crowded classes; 
hence no scholar will be received who has not attained the entrance 
grade. This will insure the students, (1) proper classification; (2) 
systematic study ; (3) ample time to learn and recite. 

5. Order and Emulation. — We reckon it a recommendation 
to our school that it places boys and girls in such relation to each other 
as to afford an opportunity for the most refined emulation, in learning 
and manners. 

6. Discipline. — This is to be firm but mild and uniform. We 
desire no pupil who is not disposed to yield a ready obedience to the 
internal and external regulations of the school. The discipline respects 
these three circumstances: (1) attendance; (2) conduct; (3) 
scholarship. Daily i - ecords of them are kept. Students who be- 
come refractory, or even indifferent, to their daily record are quietly 
dismissed. Both for teachers and pupils our motto will be that of a 
celebrated English school, Doce, Disce, aut Discedi ; Teach, Learn, or 

7. Special Instruction. — Young gentlemen, or ladies, who wish 
to pursue special branches of higher mathematics, mechanics, or 
astronomy, can find no more liberal assistance in the west than we can 
afford them. We expect, as soon as practicable, to furnish our school 
with the more important pieces of philosophic apparatus, and with 
astronomical instruments adequate to useful observation in the problem 
of spherical astronomy. 

8. Location. — The school site commands one of the most exten- 
sive views of water, woodland and prairie scenery, to be enjoyed in 
the state. The situation of Glasgow is pre-eminently healthy ; and 
the society for refinement, social and religious culture is unsurpassed 
in Missouri. 


Ours is a Christian, but not a denominational school. In it the 


Holy Scriptures are to be daily read, and exercises of devotion con- 
ducted. While we cultivate the intellect we would direct the spirit 
to the higher life and destiny. While training the mind we would 
not forget the heart. While we earn our daily bread in the toil of 
the teachers' vocation, we are conscious of higher motives than tem- 
poral advantage. We desire your hearty co-operation, first, in secur- 
ing the regular attendance of your children ; second, in influencing 
their manners and application. 

For particulars apply to the principal, or to Rev. J. O. Swinney. 

CarrW. Pritchett. 


In the year 1867, the school acquired a corporate existence under 
the general act of incorporation. By its charter, its property and 
general management is vested in a board of trustees, consisting at 
first of three, and afterwards of five and seven persons. It is neces- 
sary for them to be men of family, and residents in the vicinity of 
Glasgow. By its fundamental law it is forever to be a Christian, but 
not a denominational school, and to be open alike to youth of both 
sexes. The president is the only official chosen directly by the 
trustees. He has committed to him the entire responsibility of 
selecting assistants, arranging the course of study, selection of text- 
books, administration of discipline, graduation of pupils, etc. The 
president is strictly responsible to the trustees, and all other teachers 
are responsible directly and solely to him. In the first year of its exis- 
tence the school had 146 pupils, and it became evident that the building 
and grounds were too contracted for its wants. A fine lot of ground 
on the eastern limits of Glasgow, consisting of seven acres, was pro- 
cured, at the cost of Mr. Swinney, for $3,000. On this the present com- 
modious building was erected, at a cost of about $20,000, all of which 
was furnished by Mr. Swinney, except a donation of $5,000 from Mr., 
Richard Earickson, now deceased. The building is of brick, three 
stories high, and has a metallic roof. It is 65 X 55 feet, and 
has ample halls, a chapel, and numerous rooms for lectures, recitations, 
laboratories and museum. Two hundred pupils can find ample accom- 
modation within its walls. Into this building the school was removed 
in the autumn of 1869, and the building in town was sold to Lewis col- 
lege. The school remained under the sole management of Mr. Pritchett 
for seven years, till the close of the scholastic year 1872-73. The suc- 
cessor of Mr. Pritchett in the presidency of the institute, was Prof. 
Oren Root, Jr., who held the position for three consecutive years, 
till the close of the scholastic year 1876-77. He was succeeded by 
Rev. R. T. Bond, who held the position for the next four years — 

226 history or Howard and cooper codnties. 

till the close of the scholastic year 1880-81. Rev. Joseph H. 
Pritchett, was then elected president, and has now held the position 
two years. 

Previously to 1874, in order to maintain the high standard of 
instruction, for which the president was solely and pecuniarily re- 
sponsible, several gentlemen of Glasgow made liberal annual con- 
tributions ; and it is the special wish of Mr. Pritchett, to transmit to 
the future, the names of James O. Swinney, John Harrison, Thomas 
E. Birch, Sr., Richard Earickson, Thomas Shackelford, Mrs. Lucy 
A. Swinney, Mrs. Eleanor Lewis, L. F. Hayden, John F. Lewis, and 
Geo. B. Harrison, as contributors to an annual fund, which enabled 
him without an endowment, to maintain a collegiate school. 

In 1874, the institution received a great impulse by the magnifi- 
cent donation of $50,000, from Miss Berenice Morrison. This sum, 
together with "other vested endowments, now amounts to nearly 
$60,000, the annual interest of which, in addition to tuition, consti- 
tutes the income of the institute. 

The patronage and comparative success of the school has varied 
in different years ; but in all this time a steady growth has been main- 
tained ; and to-day in its appointments and facilities for thorough 
academic and collegiate instruction, it holds a high rank among the 
colleges of Missouri. While it has steadily aimed to produce scholars 
rather than graduates; yet more than forty young ladies, and fifteen 
young men have received their diplomas here, many of whom, are 
now iu positions of honorable trust ; and all in positions of useful- 

In addition to the original school property, the trustees have 
'lately purchased the residence and grounds formerly owned by Mr. 
Pritchett. This property, joined with the adjacent grounds and build- 
ings, constitutes the whole, one of the most valuable school proper- 
ties in central Missouri. 


In connection with the endowment of $50,000, made to Pritchett 
school institute, Miss Morrison made an additional donation of 
$50,000 to found and endow an astronomical observatory. This 
fund and the acquired property, is under the control of the same 
persons as trustees, who for the time are trustees of Pritchett school 
institute. But the trusteeship of the observatory is a separately 
acquired investiture — pertains to the same persons, but not as a part 
of the original trust, but for a distinct trust and purpose. 


In 1874, Miss Morrison, then in Europe, in her own name author- 
ized and empowered Prof. C. W- Pritchett, to proceed at once to 
erect and equip an astronomical observatory — subject to the direc- 
tion, in certain particulars, of her legal representative, Eev. J. O. 
Swinney. In the execution of this work, — the selection of site, 
the erection of building, the selection, purchase, transporta- 
tion and mounting of instruments, — Mr. Pritchett had the 
generous and hearty co-operation of Mr. Swinney. The building 
was erected in 1875, on a lot of ground one and a half miles east of 
Glasgow, especially donated for this purpose by H. Clay Cockerill 
and John F. Lewis. Its geographic position is 1 hr. 3 m. 5.93 sec, 
west of the dome of the United States naval observatory, Washing- 
ton, and in latitude 39°, 16', 16.75", north. The building 
consists first of the equatorial room and tower on the east. 
It is of brick, with very massive walls, carried up from a 
depth of ten feet below the surface. In the centre is the great 
pier for the equatorial — twelve by twelve feet at base, twelve 
feet below the surface. This building is surmounted by a hemis- 
pherical dome, and metallic roof and shutters. The dome is 
made to revolve by a system of gearing and wheel-work on six spher- 
ical balls of gun metal, which roll in a groove between two sets of iron 
plates — the lower set firmly attached to the heavy limestone capping 
of the tower, and the upper to the heavy sill of the dome. The 
metallic shutters, in four sections, are raised and lowered by an end- 
less chain connected with a system of pulleys. Beneath this dome is 
mounted the splendid equatorial, by Alvan Clark & Sons, mounted in 
December, 1875. It is twelve and one-fourth inches clear aperture 
of objective and seventeen feet focal length. 

Directly west of the equatorial-room and attached to it is the 
room for the meridian circle, collimator and sidereal clock. All these 
instruments are mounted on heavy insulated pins of solid masonry, 
extending ten feet below the surface. The meridian circle is by Wough 
ton & Simms, London — six inches clear aperture of objective and 
seven feet focus with twenty-four inch circles, reading to single seconds 
by eight microscopes. The sidereal clock is by Frodsham, London. 
West of the transit circle-room is the library and work-room. Here is 
stored a very valuable astronomical library and various minor instru- 
ments, — the telegraphic instruments and electric chronograph. The 
chronograph is used for recording observations by electro-magnetism, 
and the telegraph is chiefly used for sending out time signals from the 
standard clock. The cost of building and instruments was about 


The main object of the observatory is to make exact and system- 
atic observations of the heavenly bodies, and to reduce, record aud 
publish them. For the last seven years, in despite of its small annual 
income, it has done a large amount of work, much of which is of per- 
manent value. Many of its observations have been published in the 
scientific journals of Europe, and a much larger number awaits publi- 
cation in a more suitable form. Part of this time, Mr. Pritchett was 
assisted by his son, Prof. Henry S. Pritchett, now professor of mathe- 
matics and astronomy in Washington university, St. Louis. He now 
has the assistance of his youngest son, C. W. Pritchett, Jr. 

[Prepared by Prof. Jas. C. Hall.] 

Lewis college is located in Glasgow, Howard county, Missouri, 
and had its origin in the benevolence of two prominent citizens of 
the place, Colonel Benjamin W. Lewis and Major James W. Lewis. 
These brothers, by industry and the skilful management of a large 
manufacturing business, had acquired considerable wealth, and de- 
sired t6 use it for the benefit of their fellow-men, and especially for the 
community in which they had spent so many happy and prosperous 
years. Accordingly a plan was formed for the establishment of a 
college ; but in the few years preceding the war aud during its con- 
tinuance, the times were so troubled and society so divided, that im- 
mediate action was not considered prudent. 

The war developed new issues and surroundings, and forced 
changes upon individuals which had not been anticipated, and culmi- 
nated events suddenly which thoughtful minds had seen coming, but 
for which they were yet unprepared. The brothers were strongly in 
sympathy with the government in the preservation of the union and 
in the principles it sought to maintain ; it seemed, therefore, fitting 
that they should put themselves in accord with their principles in their 
religious as well as their political associations. They and their fami- 
lies had always been in fellowship with the Southern Methodist 
church, but finding themselves out of accord with it in the new issues 
developed by the war, they deemed it best to sever their relations 
with that denomination and unite with the. Methodist Episcopal 
church, in the interests of which the Eev. D. A. McCready had then 
been sent to Glasgow. Accordingly, they and their wives, together 
with Noah Swacker and wife, joined that church and were by Mr. Mc- 
Cready organized into the first Methodist Episcopal society formed in 




Howard county since the great division in 1844. The immediate 
outgrowth of this step was the purchase of a church building ou 
Market street, and the establishment of a school in the basement 
which was called the Lewis high school. Of this school Rev. D. A. 
McCready was appointed principal and achieved encouraging success. 
This was the initial step, and precipitated the plan for the proposed 
college, which now took definite shape. The enterprise might per- 
haps have been more rapidly developed and commanded more imme- 
diate success had not the course of events been changed by the hand 
of Providence. 

In 1866, Colonel B. W. Lewis died from the effects of a carbun- 
cle on the neck, but in his will he directed his executors to set apart 
the sum of ten thousand dollars for the purchase and maintenance 
of a library in the city of Glasgow, which should be under the con- 
trol and management of a board of trustees appointed by the annual 
conference of the Methodist Episcopal church in Missouri, and 
should be open to the citizens of the town as a circulating library. 
He also proposed to make a proportionately liberal provision for the 
future college, of which this was intended to be a part, but died before 
his plans could be developed. In the same year, his widow, Mrs. 
Eleanor T. Lewis, his son, Benjamin W. Lewis, Jr., and Major James 
W. Lewis erected, at a cost of nearly $26,000, the handsome build- 
ing known as the Lewis library buildiug, which they proposed to 
deed to the M. E. church as soon as the trustees should be ap- 
pointed by the said church to receive it and the above bequest. In 
March, 1867, the matter was brought before the Missouri conference, 
in session at Independence, and the following persons were appointed 
as trustees, viz. : Major James W. Lewis , Joseph D. Keebaugh, 
Charles E. Barclay, Nathan Shumate, David A. McCready, 
Benjamin W. Lewis, Jr., John Wachter, Hon. George Young, Hon. 
David Landon, Joseph H. Hopkins and William S. Wentz — "for 
the purpose of carrying out the provisions of said will and taking 
possession of said bequest, buildings and other property, and for the 
further purpose of establishing a permanent institution of learning in 
the city of Glasgow," and, pursuant to previous notice, the said trus- 
tees met on the 24th of May, 1867, in the city of Glasgow, and 
adopted articles of association, and on the 23d day of Sep- 
tember, following, became by due course of law a body politic and 
corporate under the corporate name of the Lewis college and library 

On this new basis, Lewis college was opened in October 1867, 


with Eev. J. S. Barwick, A. M., president, assisted by L. Bremer, 
A. M., Miss S. E. Eichelberger and Mrs. E. S. Barwick as teachers. 
One hundred and forty pupils were enrolled. A few were classed in 
the college department, but the principal work of the school was in 
the academic grades. Prof. Barwick remained only a part of two 
years as president, and in 1869, Eev. L. M. Albright took charge. 
The library building proving inadequate, steps were taken by Major 
James W. Lewis and others to purchase the seminary building on 
Third and Market streets, then owned by the trustees of Pritchett 
school institute. This purchase, including the brick building imme- 
diately adjoining, was effected sometime in 1869, and the college was 
opened there. The surroundings were even more pleasant and the 
institution was better prepared to provide for its students. About 
the same time the trustees came into possession of the large frame 
building known as Bartholow hall, situated on the corner of Fourth 
and Commerce streets, Avhich was fitted up with all the necessary ar- 
rangements for a club-house, where young men could board them- 
selves or be boarded at cheap rates. By the munificence of its 
founders, everything was done that could be to secure patronage and 
to elevate the grade of the school, but, notwithstanding their efforts, 
the growth was slow. The local patronage by political preferences 
and social relationships, was naturally turned to other institutions, 
and the church to which the school looked for patronage was able to 
do but little, for the reason that its membership were for the 
most part new comers, young married people with but little more 
money than was necessary to buy land and stock and to meet the 
wants of their growing families. These facts were not altogether un- 
expected, and yet they were somewhat discouraging to those who 
compared the progress with that made with older and more favored 

In the spring of 1881, President Albright resigned and the trust- 
ees at their meeting in June, elected Rev. T. A. Parker to fill the 
place. Prof. Parker did not personally take charge of the school 
but, by the permission of the board, employed James C. Hall, A. 
M., and Mrs. Olive K. Hall, A. M., to manage the affairs until the next 
year. At the next meeting of the trustees, in June, 1882, Rev. 
James C. Hall, A. M., was elected president and Mrs. Olive K. Hall, 
professor of Latin and Greek. The circumstances surrounding the 
school were not such as to inspire confidence, or develop enthusiasm, 
yet the college took no step backward ; local sympathy was slow in 
growth, but it came at last and a creditable respect was won. 


Several efforts were made to secure endowment and various 
plans adopted, but none of them were productive of much fruit. 
The patronizing conferences of the church were divided in feeling, 
partly on account of dissatisfaction with the local surroundings, 
and partly on account of efforts to secure their influence in estab- 
lishing schools in other parts of the state. The want of< 
endowment made it impossible to meet the necessary expenses 
for instruction, and the work would necessarily have been aban- 
doned had not the deficiencies from year to year been promptly 
met by Major James W. Lewis, who generously expended thousands of 
dollars in this direction. In the year 1877, some changes were made 
in the general management, and the school was thrown more fully 
upon its own income for support. In the spring of 1880, proposi- 
tions were made to the trustees for the consolidation of Lewis col- 
lege and Prichett school institute into one school, under the control 
of the M. E. church, and a contract for such consolidation was made 
by representatives of both institutions, but before the opening of 
the fall session it was again dissolved. 

In the spring of 1882, Bishop H. W. Warren, D. D., visited the 
college for the purpose of examining its condition, needs and pros- 
pects, and in council with prominent citizens it was resolved to ap- 
peal to the citizens of Glasgow for aid to supply better buildings and 
more ample grounds, and in case they neglected or refused to do 
so, then the college should be removed. This was fully set forth 
in a public meeting held at the M. E. church in Glasgow, March, 
1882. At the next annual conference of the church held in Chilli- 
cothe, a committee was appointed to act with another committee to 
be appointed by the St. Louis conference of the M. E. Church, as 
a joint commission to determine the location and to relocate if neces- 
sary, Lewis college. This commission met at the annual commence- 
ment of the college, May 31, 1882, and decided to relocate the col- 
lege at one of the several suitable cities which should make the most 
liberal bid in lands, money and building. This committee met again 
on June 28, to open the bids received — Sedalia offering twelve acres 
of land suitably located, and $10,000 cash, and Glasgow offering 
twenty- five acres of land, the building and apparatus of the college, 
two pianos, the boarding-house and the building known as Bartholow 
hall, and a subscription of $7,600, 

Glasgow was selected, and the necessary arrangements for the 
transfer of the property to the trustees were made. Steps were im- 
mediately taken to purchase the handsome residence just north of the 


city known as the Lewis mansion. On November 22d, the negotia- 
tion was effected, and on the 21st of December, the new premises 
were taken possession of by the college. 

A full report of the action of the commission and board of trus- 
tees in the location of the college and the purchase of property, was 
made to the Missouri and St. Louis annual conferences and endorsed 
by them. Eev. J. J. Bentley was appointed financial agent, and 
plans were adopted which promise to make the college at once a suc- 
cess. A general retrospect of the entire history of the college 
shows a slow but continued advance. From its humble betrinnino' 
in the basement of the church, through all the viscissitudes of its for- 
tune, it has won every step it has gained by determined and perse- 
vering effort. Whatever of Utopian dreams may have hovered over 
its early years have been dispelled by the struggles through which it 
has passed. Those who administer its affairs grasp its interests with 
a strong hand, and upon the new and permanent foundation, with 
the handsomest surroundings of any college in Missouri, Lewis col- 
lege sets out with flattering prospects to achieve the noblest ambi- 
tion of its founders, and to bring to their names the honor due. 


The Lewis library was founded by the late Colonel Benjamin W. 
Lewis, who ordered in his will that the liberal sum of ten thousand 
dollars should be set apart to be invested in a library, to be located in 
the city of Glasgow, Howard county, Missouri ; and that the said 
library should be under the control of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Since his death, a handsome buiding has been erected by Mrs. Eleanor 
Lewis, his widow, Benjamin W. Lewis, his son, and Major J. W. 
Lewis, his brother, in which the library is now kept. 

Since its foundation, it has been steadily increasing in favor and 
prosperity. Its influence is widely felt, and its interests begin to find 
a response in the hearts of the people, who already regard it with pride 
as the ornament of the city, and a fitting monument of the life and 
labors of its benevolent founder. 

It is replete with all the standard authors, leading magazines, and 
a fine collection of mineral specimens ; is arranged somewhat after the 
style of the public school library, St. Louis, and the works contained 
are estimated to have cost $5,000. Many rare and ancient curiosities 
are to be found here, affording large speculative theories, and themes 
for earnest and candid study, The building is a handsome two-story 
structure of modern architecture, the second floor being devoted to the 


library aud reading-room. The first floor is a public lecture hall. 
The building is 40x90 feet in dimensions, and cost $30,000. This is 
without doubt one of the finest institutions of its kind in the state, and 
has to be seen to be fully appreciated. 

Board of trustees — Rev. J. H. Hopkins, John Wachter, Eev. 
John Gillies, Eev. J. E. Sassine, Eev. Benj. St. J. Fry, D. D., Major 
J. W. Lewis, B. W. Lewis, Jr., Eev. W. F. Clayton, Eev. G. W. 
Durment, Eev. W. J. Martindale, Eev. T. J. Ferril. Officers of the 
Board — Eev. J. H. Hopkins, president ; Major J. W. Lewis, vice- 
president; Eev. J. D. Keebaugh, secretary ; John Wachter, treasurer. 
Executive committee — Eev. J. H. Hopkins, Major J. "W. Lewis, 
Eev. W. J. Martindale. Librarian — Mrs. Jeanie Almond Frost. 


The public schools of Glasgow were organized about two years 
after the war of 1861. 

There are at this time (1883) two hundred and forty white 
pupils* and two hundred and fifteen colored pupils enrolled. 

Present teachers — George W. Jones, superintendent; Miss 
Lizzie Feagel, first assistant; Miss Blanch Hieronymus, second assist- 
ant ; Miss Nettie Sears, third assistant ; Miss Ella Hams, fourth as- 
sistant. Colored school — A. E. Chinn, L. F. Payne," Miss Nancy I. 


Glasgow post-office was established September 27, 1837. The 
list of postmasters with date of appointment is as follows : — 
September 27, 1837, E. P. Hanenkamp. 
September 30, 1839, Thomas A. Lewis. 
November 30, 1841, Daniel Maynard. 
January 29, 1842, E. P. Hanenkamp. 
November 13, 1846, Henry W. Smith. 
April 11, 1849, W. F. Dunnica. 
December 24, 1852, John C. Crowley. 
February 4, 1853, James S. Thompson. 
August 24, 1853, John T. Marr. 
November 11, 1856, Gideon Crews. 
December 31, 1861, Frank W. Diggs. 

* A number of white pupils attend other schools and colleges, which largely decreases 
the number attending the public schools. 



February 14, 1862, Christian Dantel. 
May 22, 1862, Frank W. Diggs. 
March 24, 1869, Joseph D. Keebaugh. 
January 20, 1871, Enoch B. Cunningham. 
March 19, 1875, J. P. Cunningham. 


5 dry goods houses, 

1 beot and shoe store, 

3 boot and shoe makers, 
7 grocery stores, 

4 drug stores, 

5 saloons, 

2 silversmith shops, 

3 tailor shops, 

1 millinery store, 

2 bakers, 

1 furniture store, 

4 blacksmith shops, 

2 tin and stove shops, 
2 dentists, 

1 saddler shop, 

1 saw mill and veneering manu- 


2 flouring mills, 

1 Baptist church, 

1 Christian church, 

1 Catholic church, 

1 German Evangelical church, 

1 M. E. Church, south, 

1 M. E. church, 

1 Presbyterian church, 

1 M. E. church (colored), 

1 African M. E. church (colored). 



Boundary — Physical Features — Early Settlers — Armstrong — Roanoke — Secret Orders — 
Moniteau Township — Boundary — Physical Features — Early Settlers — Sebree — 
Burton Township — Boundary — Physical Features — Burton — Bonne Femme Town- 
ship . — Boundary — Physical Features — Early Settlers. 


Something more than one third of this township was taken 
off in 1880, to form Burton township, leaving it as it is now in area,, 
about fifty square miles. It is bounded on the north by Kandolph 
county, on the east by Burton township, on the south by .Richmond 
township, and on the west by Chariton township. 


This township unlike any other in the county, included originally 
a prairie, which constituted about one-fourth of its area. This portion 
of the same was called Foster's prairie, after Silas Foster, who settled 
there at an early day. The surface of the township consists of hills 
and undulations, but the soil is rich and constitutes a fine agricultural 
region. Bonne Femme creek finds its source in this township, in a 
number of small confluents which drain the southern part of the 
same. Cabin creek with other streams, water the township in various 


Prairie township being a little remote from the river, was not 
settled as early as some other districts of the county. The pioneers 
were partial to large streams and great forests. They drew much of 
their sustenance from both, and so long accustomed were they to the 
sound of the winds passing through the branches of the trees, that 
sheltered the door-yards of their former homes, that, in the selection 
of a site for a new location, they did so, with special reference to the 
convenience of the former and immediate proximity of the latter. 
Prairie township not presenting to the eye of the early settler, the 



advantages of timber and water to such an extent as he desired, it 
was not so early and so densely populated as the townships bordering 
upon the Missouri. 

The first persons to locate in the township were Silas Inyart, 
Wm. Harvey, Durlin Wright, Umphrey Bess and John Titus. These 
took claims about three miles south of the town of Roanoke. Thomas 
Patterson, father of Rice Patterson, settled the place where Captain 
Finks now lives, in 1817, where he made small improvements. Pres- 
ley, William and Frank Holly, came in 1821 ; also, Stephen, John 
and William Green, and Wesley, Asa and George Thompson. Wil- 
liam Shores, a Methodist preacher, was an early settler. Benjamin 
Williams opened a farm about four miles west of Roanoke at an 
early day. 

Lott Hackley located in the southern part of the township, and 
David Crews in the central portion of the same. Richard Lee was an 
early settler. The following parties settled in the township from 
1819 to 1825: Nathaniel Morris, Alfred Williams, Harrison Daly, 
James Hardin, Love Evans, George Foster, Robert James, Levi 
Marklaud, Asa O. Thompson, Michael Robb, Jonas Robb, Reuben 
Anderson, Philip Prather, Patrick Woods, William Padgett, Silas 
Foster, Leyton Yaucy, William Drinkard, Haman Gregg, Garland 
Maupin, Charles Denny, James Ramsey, A. Williams, Joseph Foster, 
Martin Gibson, John Cross, Jackson Thorp, Joseph Rundel, William 
Maupin, William Green, Wesley Green, John King, James King, 
Thomas Graves, John Snoddy, Walker Snoddy, David Martin, Will- 
iam Richardson, David Gross, William Hutson, Stokely Mott, John 
Fennel, Thomas Simmons, David, James and Irvin Lee, John Page, 
William Montgomery, Peter Ford, Sr., Asa Kerby, M. Lane, Frank- 
lin Wood, Garrett Trumble, William Arch and Paddy Woods, David 
White, John Warford, James Snyder, Lynch Turner, James Denny, 
John T. Cleveland, John Broadus, James Hackley, Charles Harvey, 
William James, William McCully and George Jackson. 


This is a bright, new town, located on the line of the Chicago 
and Alton railroad, and was laid out in the spring of 1878. It 
is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile country, about eight miles 
from Glasgow. The first business house was completed and occupied 
by P. A. Wooley. Flagg and Prather, began the erection of a build- 
ing about the same time, but did not get their stock of goods into it 



as soon as Wooley. Samuel Prather was the first postmaster. The 
next building was a hotel, and erected by one, Mileham. The town 
contains one church edifice, built by different denominatibns as a 
union church ; three dry goods stores, two groceries, two drug stores, 
one lumber yard and two blacksmiths. 


Eoanoke was originally settled by Virginians, who were great ad- 
mirers of that eccentric, but talented man, John Randolph, of Roanoke, 
and named the new town after his elegant country seat — Roanoke. It 
was laid out in 1834, on the east half of the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion 10, and west half of the southwest quarter of section 11, town- 
ship 52, range 16. 

James Head erected the first house in the town, as a business 
house (general store) ; he was also the first postmaster. C. K. 
Evans is the present postmaster. 

The town contains two churches, one a Missionary Baptist and 
the other a Union church, two dry good stores, two groceries, two 
drug stores, one tin shop and stove store, two saddlers, two milliners, 
two blacksmiths, one furniture store, one excellent public school, and 
one boarding-house. 

Roanoke was the place for holding the great central fair for 
several years after 1866 ; this fair was sustained by Howard, Randolph 
and Chariton counties. 


Roanoke Lodge, No. 75, A. F. and A. M. Date of charter May 25, 
1854. Charter members — Anthony Walton, W. M. ; J. B. Bradford, 
S. W. ; Michael H. Snyder, J. W. ; James Nelson, W. N. Nelson, M. 
D. Ryle, John Chonstant, T. J. Brockman, R. J. Mansfield, W. P. 
Phelps, William J. Ferguson, P. B. Childs and T. J. Blake. 

Present officers —J. D. Hicks, W. M. ; C. R. Evans, S. W. (no 
Jr. Ward) ; Reuben Taylor, treasurer ; J. W. Bag by, secretary ; Yew- 
ell Lockridge, S. D. ; J. C. Wallace, J. D. ; J. A. Snyder, tyler. 

Bethel Lodge No. 87, I. O. O. F., was organized July 30, 1855, 
and worked under a dispensation until May 21, 1856, when the lodge 
received its charter. 

The charter members were B. F. Snyder, J. A. Snyder, J. W. 
Terrill, Martin Green, T. L. Williams, W. L. Upton, and M. H. 
Snyder ; the first oflicers were B. F. Snyder, N. G. ; J. W. Terrill, V. 
G. ; W. L. Upton, secretary; M. H. Snyder, treasurer, and T. L. 


Williams, warden. The present officers are as follows : A. T. Prewitt, 
N. G. ; T. Gr. Montgomery, V. G. ; J. S. Peters, secretary ; J. H. 
Crisler, treasurer ; W. E. Kichardson, warden. 


There have been no changes made in Moniteau township since its 
reorganization and establishment, in 1821. It is one of the largest 
municipal divisions in the county, embracing an area of about seventy 
square miles. It is bounded on the north by Bonne Femme township, 
on the east by Boone county, on the south by Boone and Cooper 
counties, and on the west by Franklin and Richmond townships. 


This township was once covered with a fine growth of timber. 
The land away from the river and the larger streams is usually high 
and rolling. The soil is rich, and many farmers have here builded 
elegant homes. Water facilities are good. The Moniteau creek, 
after which the township received its name, traverses the entire length 
of its territory, while Salt creek waters other portions of the same. 
Plenty of building stone and coal, the latter but poorly developed, is 


The settlement of this township began comparatively early — 
1812. At this period Price Arnold located on section 23. He was 
from Mercer county, Kentucky, and arrived in Franklin township in 
1811. Here he remained until the following year, and took a claim 
where his grandson, Matthew Arnold, Esq., now resides. The same 
year he was joined by William Head, who came from Washington 
county, Virginia. In the latter part of that year (1812), these two 
gentlemen selected a sight and began the erection of Fort Head, 
named in honor of Mr. Head, named above, who was chosen captain 
of the little band, formed for the defense of the small colony against 
the anticipated attacks of the aborigines. It is impossible to give 
the names of all the settlers at this late date, who sought refuge in the 
fort. We will, however, give the names of such as we have been en- 
abled to get, and felicitate ourselves over the fact that we have 
snatched even these from the sea of forgetf illness, whither they, and 
all recollections concerning them, are so rapidly tending. Their names 
:ire Price Arnold, William Head, James Pipes, William Pipes, Joseph 
Austin, Perrin Cooley, a Methodist minister, Peter Creason, and 


Henry Lemons. After the close of hostilities, in 1815, immigration 
at once set in, and many valuable accessions to the population were 

Gerrard Robinson arrived in 1819 ; Patrick in 1819 ; Waddy T. 
Curran in 1819 ; George Pipes in 1817 ; Pleasant Pipes in 1818 ; John 
Gray in 1817 ; Ephraim Thompson in 1817 ; James Hollom in 1817 ; 
Solomon Barnett and Zaccheus Barnett in 1818 ; Thomas Tipton in 
1820 ; and Federal Walker in 1823. These were generally from Ken- 
tucky, the others from Virginia. In 1819, quite a number of settlers 
came from Todd county, Kentucky, and made a settlement in the 
northeastern part of the township, chief among whom were Colonel 
Benjamin Reeves, afterwards lieutenant-governor of Missouri, William 
L. Reeves, Benjamin Givens, Edward Davis, Colonel Joseph Davis, 
Judge Edward Davis, and Colonel Horner. 


The town of Sebree was laid out on a part of the southeast 
quarter and part of the northeast quarter of section 18, township 50, 
range 14. The town was located on the projected line of the Lou- 
isiana and Mississippi railroad. The road, however, never having 
been built, the town did not thrive. 


Burton township was created in 1880. It was taken from 
Prairie, Richmond and Bonne Femme townships. Its boundary as 
fixed by the county court, is as follows : Beginning at the Randolph 
county line between ranges 15 and 16 ; thence south to the line 
between sections 19 and 30, township 51, range 15 ; thence east one 
mile ; thence south one mile to the line between townships 50 and 51 ; 
thence east to the line dividing sections 35 and 36, township 51, 
range 15 ; thence north to the county line ; thence west with said line 
to the beginning. It adjoins Randolph county on the north, Bonne 
Femme township on the east, Richmond township on the south, and 
Prairie township on the west. 


A portion of this township is prairie. The general surface is 
uneven, but as an agricultural region it is perhaps not surpassed by 
any other township in the county. The township is watered by the 
Bonne Femme and Salt Fork creeks. Both limstone and coal are 


For early settlers, see Prairie, Eichmond and Bonne Femme 


This town is located on the line of the Missouri, Kansas and 
Texas railroad, and contained a population in 1880, of 129 ; the 
population now (1883) is considerably more. The business includes 
several stores, general assortment, a blacksmith shop, etc. The 
Patrons of Husbandry have at this point (the only one in the county) 
a co-operative store. There is a hotel and one church edifice. The 
railroad company have here a good and sufficient depot. 


Bonne Femme township remains as it was originally formed, in 
1821, excepting sections 11, 14, 15, 22, 23, have since been taken off, 
and added to the new township of Burton. Bonne Femme is situ- 
ated in the northeastern portion of the county, and is bounded on 
the north by Randolph, on the east by Boone county, on the south by 
Moniteau township, and on the west by Burton and Prairie townships. 


This township, like Howard county generally, is a timbered dis- 
trict, there being all the varieties known to this latitude. ^The surface 
is hilly and undulating, and in some portions of the township, the 
country is broken and the soil is thin. Limestone abounds. The 
Bonne Femme and Moniteau creeks, which empty into the Missouri 
river, are fed by numerous small tributaries, which have their source 
in this township. 


The first settlers of Bonne Femme, like the early settlers of the 
other townships, have all passed away. Among these, .were Mr. 
Winn, the father of Judge G. J. Winn ; there was also Henry Myer, 
whose father lived at Myer's post-office (Bunker Hill), which was 
named after him. Bunker Hill contains a post office, a blacksmith 
shop, and store. Myer was prominent in politics, having been a 
member of the State senate. There were among the prominent old 
settlers Ellis Walker and Charles Literal. Among others, were 
James Dougherty, St., Franklin Dougherty, John T. Dougherty, 
Joel J. Greggsby, Benjamin T. Saunders, M. H. Baily, Thomas 
Ancill, John Ashbury, John E. Hitt, George W. Potter, Bird New- 

242 HISTOfir OF HOWARD and cooper counties. 

man, James G. Muir, George Kirby, J. H. Blakely, Enyard Moberly, 
Daniel Palmatory, Daniel Gilvion, Jacob C. Williams, Jackson 
Harris, William K. Woods, Peter Woods, Silas B. Naylor, Joseph B. 
Andrews, Wm. Jones, Wm. Arnett and John Fisher. The present 
population of the township has principally sprung from Kentucky 
and North Carolina. The people are a moral, industrious class of 
citizens, and are successful farmers, their principal products being 
wheat and tobacco, though grass is grown to advantage. The first 
church in this township, was organized by the Baptists, in 1819, at 



Introductory Remarks — Bench and Bar of Old Franklin — Judge David Barton — Judge 
George Tompkins — Judge Mathias McGirk — Judge Abiel Leonard — A Duel — Judge 
Leonard and Major Taylor Berry the Participants — Correspondence between Them — 
Their Trip to Wolf Island — The Duel — Result — Judge David Todd — Charles 
French, Esq. — Governor Hamilton R. Gamble — Judge John P. Ryland — Bench and 
Bar of Fayette — Judge James H. Birch — Hon. Joe Davis — Judge James W. Mor- 
row — Hon. Robert T. Prewitt — Governor Thomas Reynolds — General Robert Wil- 
son — General John B. Clark, Sr. — Judge Wm. B. Napton — Present Members of the 
Fayette Bar — Criminal Record — General Ignatius P. Owen — Washington Hill and 
David Gates — Price Killed Allen Burton — Lucky and Paffarans — Hays Killed 
Brown — Oliver Perry McGee Killed Thomas P. White — John Chapman Killed — 
Stephen Bynum Killed Joel Fleming — Murder at a Picnic. 

Horace Greely once said that the only good use a lawyer could be 
put to was hanging, and a great many other people entertain the same 
opinion. There may be cause for condemning the course of certain 
practitioners of the law, but the same may be said within the ranks of 
all other professions. Such men should not be criticised as lawyers, 
doctors, or the like, but rather as individuals who seek through a pro- 
fession that is quite essential to the welfare of the body politic as the 
science of medicine is to that of the physical well being, or theology to 
the perfection of the moral nature, to carry out their nefarious and 
dishonest designs, which are usually for the rapid accumulation of 
money, although at times far more evil and sinister purposes, and which 
are the instincts of naturally depraved and vicious natures. None of 
the professions stand alone in being thus afflicted. All suffer alike. 
The most holy and sacred offices have been prostituted to base uses. 
And it would be quite as unreasonable to hold the entire medical fra- 
ternity in contempt for the malpractice and quackery of some of its 
unscrupulous members, or the church, with its thousands of sincere 
and noble teachers and followers, ill derision for the hypocrisy and 
deceit of the few, who simply use it as a cloak to conceal the inten- 
tions of a rotten heart and a corrupt nature, as to saddle upon a pro- 
fession as great as either, the shortcomings of some of its individual 



By a wise ordination of Providence, law and order govern every- 
thing in the vast and complex system of the universe. Law is every- 
thing — lawyers nothing. Law would still exist, though every one of 
its professors and teachers should perish from the face of the earth. 
And should such a thing occur, and a new race spring up, the first in- 
structive desire of its best men would be to bring order out of chaos 
by the enactment and promulgation of wise and beneficial laws. Law 
in the abstract is as much a component part of our planet as are the 
elements, earth, air, fire and water. In a concrete sense, as applied 
to the government of races, nations, and people, it plays almost an 
equally important part. Indeed, so grand is the science and so noble 
are the objects sought to be accomplished through it, that it has in- 
spired some of the best and greatest men of ancient and modern times 
to an investigation and study of its principles, and in the long line of 
great names handed down to us from the dim and shadowy portals of 
the past, quite as many great men will be found enrolled as members 
of the legal profession as in any of the others, and owe their greatness 
to a sound knowledge of the principles of law, and a strict and impar- 
tial application of them. Draco, among the first and greatest of 
Athenian law-givers, was hailed as the deliverer of those people be- 
cause of his enacting laws and enforcing them for the prevention of 
vice and crime, and looking to the protection of the masses from op- 
pression and lawlessness. It is true that many of the penalties he at- 
tached to the violation of the law were severe, and even barbarous, 
but this severity proceeded from an honorable nature, with an earnest 
desire to improve the condition of his fellow-men. Triptolemus, his 
contemporary, proclaimed as laws: "Honor your parents, worship 
the Gods, hurt not animals." Solon, perhaps the wisest and greatest 
of them all, a man of remarkable purity of life and noble impulses, 
whose moral character was so great, and conviction as to the public 
good so strong, that he could and did refuse supreme and despotic 
power when thrust upon him, and thus replied to the sneers of his 
friends : — 

Nor wisdom's plan, nor deep laid policy, 
Can Solon boast. For, when its noble blessings 
Heaven poured into his lap, he spurned them from him. 
Where were his sense and spirit, when enclosed 
He found the choicest pray, nor deigned to draw it? 
Who to command fair Athens but one day 
Would not himself, with all his race, have fallen 
Contented on the morrow? 

What is true of one nation or race in this particular is true of all, 


viz. : that the wisest and greatest of all law-makers and lawyers have 
always been pure and good men, perhaps the most notable exceptions 
being Justinian and Tribonianus. Their great learning and wisdom 
enabled them to rear as their everlasting monument, the Pandects and 
Justinian Code, which, however, they sadly defaced by the immoralities 
and excesses of their private lives. Among the revered and modern 
nations will be found, conspicuous for their great services to their fel- 
lows, innumerable lawyers. To the Frenchman the mention of the 
names of Tronchet, Le Brun, Portalis, Roederer, and Thibaudeau ex- 
cites a thrill pride for greatness and of gratitute for their goodness. 
What Englishman, or American either, but that takes just pride in the 
splendid reputation and character of the long line of England's loyal 
lawyer sons? The Bacons, father and son, who, with Lord Burleigh, 
were selected by England's greatest queen to administer the affairs of 
state, and Somers and Hardwicke, Cowper and Dunning, Elden, 
Blackstone, Coke, Stowell, and Curran, who, with all the boldness of 
a giant and eloquence of Demosthenes, struck such vigorous blows 
against kingly tyranny and oppression ; and Eskine and Mansfield and 
a score of others. 

These are the men who form the criterion by which the profes- 
sion should be judged. And in our own country, have we not names 
among the dead as sacred and among the living as dear? In the bright 
pages of the history .of a country, founded for the sole benefit of the 
people, and all kinds of people, who, more than our lawyers, are re- 
corded as assistiug in its formation, preservation, and working for its 
perpetuity ? 

The American will ever turn with special pride to the great 
Webster, Rufus Choate, William Wirt, Taney, Marshall, and a hun- 
dred others, who reflected the greatest honor upon the profession in 
our own country. And among the truest and best sons of Missouri 
are her lawyers, and even in the good county of old Howard, some of 
her most highly esteemed and most responsible citizens are members 
of this noble profession. 


Franklin was especially noted for its corps of able and profound 
lawyers, many of whom afterwards attained state and national repu- 
tations. Below, will be found brief, biographical sketches of the 
earliest and most prominent members of the Franklin bar beginning 
with — 



He was a native of Greene county, Tennessee ; of poor, but re- 
spectable parents. Settled in St. Louis, before Missouri was admitted 
into the Union. He was the first United States senator elected from 
Missouri. Col. Thomas H. Benton was his colleague. He was the 
presiding officer of the constitutional convention of the state in 1820. 
Served in the state senate from 1834 to 1835. He was the first 
circuit judge, that presided over a Howard county court — in 1816 — 
residing at Franklin. Although deficient in his early education, he 
possessed a good command of language and was an eloquent, sarcastic 
and witty speaker. He died near Boonville, Cooper county, in 
September, 1837, and left no family. 


Was born in Carolina county, Virginia, in March, 1780. Came 
to St. Louis, about the year 1803, and taught school and read law at 
the same time. He located in Old Franklin about the year 1817. He 
was a member of the legislature (territorial) when that body sat at 
St. Charles. In 1824, he was appointed judge of the supreme court 
of Missouri. He died at Jefferson City in 1846. That he was a fine 
jurist and a man of spotless integrity, admits of no doubt. Like Judge 
Barton, he left no family. 


This popular and able jurist, was one of the first three judges 
appointed to the supreme bench of Missouri, in 1820. He was a 
native of Tennessee. Was born in 1790. Came to St. Louis when 
quite young ; moved to Montgomery county, and afterwards settled 
in Franklin. He remained on the bench until 1841. His opinions 
will be found in the first six volumes of Missouri reports. He was a 
member of the territorial legislature and was the author of the bill to 
introduce the common law into Missouri. 


This eminent lawyer, was born in Windsor, Vermont, May 16, 
1797. In 1819, at the age of 21 years, he came to St. Louis, descend- 
ing the Ohio river in a skiff from Pittsburgh. Remained in St. Louis 
but a few days and then started on foot for Franklin, which he reached 
after recovering from a spell of sickness, which he had at St. Charles. 
He, however, after teaching a six months' school in the vicinity of 
Franklin, located first at Boonville, where he remained two years and 
then returned to Franklin. In 1834, he was elected to the legislature ; 


revised the laws of the state in 1834-5, and was appointed a judge of 
the supreme court upon the resignation of Gov. Gamble. As a jurist, 
he had no superior in the state. Judge Leonard moved to Fayette in 


Having given above a brief biographical sketch of Judge Leonard, 
we deem it proper, in this connection, to mention the duel he had 
with Major Taylor Berry, and reproduce the correspondence that 
passed between the two gentlemen, prior to their meeting, which 
terminated so fatally to one of the participants. Major Berry, at the 
time of the difficulty, was residing in the town of Old Franklin. He 
was a Kentuckian by birth, high strung and quick to resent an insult, 
whether offered to himself or to his friend. 

In June, 1824, a law suit occurred in the town of Fayette, in 
which Judge Leonard and Major Berry were interested as attorneys. 
Leonard had cross-examined a witness in court — a witness who had 
testified in the interest of Major Berry — and had done it in such a 
manner as to greatly offend both the witness and Berry. After court 
had adjourned for noon, the witness threatened to make a personal 
assault on Leonard in the street, should he meet him. Berry hearing 
of what the witness had said in reference to assaulting Leonard, told 
him to never mind, let him attend to Leonard. It was noticed that 
Berry held in his hand, a black, horse whip, and after Leonard had 
repaired to his boarding-house, and eaten his dinner, he was met by 
Berry, in front of the hotel, who struck him several times with the 
whip. Berry being a much stronger man physically than Leonard, 
the latter being unarmed too, could make but slight resistance. The 
insult thus offered, and the manner in which it was done, so outraged 
the feelings of Judge Leonard, as a man and citizen, that he at once 
determined to send Berry a challenge which he accordingly did. 

The following is the correspondence which took place between 
the parties : — 

[Leonard to Berry.'] 

Franklin, June 26, 1824. 

Sir : I demand a personal interview with you. My friend, Mr. 
Boggs, will make the necessary arrangements on my part. 

Yours, etc., 

A. Leonard. 
Major Berry. 

To which Major Berry replied as follows : — 

Franklin, Mo., June 28, 1824. 
Sir: Your note of the 26th has been received. Without 


urging the objections which I might have to the note itself, or to the 
demand it contains, I shall answer it, to redeem a promise which I 
made at Fayette (in passion) that I would give you the demanded 
interview. My business, which embraces many duties to others, will 
require my personal attention until after the first of September next, 
after which time, any further delay will be asked from you only. 

To make any arrangements, Maj. A. L. Langham will attend on 
my part. Yours, etc., 

Taylor Berry. 

Shortly before the meeting took place between Judge Leonard 
and Major Berry, Leonard was arrested by direction of Judge Todd, 
and required to give bond in the sum of $5,000 to keep the peace. 
He said to the judge, " Name the amount of the bond, for I am de- 
termined to keep my appointment with Major Berry." Near the close 
of August, the parties, with their seconds and surgeons, proceeded 
down the river, having previously entered into — through their sec- 
onds — the following stipulation, to meet at some point near New 
Madrid on the Mississippi river, in the southern part of the state : — 

We, Thomas J. Boggs and Angus L. Langham, appointed by 
Abiel Leonard and Taylor Berry to act in the capacity of their friends 
in a personal interview they are to have, and to agree upon the terms 
by which the said parties shall be governed in the combat, do agree, 
the said Thomas J. Boggs for and on behalf of Abiel Leonard, and 
the said Angus L. Langham for and on behalf of Taylor Berry, to 
the terms and regulations following, to-wit : The place of meeting 
shall be at some point, either in Kentucky, Tennessee or Arkansas, 
which shall be most convenient to the town of New Madrid — the 
particulars to be determined by the seconds, who, for that purpose, 
as well as for the making of any other necessary arrangement, shall 
meet in the town of New Madrid on the third day previous to the time 
specified in this instrument for the personal meeting of the parties, 
at ten o'clock, a. m. The time for the personal meeting of the par- 
ties is fixed on the first day of September next, at ten o'clock in the 
morning. The arms to be used by the parties shall be pistols, each 
party choosing his own, without any restriction as to the kind, except 
that rifle pistols are prohibited. The distance shall be ten paces of 
three feet each. The position of the parties shall be side to side, so 
as to fire without wheeling. When the parties have taken their po- 
sitions, the question " Are you ready? " shall be asked, to which the 
answer shall be " Yes. " If either party answer negatively, or in 
other terms, the question shall be repeated. When both parties an- 
swer " Yes, " the word " Fire " is to be given ; upon which the par- 
ties shall fire within the time of counting eight, which shall be slowly 
and audibly done. As soon as the person counting finishes, he shall 
order " Stop, " which shall .be the word of cessation for that fire. 


The choice of positions shall be determined by lot, as well as the giv- 
ing the word. The counting shall be done by the second who loses 
the word. If the pistol of either party shall snap or flash, it shall 
be considered a fire. If a shade cannot be obtained, the parties shall 
stand on a line across the sun. A. L. Langham, 

T. J. Boggs. 
Franklin, July 1, 1824. 

The time for the meeting of the parties is changed to four 
o'clock, p. m. The dress, an ordinary three-quartered coat. 

T. J. Boggs, 
A. L. Langham. 
Point Pleasant, Aug. 31, 1824. 

On their way to New Madrid, Judge Leonard and his second 
stopped over night at St. Louis, and while at the hotel, some of the 
police, who had, in some unknown way, heard of what was going on, 
went to the hotel to arrest Judge Leonard, but was frustrated by the 
ingenuity of Mr. Boggs. As they entered the room they asked for 
the judge, when Mr. Boggs rose and said, " That is my name. " They 
at once arrested him, which gave Leonard a chance to escape. Finding 
they had the wrong man, Mr. Boggs was released and proceeded on 
his way to New Madrid, where he arrived in good time. The place 
selected was Wolf Island, which is located in the lower Mississippi 
river, about thirty miles below Cairo, Illinois. The writer hereof, 
visited the island in 1860, and can testify to the fact that no more 
fitting spot for such a meeting could have been found in all the coun- 
try. Here on this island, isolated from the main shore, with only 
their seconds and surgeons present, and beneath the shadows of an 
almost impenetrable forest, they fought a bloody duel — one of the 
actors therein trying to vindicate his insulted honor, and the other 
fighting to redeem a promise " made in passion. " Berry fell at the 
first fire, shot through the breast, and would have finally recovered 
from the wound, which was not considered mortal, had it not been for 
taking cold. He had nearly recovered and was preparing to return 
home, when he contracted a cold and died at New Madrid. Dr. J. J. 
Lowery was Major Berry's surgeon, and Dr. Dawson, of New Madrid, 
was Judge Leonard's. 


Few of the early judges of Missouri were better known than 
David Todd. He was a native of Kentucky, where he was born about 
the year 1790, in Fayette county. He came to Missouri at an early 


day, and located in Old Franklin. He was appointed judge of the 
Howard circuit. He was an impartial, conscientious and upright 
judo-e. He died in Columbia, Boone county, in 1859. 


Like Judge Leonard, the subject of our sketch was born in New 
England, — Hillsboro' county, New Hampshire, — about the year 1797. 
Soon after he attained his majority, he emigrated west and settled in 
Old Franklin, where he remained in the practice of law until 1839, 
when he settled in Lexington, Missouri. As a lawyer, his style was 
clear and strong. He was offered the judgeship of his circuit, but 
declined. In a fit of mental derangement, while visiting a friend near 
Lexington, Missouri, he cut his throat and terminated his life. 


The subject of this sketch was a native of Winchester county, 
Virginia, where he was born November 29, 1798 ; came to St. Louis 
in 1818, and soon after removed to Old Franklin. He was appointed 
prosecuting attorney just after his arrival at Franklin. In 1824, he 
was appointed secretary of state by Gov. Bates. He then removed 
to St. Louis. In 1846, he represented Franklin county in the legisla- 
ture. In 1851, he became a judge of the supreme court — presiding 
justice. In February, 1861, he was made governor of Missouri. He 
filled every position to which he was called with marked ability, and 
died in 1864. 


King and Queen county, Virginia, was the birthplace of Judge 
Eyland, that event occurring in November, 1797. He settled in Old 
Franklin in 1819 and practised law until 1830, when he was appointed 
judge of the sixth judicial circuit. In 1848, he was appointed judge 
of the supreme court. He died in 1873. He was one of God's 
noblemen, and bore the judicial robe with a dignity suited to the high 
and responsible position — neither strained nor assumed, but easy, 
natural and commanding. 


Having given short sketches of the bench and bar of Old 
Franklin, we will now refer briefly to the early bench and bar of 


Fayette, which became the county seat of Howard county in 1824 : — 


came to Fayette, Howard county, Missouri, in 1827, and established 
the Western Monitor. He was formerly from Montgomery county, 
Virginia, where he was born in 1804. He was clerk of the lower 
house of the General Assembly in 1828-9 ; afterwards secretary of 
the senate and a member of the state senate. In 1843, he was ap- 
pointed register of the land office ; in 1849, he was appointed judge of 
the supreme court of the state. He was a member of the consti- 
tutional convention in 1861. He died in Clinton county, near, 
Plattsburg, in 1878. 


He was born in Christian county, Kentucky, in January, 1804, 
and came with his parents to Missouri in 1818 and settled near 
Fayette. He was a clerk in the land office at Franklin, pursued 
the study of his profession part of the time with Gen. John Wil- 
son and the remainder with Edward Bates, of, St. Louis. He first 
opened an office in Old Franklin, but afterwards removed to Fayette. 
He was one of the commissioners to lay out a road from Missouri 
to Santa Fe, New Mexico. He was made colonel of a regiment 
in the Indian war, and commanded a brigade in the Mormon diffi- 
culties. He served in the legislature from 1844 to 1864. He died 
in October, 1871. 


Like a vast majority of the early settlers of Howard county, 
Judge Morrow came from Kentucky (Bath county), where he was 
born in 1810. He settled in Fayette in 1836, and was soon after 
appointed judge of the Cole circuit, which position he held till 
his death . He made a good judge, and gave general satisfaction. 


The subject of this sketch was a native of Bourbon county, 
Kentucky, and was born in August, 1818. His father emigrated 
to Howard county in 1824, and Kobert, after getting his license, 
entered upon the practice of the law about 1845, at Fayette. In 
1852, he was appointed circuit attorney of the second judicial dis- 
trict. He became a member of the constitutional convention in 


1863. He was a man of noble impulses and of the highest integ- 
rity. He died in 1873. 


was also a Kentuckian, and was born in Bracken county in 1796. 
He came to Illinois in early life, and filled the several offices of clerk 
of the house of representatives, speaker of the house, attorney- 
general, and judge of the supreme court. In 1829, he moved to 
Fayette, Missouri, and was soon elected a member of the legislature 
and then appointed a circuit judge. In 1840, he was elected gov- 
ernor of Missouri. In 1844, he died the death of a suicide from a 
gun-shot wound, inflicted by his own hands. His mind was as clear 
as a bell, and his power of analysis very great. 


In November, 1796, near Staunton, Augusta county, Virginia, 
General Robert Wilson was born. In the spring of 1820 he located 
at Old Franklin. After the removal of the county seat of Howard 
county to Fayette he located there. He was appointed probate judge 
in 1823, of Howard county. About 1828, he was appointed clerk of 
the circuit and county courts of Randolph county. Was appointed 
brigadier-general of militia in 1838. He was a member of the legis- 
lature in 1844-45, and soon after of the state senate. Was a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention in 1861, and a member of the 
United States senate in 1862. He died in 1877, in California. 


Among the many distinguished professional men who came to 
Howard county at an early day was General John B. Clark, Sr., who 
still survives at his home in Fayette, at the advanced age of eighty 
years. He was born in Madison county, Kentucky, in 1802, and came 
with his father's family to Howard in 1818. He was appointed clerk 
of the county court in 1823 ; elected captain of militia in 1823, colo- 
nel in 1825 ; participated in the Indian war in 1829 ; in the Black- 
hawk war in 1832 ; twice wounded ; elected brigadier-general of 
militia in 1830, major-general in 1836. In 1849, he was elected to 
the legislature, and in 1854 elected to congress, whither he went for 
three successive terms. Became brigadier-general in the Confederate 
army in the war of 1861 ; was a member of the Confederate states 


congress and senate. The general, even now (1883), possesses a 
strong mind and a vigorous memory, and were it not for the fact that 
he is almost blind from disease of the eyes, he would be a remarkably 
active man, notwithstanding his great age. During many years of 
his eventful life he was one of the most prominent whig politicians of 
Missouri, and made, in behalf of his party, some of the ablest and 
most aggressive campaigns that were ever made in the state. He has 
affiliated with the Democratic party since 1854. As a lawyer General 
Clark was very successful and was always strong before a jury. 


Among the prominent men of Fayette was Judge Wm. B. 
Napton. He was a native of New Jersey, where he was born about 
the year 1810. Came to Fayette in 1833, and began the publication 
of the Boone's Lick Democrat. He was soon afterwards appointed 
attorney-general of the state, and about the year 1840, was appointed 
a judge of the supreme court. Judge Napton was a modest, unob- 
trusive man, but made one of the best judges of the supreme court 
the state has had. He died in 1882. 


J. H. Robertson, A. J. Herndon, 

John B. Clark, Jr., John C. Herndon, 

Samuel C. Major, W. C. Arline, 

Leland Wright, Robert C. Clark. 

John J. Hawkins, resides at Glasgow. 
John V. Turner, resides at Glasgow. 
Thomas Shackelford, resides at Glasgow. 
R. B. Caples, resides at Glasgow. 


Considering the fact that Howard county has been organized for 
the period of sixty-seven years, one would naturally suppose that the 
number of crimes committed within its borders would be large, 
especially during the first thirty years of its existence ; but such is not 
the case. Upon the contrary crimes have been fewer in number than 
in almost any other county in the state, in proportion to the popula- 
tion and the age of the county. 


The first important criminal case that was tried at Fayette, was 


entitled the "State of Missouri against Joseph Davis," who killed 
General Ignatius P. Owen in the fall of 1835. 

Davis was a lawyer of some eminence, and afterwards filled 
several important official positions in Howard county. General Owen 
had commanded the militia in the early history of the county, and 
had been honored with the title of brigadier general. At the time 
he was killed, he was the proprietor of a hotel which stood upon the 
corner now occupied by the business house, of Boughner, Tolson & 
Smith. Davis had a law office on the same side of the street, south- 
east of the hotel, which was located where the millinery store of Mrs. 
Jasper is now situated. Owen and Davis had quarreled, and each 
entertained for the other very bitter feelings ; the former had been 
especially violent and denunciatory. Davis (known as Colonel Joe 
Davis) was sitting in his ofEce, as already stated, in the 
fall of 1835. It was nearly noon. General Owen came to 
the door of the office and spoke in threatening language to 
the colenel, intimating that he would take his life when he 
attempted to leave his office. Colonel Davis told the general, in 
a quiet way, that if he did not leave, he would kill him. Owen, how- 
ever, remained, continuing to abuse Davis, until the latter was ready 
to go to his dinner. Davis having, in the meantime, had his gun 
(a rifle) brought to him, raised it, and took deliberate aim at Owen, 
killing him almost instantly. Owen, physically, was a much larger 
man than Davis. The latter was acquitted. Davis was said to have 
been one of the finest shots in the country, and so skilled was he, in 
the use of his rifle, that he could as often drive the centre at sixty 
paces as the most sturdy and experienced hunter. 


The above named persons, were slaves, the former being the 
property of Judge C. C. P. Hill, and the latter, the property of 
Daniel Gates. 

In the spring of 1837, there lived a family of three blind brothers, 
within a few miles of Fayette. They earned their living by making 
chairs, which were prized more on account of their durability, than 
for their neatness of style and construction. These men were the 
owners of real estate, and sold a piece of land, from which they had 
realized a small sum of money. The day after the sale, the negroes 
went to their house, for the purpose of getting the money, and in their 
efforts to accomplish their hellish design, they killed one of the 


For this they were arrested and tried at the June term of the 
court in 1837, found guilty and condemned to be hung, and were ac- 
cordingly executed, being the first persons ever hung in pursuance of 
a sentence of law in Howard county. The place of the execution, 
was a pasture north of Fayette, which was then the property of Gray 
Bynum. Here stood a large oak tree, from one of the limbs of 
which, they were suspended, thus paying the penalty for their crime. 


John R. Price was the brother of General Sterling Price ; he 
resided in Fayette and had been keeping hotel for several years at the 
period we mention (1838), and was at that time operating a hotel at the 
east corner ef the public square. Price was generally respected as a 
quiet, law-abiding citizen, and being a lame man, he never engaged in 
personal encounters. Allen Burton was an offensive braggart, and 
when drinking, an overbearing, violent and abusive man. 

Burton went to Price's house one evening, about supper time, and 
began to curse and upbraid him in an outrageous manner. Price told 
him not to attempt to enter his house. Burton, however, disregarded 
any and all warnings, started in, when Price shot and killed him. The 
sympathy of the people was all on the side of Price. He was arrested, 
tried and acquitted, and when the verdict of " not guilty," was an- 
nounced in the court-room, there was the wildest excitement among 
the large number of interested spectators, who had been present dur- 
ing the progress of the trial. The demonstrations of rejoicing were 
so great and continued, that the judge threatened to send the parties 
making the disturbance to jail. 


In the spring of. 1858, Enoch Lucky killed Rufus Saffarans. 
Lucky was a man well advanced in years, but strong and active 
for one of his age. Saffarans was young and stalwart, and physi- 
cally was said to be the equal of any man in the county. Both 
men frequented saloons when in Fayette, and had had one or two 
altercations when discussing their strength of limb and achieve- 
ments as " fighters." On the day of the tragedy they had been 
drinking, and met in a saloon, when Saffarans took a walking caue 
from Lucky and beat him over the head and body, bruising him badly. 
On the night succeeding that day, Lucky prepared himself with a 
shot-gun, and took his position on the west side of the public square, 
secreting himself in a narrow alley between two houses, about midway 


the block, where he remained until near midnight waiting and watch- 
ing for Saffarans, who passed that way in going to and returning 
from the saloon, which was at that time located in the rear of Bell's 
present (1883) grocery store. 

The unfortunate victim, not knowing the terrible fate that was 
awaiting him, finally passed in front of the concealed man, who hailed 
him and told him that he was going to kill him, and at the same 
moment discharged his weapon, killing Saffarans upon the spot. 

The trial of this case elicited great interest. Lucky was confined 
in jail, where he remained for about a year before his trial took place, 
which was conducted in the Christian church edifice (the present court- 
house being then in process of erection). The prisoner was finally 
acquitted. John F. Williams, prosecuting attorney, conducted the 
case in behalf of the state. Colonel Joe Davis, Robert T. Prewitt, 
John B. Clark, Jr., and A. J. Herndon appeared for defendant. 


Ethelred J. Hays lived near the Chariton county line (Missouri), 
and was a farmer. John W. Brown was a book-peddler and mer- 
chant, residing in Glasgow, Howard county. In the year 1854, Hays 
had business relations with Brown, and asked him to change for him 
a fifty dollar bill. Hays was drinking at the time (he was in the 
habit of taking an occasional spree), but was considered a very honest 
man. He charged Brown with having stolen his fifty dollars. 
Brown sued him for slander, and with the consent of the 
defendant and his attorneys, Brown was permitted to get a judgment 
for costs. Hays was a malicious, revengful man, and being in front 
of Brown's store afterwards, he took out his knife, remarking at the 
time, " that he had sharpened it to kill Brown with." He went into 
the store immediately from the pavement, and struck Brown on the 
head with a spade, which he got in the store, cleaving his skull, which 
caused instant death. 

Hays was taken to Randolph county on a change of venue, where 
he was tried and sentenced to be hung. General Sterling Price was 
governor of the state at the time, and commuted his sentence to 
imprisonment for life. After he had served a few years in the peni- 
tentiary, Governor Robert M. Stewart pardoned him. 


This was a case brought from Macon county on a change of 
venue, and was tried in 1852, at Fayette. Charles H.Hardin pros- 


ecuted, and Clark & Gilstrap defended. After an interesting trial the 
prisoner was cleared. 


This was also a case transferred from Boone county, in 1858. 
Chapman was indicted for killing , while he was plow- 
ing in his field. John F. Williams prosecuted, and James S. Eollins, 
Odon Guitar and A. J. Herndon defended. Chapman was hung. 


On Saturday, the 15th day of August, 1878, at a barbecue 
twelve miles east of Fayette, L. A. Willoughby shot and killed R. L. 
Comstock, a prominent and worthy citizen of the county. 

Comstock, and his friend, a Mr. Davis, were conversing, when 
Willoughby walked up to where they were. Davis put his hand in a 
friendly way on Willoughby' s shoulder. Just as he did so Wil- 
loughby drew back and asked Davis if he meant to collar him. 
Davis told him that he only put his hand on his shoulder supposing 
he was his friend. While this conversation was going on between 
Davis and Willoughby, Comstock very innocently put his hand in his 
pocket; as soon as Willoughby, who, it is said, was under the influ- 
ence of liquor, saw Comstock's hand in his pocket, said " What do 
you mean by fingering your pocket?" Comstock answered coolly, 
that he did not think it was any of his business. Willoughby drew 
his pistol and said : "I will show you whether it is or not," at the 
same time firins on him. The ball took effect in the abdomen of 
Comstock, who lived long enough to say, " I'm shot." Willoughby 
was afterwards captured and taken to Fayette, but the murdered 
man's friends became so indignant that it was not thought prudent to 
confine Willoughby in Howard county ; he was, therefore, taken to 
Cooper county and incarcerated. After being tried three times (hav- 
ing been sentenced to the penitentiary at one time ten years), he 
was finally cleared. 



Introductory Eemarks of a Historical Character — Missouri Intelligencer — Western 
Monitor — Missourian — Boone's Lick Times — Boone's Lick Democrat — Demo- 
cratic Banner — Howard County Banner — Howard County Advertiser — Plough- 
man — Independent — The Pilot — The Banner — Glasgow Times — Glasgow News 
— The Glasgow Journal — Central Missourian — Armstrong Autograph. 

The press, the great luminary of liberty, is the handmaid of 
progress. It heralds its doings and makes known its discoveries. It 
is its advance courier, whose coming is eagerly looked for and whose 
arrival is hailed with joy, as it brings tidings of its latest achieve- 
ments. The press prepares the way and calls mankind to witness the 
approaching procession of the triumphal car of progress as it passes 
on down through the vale of the future. When the car of progress 
stops, the press will cease, and the intellectual and mental world will 
go down in darkness. The press is progress, and progress the press. 
So intimately are they related and their interests interwoven, that one 
cannot exist without the other. Progress made no advancement 
against the strong tides of ignorance and vice in the barbaric past 
until it called to its aid the press. In it is found its greatest discovery, 
its most valuable aid, and the true philosopher's stone. 

The history of this great industry dates back to the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Its discovery and subsequent utility resulted from the follow- 
ing causes and in the following manner : Laurentius Coster, a native 
of Haerlem, Holland, while rambling through the forest contiguous to 
his native city, carved some letters on the bark of a birch tree. Drowsy 
from the relaxation of a holiday, he wrapped his carvings in a piece 
of paper and lay down to sleep. While men sleep progress moves, 
and Coster awoke to discover a phenomenon, to him simple, strange 
and suggestive. Dampened by the atmospheric moisture, the paper 
wrapped about his handiwork had taken an impression from them, and 
the surprised burgher saw on the paper an inverted image of what he 
had engraved on the bark. The phenomenon was suggestive, because 
it led to experiments that resulted in establishing a printing office, 
the first of its kind in the old Dutch town. In this office John Guten- 


burg served a faithful and appreciative apprenticeship, and from it, at 
the death of his master, absconded during a Christmas festival, taking 
with him a considerable portion of the type and apparatus. Guten- 
burg settled in Mentz, where he won the friendship and partnership of 
John Faust, a man of sufficient means to place the enterprise on a se- 
cure financial basis. Several years later the partnership was dissolved 
because of a misunderstanding. Gutenburg then formed a partner- 
ship with a younger brother, who had set up an office at Strasburg, 
but had not been successful, and becoming involved in law suits, had 
fled from that city to join his brother at Mentz. These brothers were 
the first to use metal types. Faust, after his dissolution with Guten- 
burg, took into partnership Peter Schoeffer, his servant, and a most 
ingenious printer. Schoeffer privately cut matrices for the whole al- 
phabet. Faust was so pleased that he gave Schoeffer his only daughter 
in marriage. These are the great names in the early history of print- 
ing, and each is worthy of special honor. 

Coster's discovery of wood blocks or plates, on which the page to 
be printed were engraved, was made some time between 1440 and 
1450, and Schoeffer's improvement — casting the type by means of 
matrices — was made about 1456. For a long time printing was de- 
pendent upon most clumsy apparatus. The earliest press had a con- 
trivance for running the forms under the point of pressure by means 
of a screw. When the pressure was applied the screw was loosened, 
the form withdrawn and the sheet removed. Improvements were 
made upon these crude beginnings from time to time, until the hand 
press now in use is a model of simplicity, durability and execution. 
In 1814, steam was first supplied to cylinder presses by Frederick 
Konig, a Saxon genius, and the subsequent progress of steam print- 
ing has been so remarkable as to almost justify a belief in its absolute 
perfection. Indeed, to appreciate the improvement in presses alone, 
one ought to be privileged to stand a while by the pressman who op- 
erated the clumsy machine of Gutenberg, and theu he should step 
into one of the well-appointed modern printing offices of our larger 
cities, where he could notice the roll of dampened paper entering the 
great power presses, a continuous sheet, and issuing therefrom as 
newspapers, ready for the carrier or express. The Komans, in the 
times of the emperors, had periodicals, notices of passing events, 
compiled and distributed. These daily events were the newspapers of 
that age. In 1536, the first newspaper of modern times was issued at 
Venice, but governmental bigotry compelled its circulation in manu- 
script form. 



In 1663, the Public Intelligencer was published in London, and 
is credited with being the first English paper to attempt the dissemi- 
nation of general information. The first American newspaper was 
the Boston News-Letter, whose first issue was made April 24, 1704. 
It was a half-sheet, twelve inches by eight, with two columns to the 
page. John Campbell, the postmaster, was the publisher. The 
Boston Gazette made its first appearance December 21, 1719, and the 
American Weekly, at Philadelphia, December 22, 1719. In 1776, the 
number of newspapers published in the colonies was "thirty-seven ; in 
1828, the number had increased to eight hundred and fifty-two, and at 
the present time not less than eight thousand newspapers are sup- 
ported by our people. Journalism, by which is meant the compiling 
of passing public events, for the purpose of making them more gen- 
erally known and instructive, has become a powerful educator. Ex- 
perience has been its only school for special training, its only text for 
s.tudy, its only test for theory. It is scarcely a profession, but is 
advancing rapidly toward that dignity. A distinct department of lit- 
erature has been assigned to it. Great editors are writing autobiosxa- 
phies and formulating their methods and opinions ; historians are 
rescuing from oblivion the every-day life of deceased journalists ; re- 
priuts of interviews with famous journalists, touching the different 
phases of their profession, are deemed worthy of publication in book 
form. Leading universities have contemplated the inauguration of 
courses of study specially designed to fit men and women for the du- 
ties of the newspaper sanctum. These innovations are not untimely, 
since no other class of men are so powerful for good or ill as editors. 
More than any other class they form public opinion while expressing 
it, for most men but echo the sentiments of favorite journalists. 
Even statesmen, ministers and learned professors not unfrequently 
get their best thoughts and ideas from the papers they read. 


On the 23d of April, 1819, Nathaniel Patton, and Benjamin Holli- 
day, commenced the publication of the Missouri Intelligencer in (Old) 
Franklin. The size of the sheet was 18x24 inches, and was printed 
on what is known to the printers as the Eamage press, a wooden con- 
trivance, with cast-iron bed, joints and platten, and which at this day, 
is a great curiosity. About the year 1858, Col. Wm. F Switzler, of 
Columbia, Mo., presented this press to the Mercantile Library Associ- 
ation of St. Louis. From April 23d, 1819, to June 10, 1820, Na- 


thaniel Patton and Benjamin Holliday were the publishers. (Mrs. E. 
W. McClannahan, who now resides near Columbia, Missouri, is a 
daughter of Mr. Holliday.) 

June 10, 1820, Mr. Patton retired as publisher, leaving Mr. Hol- 
liday in charge, who continued till July 23, 1821, when John Payne, 
a lawyer, became the editor. He was a native of Culpeper county, 
Virginia, and died in Franklin, September 15, 1821, aged twenty-four 

September 4, 1821, Mr. Payne retired and Mr. Holliday again as- 
sumed control. 

From August 5, 1822, to April 17, 1824, Nathaniel Patton and 
John T. Cleveland were the publishers. Mr. Cleveland died some 
years ago at Austin, Texas. 

April 17, 1824, Mr. Cleveland retired, leaving Mr. Patton sole 
publisher, which position he continued to hold until the sale of the 
paper by him to Mr. Fred A. Hamilton, December 12, 1835. 

The last issue of the Intelligencer at Franklin, June 16, 1826. 

The paper was then moved to Fayette, the first paper appearing 
June 29, 1826. 

July 5, 1827, John Wilson, then a young lawyer in Fayette, was 
announced as editor, which position he held till July 25, 1828. Mr. 
Wilson died in San Francisco, California, February 2, 1877, aged 
eighty-seven years. 

April 9, 1830, last issue of the Intelligencer at Fayette. 

May 4, 1830, first issue of the Intelligencer at Columbia, Mis- 

December 5, 1835, last issue of the Intelligencer at Columbia. 

Near the close of the year 1835, it became known that Mr. Pat- 
ton, owing to failing health, intended to dispose of the Intelligencer 
office, and as the presidential and state elections of the following 
year were approaching, the possession of the paper became an object 
of interest to the politicians and the people. Both parties wanted it, 
and the Democrats under the leadership of Austin A. King, then a 
lawyer resident of Columbia, Dr. William H. Duncan, Dr. Alexander 
M. Robinson and others of Columbia, made some efforts to secure the 
office. While negotiations to this end were pending, Robert S. Barr, 
Oliver Parker, William Cornelius, Warren Woodson, Moses IT. Payne, 
A. W. Turner, Joseph B. Howardj John B. Gordon, Sinclair Kirtley, 
David and Roger N. Todd, Dr. William Jewell, James S. Rollins, 
Thomas Miller and possibly other whigs, raised the money and pur- 
chased the press and the materials, with the understanding that Fred- 


erick A. Hamilton, a practical printer, should take charge of the pub- 
lication, andKollins and Miller, then two young lawyers of Columbia, 
the editorial conduct of the paper, the name of which was changed to 
Patriot, December 12, 1835. 

The Intelligencer was the first newspaper published west of St. 


The next paper published in Howard county was the Western 
Monitor. This was commenced in Fayette in August, 1827, by 
"Weston F. Birch, who continued it until about 1837, when he retired, 
and was succeeded by his brother, Colonel James H. Birch, who 
changed the name of the paper to the Missourian. After running the 
Missourian for about three years, he disposed of it to Clark H. Green, 
who changed the name to the Boone's Lick Times. The Monitor, the 
Missourian, and the Boone's Lick Times,were all whig papers.the Times 
being the last whig paper that was published in Fayette. Almost sim- 
ultaneously with the Times, was established the Boone's Lick Demo- 
crat, which was edited by Judge William Napton, and afterwards by 
Judo-e William A. Hall, who ran it until about 1844. The Times was 
finally taken to Glasgow, where it was published until about the year 

The Democratic Banner was published in 1868, by J. H. Robert- 
son, who remained editor and publisher till 1872, at which time he 
disposed of his interest to Connedy & Kingsbury. The press was 
sold for debt in 1875, when the paper was discontinued. 

The Howard County Banner was moved from Glasgow, Missouri, 
in 1853, by R. C. Hancock, who purchased the office from W. B. 
Twombly. It was published by Leland Wright a short time after- 
wards ; then again by R. C. Hancock. In 1858, Hancock sold to 
Randall & Jackson, who continued the publication of the paper until 
the breaking out of the civil war, when the publishers entered the 
Confederate army. During their absence the office was seized and 
sold, and passed into the hands of I. N. Houck, who changed the 
name of the paper to the Howard County Advertiser. Houck & 
Jackson purchased the paper from Randall. Randall sold out to 
Houck in 1861 and entered the southern army. Mr. Houck contin- 
ued to publish the paper until the summer of 1864, when he went to 
Illinois, where he remained until April, 1865. In June of that year, 
he returned to Fayette, where he soon thereafter resumed the publi- 
cation of the Advertiser. In 186.8, he sold a half interest to General 
John B. Clark, Jr., and the paper was published under the firm name 
of Houck & Clark for about ten months, when Houck sold his inter- 


est to Clark. In 1871, Houck again purchased the Advertiser, which 
was continued until December, 1872, when it was sold, and became 
the property of its present owner, Charles J. Walden. On the 13th 
of July, 1882, the entire office was consumed by fire, nothing being 
saved except the files for the past five years and the subscription 
book. The paper appeared regularly, however, without missing an 
issue. It was printed at the Boonville Advertiser office until new 
material and machinery could be bought and put in. 

In the spring of 1874, Houck & Frederick started a paper in the 
interest of the Patrons of Husbandry called the Ploughman. It was 
printed a short time, when Houck purchased the interest of Frederick 
and continued the publication seven months, when he sold the paper. 

In September, 1879, Houck & Butler commenced the publica- 
tion of the Fayette, Missouri, Independent, which was run a year under 
the firm name of Houck & Butler, when the latter sold his interest to 
Houck, who published it until July 13, 1882, when it was- destroyed 
by fire. Mr. Houck, however, nothing daunted, recommenced the 
publication of the Independent the following September. 

Hardly had the town started on its way in the race to commer- 
cial prosperity before the printing press was put in motion. 

The first newspaper was the Pilot, and published by J. T. Ques- 
enbury prior to the year 1840. This paper was afterwards published 
by different parties, among whom were Dr. John H. Blue and James 
A. DeCourcy. 

The Banner, T. W. Twombly, editor, was among the first papers. 

The Glasgow Times was run by Clark H. Green for a number 
of years, and until 1861. 

The Glasgow JVews was published by Walter B. Foster. 

The Glasgow Journal was established in 1868 by General Lucien 
J. Eastin, who, with his sons, continued the publication of the same 
until 1881, when Colonel H. W. Cockerill purchased the paper, and 
has since run it. 

The Central Missourian began its existence in 1879, the first 
number being issued July 31, by Yeaman & Bowen, who were suc- 
ceeded byBowen &Ruffel, who are the present (1883) proprietors. 

The Armstrong Autograph, published at Armstrong, Prairie 
township, was started in January, 1883, by Dentith & Ferlet. 



WAR OF 1861. 

Howard County upon the Eve of the Civil War — Union Meeting at Fayette — Ladies' Union 
Meeting at Fayette — Eloquent Address by Miss Jane Lewis — Howard County during 
the War — Confederate Soldiers, Officers and Privates — Howard County Militia — Col- 
ored Recruits — Sale of Slaves — Colored Recruits from Howard County — Attack on 
Fayette — Affair near New Franklin — Cason's Attack on Two Steamboats — An Act of 
Brutality — Capture of General Thos. J. Bartholow — Battle at Glasgow — Incidents 
of the Battle — Quantrell — Robberv — Mass Meeting after the War — Unconditional 
Union Convention — Result of the Election. 


We have elsewhere stated in this work, that the Mexican war 
began in May, 1846, and that during the middle of that month, Gov- 
ernor Edwards, of Missouri, called for volunteers to join the "Army 
of the "West " — in an expedition to Santa Fe. The full complement 
of companies to compose the first regiment was raised from Jackson, 
Lafayette, Clay, Saline, Franklin, Cole, Howard and Callaway coun- 
ties. The volunteers from Howard county, were made up of excel- 
lent men — men who proved themselves to be good soldiers, a number 
of whom had already seen military service in the Black Hawk and 
Florida wars. The first company from Howard was composed of the 
following persons : — 

Captain — Joel W. Hughes. 

Lieutenant — Samuel G. Ward. 

Sergeants — F. Kitchie, E. Powell, J. W. Hall and S. C. Wolfs- 

Corporals — J. W. Rollins, Waldo Lewis, J. Mahone and Wm. 


H. H. Hughes, L. Sterns, 

T. T. Gibbs, J. Love, 

Jacob Schmidt, J. Jones, 

J. W. Cruse, J. Campbell, 

E. W. Diggs, W. Newcomb, 

C. H. Mead, J. Wilson, 

T. Robinson, J. Tucker, 

Z. W. Elkin, J. McKeehan, 




E. Burton, 

J. E. White, 

E. Casey, 

Wm. McCord, 

T. J. Basye, 

B. Wilson, 

A.J. Sims, 

T. W. Cawthorn, 

J. B. Eeid, 

W. W. White, 

J. M. Duff, 

Benjamin Halstead, 

W. P. Adams, 

J. B. Blythe, 

T. Childs, 

W. J. Pe'echer, 

H. Turner, 
T. S. Donohoe, 
L. P. Collins, 
J. Wilds, 
J. C. Becket, 
J. Embree, 
W. M. Scott, 
J. Cravens, 
H. Hulitt, 
J. Quimby, 
J. McCord, 
A. Wilson, 
W. T. Wilson, 
J. Odell, 
A. Rice. 


Captain — William A. Hall. 

Lieutenant — R. L. Coleman. 

Ensign — T. J. Bartholow. 

Sergeants — Hardin A. Wilson, James A. Douglass, James Kunkle 
and John H. Jackson. 

Corporals — James Marley, S. J. Craig, W. P. Miles and Wil- 
liam B. Wilson. 


Isaac J. Burnam, 
J. D. Patton, 
J. Fray, 
J. W. Craig, 
J. S. Williams, 
G. F. Hackley, 
A. G. Ellis, 
John J. Hackley, 
W. Thorp, 
W. H. Leveridge, 
J. J. Greer, 
J. Lynch, 
J. E. Corbit, 
E. K. Atterbury, 
W. W. Ayres, 
W. McDonald, 
J. W. Collins, 
W.G. Quim, 
S. Swetnam, 

A. S. Leveridge, 
W. Peacher, 
F. J. Tramil, 
J. L. Harry, 
J. McLin, 
W. Cooly, 
D. Hooton, 
H. Ford, 
R. Grant, 
A. G. Mansfield, 
D. A. Waterfield, 
L. W. Sweetnam, 
R. Kirby, 
J. B. Alexander, 
R. C. Hancock, 
S. G. Bailey, 
H. Bynum, 
W. H. Martin, 
J. S. Brundege, 


G. W. Haekley, W. S. Clack, 

W. R. Siinonds, C. J. Murray, 

J. F. Haekley, Jr., C. W. Pendleton, 

T. Thorp, W. Montgomery, 

J. Reynolds, E. Montgomery. 
T. Wright, 

The volunteers embarked at Glasgow, on the 25th day of May, 

1846, on the steamer Wapello, for Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 
After the arrival of all the volunteers at that place, from Missouri, an 
election was held, which resulted in the choice of Alexander W. Doni- 
phan, colonel; C. F. Huff, lieutenant-colonel, and William Gilpin, 


In June, 1847, after the volunteers had been gone about one 
year from Howard county, public meetings were held at Fayette and 
Glasgow to make arrangements for giving a proper reception to the 
returned volunteers from Mexico. 

The committee (at Fayette) of arrangements consisted of A. W. 
Morrison, C. H. Green, A. J. Herndon, J. Headrick, B. Watts, L. 
Crigler, R. L. Coleman, C. C. P. Hill, C. F. Jackson, William Buster, 
J. C. Haekley, S. Brown, John C. Ross, R. W. Boggs, James Cooper 
and others. 

The committee on reception at Glasgow was composed of Jesse 
Haston, Thomas Peery, Richard Dicken, Richard Earickson, L. S. 
Eddins, Thomas Shackelford, May B. Collins, J. C. Thomson, 
William F. Dunnica and others. 

The reception at Fayettee occurred July 23d. Early in the 
morning of that day, a salute of thirteen guns was fired from one of 
the cannons captured at the battle of Sacramento, by the Howard 
county soldiers. William A. Hall welcomed the volunteers in an elo- 
quent speech. Joseph Pulliam served as host at the dinner table. 
The Glasgow brass band was present, and discoursed some excellent 

The reception took place at Glasgow, on Thursday, July 8th, 

1847. Hon. Thomas Shackelford made the address of welcome. 
Major Gilpin and Governor C. F. Jackson also addressed the meeting. 

" The plague of gold strikes far and near — 
And deep and strong it enters ; 


Our thoughts grow dark, our words grow strange, 
We cheer^the pale gold diggers ; * 

Each soul is worth so much on change, 
And marked like sheep with figures." ' 

No doubt the desire for gold has been the mainspring of all pro- 
gress and enterprise in the county, from the beginning till the 
present time, and will so continue till remote ages. Generally, how- 
ever, this desire has been manifested in the usual avenues of thrift, 
industry and enterprise. On one occasion it passed the bounds of 
reason and assumed the character of a mania. 

The gold mania first broke out in the fall of 1848, when stories 
began to be spread abroad of the wonderful richness of the placer 
mines in California. The excitement grew daily, feeding on the 
marvellous reports that came from the Pacific slope, and nothing was 
talked of but the achievements of gold diggers. The papers were re- 
plete with the most extravagant stories, and yet the excitement was 
so great that the gravest and most incredulous men were smitten 
with the contagion, and hurriedly left their homes and all that was dear 
to them on earth, to try the dangers, difficulties and uncertainties of 
hunting gold. Day after day, and month after month, were the 
papers filled with glowing accounts of California. 

Instead of dying out, the fever mounted higher and higher. It 
was too late in the fall to cross the plains, but thousands of people in 
Missouri began their preparations for starting in the following spring, 
and among the number were many from Howard county. The one 
great subject of discussion about the firesides that winter (1848), was 
the gold of California. It is said at one time the majority of the 
able-bodied men of the county were unsettled in mind, and were con- 
templating going to California. Even the most thoughtful and sober- 
minded, found it difficult to resist the infection. 

Wonderful sights were seen when this emigration passed through — 
sights that may never be seen again in Howard county. Some of 
the emigrant wagons were drawn by cows ; other gold hunters went on 
foot and hauled their worldly goods in hand-carts. The gold hunters 
generally left the moralities of life behind them, and were infested 
with a spirit of disorder and demoralization. The settlers breathed 
easier when they passed. Early in the spring of 1849, the rush began. 
It must have been a scene to beggar all description. There was one 
continuous line of wagons from east to west as far as the eye could 
reach, moving steadily westward, and, like a cyclone, drawing in its 
course on the right and left, many of those along its pathway. The 




gold hunters of Howard crowded eagerly into the gaps in the wagon- 
trains, bidding farewell to their nearest an«l dearest friends, many of 
them never to be seen again on earth. Sadder farewells were never 
spoken. Many of the emigrants left their quiet and peaceful homes, 
only to find in the " Far West" utter disappointment and death. At 
the time of the treaty of Oaudaloupe Hidalgo, the population of 
California did not exceed thirty thousand, while at the time of which 
we write there were more than three hundred and fifty thousand peo- 
ple, who had found their way thither, fully one hundred thousand of 
these being gold hunters from the states. 

The evil effects of this gold mania upon the moral status of the 
United States are still seen and felt, and in all classes of society. It 
has popularized the worship of Mammon to an alarming extent, and 
to this worship, in a great measure, is attributed the moral declension 
of to-day. 

Among the scores of men who went to California from Howard 
county, we record the names of the following : — 

John Dunn, 

Sashall Bynum, 

E. K. Atterbury, 

Paul Shirley, 

George Douglass, 

William Davis, 

Joseph W. Pulliam, 

William Pulliam, 

James Hill, 

General John B. Clark, Jr 

Wesley Hill, 

John L. Morrison, 

William Morrison, 

John Boggs, 

Colonel John Williams, 

John P. Musler, 

Henry Thrager, 


Pleasant Wilson, 
William Wilson, 
James Wilson, 
Clay Wilson, 
Frank Brandus, 
Barnet Fernish, 
Joel Fernish , 
William Burris, 
Charles Burris, 
Perry O 'Neal, 
Zack Benson, 

James Douglass, 

General John Wilson and family, 

William McDonald, 

James Sanders, 

James Crews, 

Ly curgus Crews, 

William Stapleton, 

John Lowery, 

Jack Wilcox, 

Jeff Wilcox, 

"Big" Jim Hill, 

Andrew Wilhoit, 

William Martin and brother, 

Hampton McCauley, 

George Ward, 

Kobert Hughes, 

E. M. Patrick, 

Garrison Patrick, 

Weston F. Birch, 

Thomas Birch, Sr., 

Dr. Parrish, 

Jacob Head rick, 
Bradford Pulliam, 
Garret Tatum, 
Stephen Wethers, 
Josiah Tindall, 
James Tindall, 


Reuben Basket, James Tolson, 

Robert Payne, James Morrison, 

Henry Bynum, John Kring, 

Warren Adams, Morrison Hughs, 

Humphrey Cooper, Robert Lynch, 

Luther Cooper, Sumpter Lynch, 

Stephen Hancock, Frank Becket, 

Nathaniel Arben, Jacob Green abaum, 

John Mahone, Robert Bohanan, 

Brand, Allen Raines, 

John Crigler, John Shelton, 

James Hanna, Cale Wilcox. 

Of course there were many others who went to California from 
Howard county, but after making diligent inquiry we failed to get 
their names. 


A complete history of what was said and done in Howard county, 
just preceding the great civil war, which swept over our country like 
a besom of destruction , would fill a large book. Of course, we have 
neither the time nor space to devote to such a work. Even if we had 
and were inclined to write it, we should doubt the propriety of doing 
so. One of the oldest and most highly esteemed citizens of the county, 
when questioned upon this subject said : " Better let bygones be by- 
gones," and so we think. 

There were, however, some things that transpired upon the eve 
of that gigantic struggle which were quite significant of the character 
of the spirit and temper of the people, and of these we shall briefly 


The citizens of Howard county, or at least a large number of 
them, met in the court-house on the third day of December, 1860, to 
consult in reference to the welfare of the county. The Glasgow 
Weekly Times gives an account of that meeting as follows : — 

On motion of R. T. Prewitt, the meeting was organized by the 
election of the following gentlemen : — 

President — Hon. Abiel Leonard, 


Vice-Presidents . 

W. M. Jackson, M. A. Taylor, 

Richard Earickson, F. E. Williams, 

Joseph Davis, William Payne, 

Richard Patton, S. C. Major, 

L. S. Eddins, JohnM. Rivett, 

Joseph Cooper, Owen Rawlins, 

Rice Patterson, Bird Deatherage, 

Jefferson Payne, A. W. Lee, 

James R. Estill, Girard Robinson, 

David Peeler, J. F. Finks, 

Dr. J. C. Heberlin, W. D. Swinney, 

John C. Woods. 

A. E. Randall, Dr. W. C. Boon. 

On motion of A. J. Herndon, a committee of sixteen was ap- 
pointed to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. 
The chair appointed the following gentlemen on said committee: 

A. J. Herndon, J. M. Marmaduke, 

Benjamin J. Payne, N. G. Elliott, 

J. F. Williams, John P. Sebree, 

C. H. Green, W. P. Jackson, 

Thomas Shackelford, S. E. Graves, 

James S. Thomson, J. F. Hughes, 

Andrew Cooper, James Simms, 

S. T. Hughes, R. T. Prewitt. 

On motion of N. G. Elliott, an additional committeeman from 
each township was added to the above list, viz : 
Richmond township, Neriah Todd. 
Chariton township, M. B. Collins. 
Bonne Femme township, J. Hockersmith. 
Prairie township, Joseph B. Bradford. 
Boone's Lick township, William M. Burton. 
Franklin township, R. H. Robinson. 
Moniteau township, John Walker. 

During the progress of the meeting, and in the absence of the 
committee, the citizens present were ably and eloquently addressed by 
Judge A. Leonard, of Howard county, Judge William A. Hall, of 
Randolph county, and Major James S. Rollins, of Boone county. 

The committee on resolutions made the following report : — 

Resolved, 1. That the election to the presidency of any person, 
constitutionally eligible to that office, according to the forms of the 
constitution, is no cause for disunion. 

2. That we regard the election of Abraham Lincoln as a triumph 
of sectionalism over nationalism — of fanaticism over patriotism ; but 


while we have in the northern states a million and a half of patriotic 
freemen, voting and battling with us for our country, we will not dis- 
pair of the republic. 

3. That resistance to the fugitive slave law by the people, and 
virtual nullification of its provisions by the legislature of the 
states of the north, are an actual grievance of which we have a right 
to complain, as illegal, unconstitutional, and unfriendly to us ; but we 
believe that the proper remedy is not to dissolve the union and fight 
against the constitution, but to stand by the union and maintain the 
constitution and enforcement of the laws. 

4. That we have a majority of both houses of congress with us, 
who can and ought to require and compel the strict enforcement of 
the fugitive slave law, and all other legally enacted laws of the United 
States, no matter what the cost. 

5. That the proposed resignation of southern congressmen at 
this juncture, which may have the effect of giving the republicans a 
majority in congress, would be an injudicious and improper desertion 
of their friends. 

6. That our senators and representatives in congress are re- 
quested to offer a resolution requiring the general government to 
enforce the fugitive slave law with all the power of the government, 
and pledging the congress to supply the means. 

Another monster union meeting was held in Fayette, in Feb- 
ruary, 1861. At this meeting, Thomas Shackelford, of Glasgow, 
received the nomination as a candidate to the convention at Jefferson 


The ladies of Fayette held a union meeting at the court-houae, 
January 29, 1861, and unanimously adopted the following resolu- 
tions : — 

Resolved, 1. That the 100 ladies, whose names are here enrolled, 
do still love our country, our whole country, and our country's con- 
stitution ; and we feel that it is perfectly consistent with the char- 
acter of refined, intelligent, and patriotic ladies to make a public 
demonstration of our feelings in this time of peril to our country and 
our liberties. 

2. That as the most appropriate manner of doing this, we will, 
with our hands, make a national flag, to be presented to the man who 
shall be selected for a union representative from this county. 

3. That on Monday night, February 4th, several gentlemen be 
invited to address us, and upon that occasion, we will present our 
flag to the union candidate, praying him in the name of our state, 
and for the sake of that flag, to do all in his power to keep Missouri 
true to her allegiance to the union and the constitution. 

On the evening of the 4th of February, the Methodist Episcopal 
church building, in Fayette, was crowded with an eager and interested 


audience. Miss Jane Lewis had been invited to make the presenta- 
tion address, and as it is a most appropriate, eloquent, and patriotic 
address, we here present it : — 

The time of danger is at hand. Our republic is shaken to the 
centre. The American union, the standard-bearer in the onward 
march of the nations, has paused in its splendid career ! Our con- 
stitution, the ablest work of .uninspired mortal minds, is decried and 
attacked. Our beloved country, our mighty and magnificent union, 
is convulsed by a moral earthquake, which threatens to rend it 
asunder, and leave it a hopeless ruin, a " by-word and a shaking of 
the head to the nations." Our flag, our stainless banner of the stars 
and stripes insulted ! Yes ! torn down, trampled under foot, by those 
who owe to its protection all the rights of sovereign citizens ! Now, 
indeed, the time has come when "man must rise and woman call to 
God!" To man belongs the privilege of defending in the council 
and on the field the honor of his country, and the rights of its 
citizens. Woman can only weep over the woes of her native land, 
pray to the Great Ruler, in whose hands are the destinies of all 
nations, and trust, implicity trust, to the wise heads, the stronger 
arms, the braver hearts of her countrymen. The time of trial draws 
near. A few days will decide whether Missouri will throw off her 
allegiance to the federal union, violate her most solemn pledges, or 
remain loyal to her own constitution, to the whole nation, to the 
human race, to Almighty God ! Missouri is in the centre, the very 
heart of the union. And our county, our noble old Howard, is the 
heart of Missouri. Let that heart remain steadfast and true, and its 
every throb shall be felt throughout its political body. And through 
you, that heart must find a voice. I, then, in the name and by the 
authority of my countrywomen of Fayette, whose names are recorded 
•on it, present to you, and through you to the citizens of Howard 
county, this flag, made with our own hands ; it is offered from our 
hearts. With it we commit to your guardianship all that we hold 
most sacred. By all the hallowed associations clinging around this 
spotless banner of our country, we pray you, in the coming struggle 
to stand fast to the cause of the union and the right. Through your 
voice, let the heart of old Howard speak in thrilling tones to the 
state, to the union, to the world ! In the hour of high and solemn 
debate, remember us and our flag and all of which it is a symbol. 
This flag knows no north, no south ; the whole undivided, glorious 
union is its own ! 


Remember and vote for the union ! Remember £hat disunion 
means war, civil and servile war. Then by the thought of all of 
war's tremendous horrors, by the thought of outraged women and 
murdered children, burning homes, of a desolated country, of a ruined 
race, save the union ! Take, then, our flag, and with it take our 
highest hopes, our heartfelt prayers for the union. Bv the memory 
of the day when its starry folds were first uurolled to" the winds of 


heaven, proclaiming to the world that a nation was born, guard our 
flag! By the memory of our ancestors, who stood by it for seven 
long years in many a hard fought field, in want, in cold, in pesti- 
lence, in famine, guard our flag ! By the memory of the all cloudless 
glory of Washington, who, in death, left the union a sacred bequest 
in charge to his countrymen, guard our flag ! By the memory of 
Bunker Hill, where haughty England first learned that American 
arms were wielded by a nation's heart, guard our flag! By the 
memory of Jackson and his heroic band, who saved the Crescent 
City, guard our flag! By the memory of the unconquered, the un- 
conquerable hearts 

"Who scorned to yield, 
On Buena Vista's bloody field." 

By the memory of those who sleep beneath the walls of Monterey, 
guard our flag ! Theme of the poet ! hope of the exile ! refuge of 
the oppressed ! signal of civilization and progress ! type and pledge 
of the freedom and union of all lands ! Go ! flag of our country, 
our whole country ! To faithful hands, to fearless hearts we commit 
thee ! Once more unfurl thy radiant colors ! Let not one star grow 
dim ! Let not one glowing tint grow pale ! But, high above the 
storms of faction, triumphant over every unworthy strife, still float 
on ! And, for ages to come, yes, to the eyes of all future generations 

"The star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave, 
O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave." 

There was a similar presentation of a flag at Glasgow on the 
evening of the 6th of February, 1861, Miss Bettie C.Jackson making 
the presentation address. 

Mr. Shackelford still has the flag (1883). 

Union sentiments continued to predominate in Howard county 
until the surrender of Camp Jackson, after which time the people 
began to change their views in reference to the war which had been 
inaugurated, and boldly avowed their determination to unite with their 
brethern of the south in resisting coercion upon the part of the 


Compared to many other counties in Missouri, Howard county 
suffered but little during the war. The border counties suffered the 
most, especially those lying on the southwestern boundary, including 
Jackson, Cass and Bates. These counties coming specifically within 
the jurisdiction of General Ewing's order No. 11, they were almost 
wholly given up to pillage, and, in many localities, to the torch — 
notably was this the case in Bates county, where but a few houses 
were left standing at the close of the war. No large battles 
were fought in Howard, nor were her citizens subjected to any 


very great privations at the hands of the soldiery from either army, 
nor were they generally greatly molested by the robbers and cut- 
throats who took the advantage of the country's condition of war, 
to indulge their thieving and murderous propensities. 


We have no accurate means of knowing the number of men who 
entered the Confederate army from Howard county. The number 
could have not been less than 1,500 men, from the beginning of the 
war to its close. It is supposed from the best information that can 
now be obtained, that between 500 and 700 men joined General Sterling 
Price while on his last raid through this portion of the state. These 
soldiers were composed of all classes and ages, from men of three 
score years to the mere stripling of fifteen. Probably not more than 
one-third of the entire number who entered the army remained until 
its close, or did the duty of a soldier for any considerable length of 

We have made every effort that we could to get the names of 
these soldiers, but failed, except as to a portion of them, which we 
have classed under the heads of officers and privates. 



John B. Clark, Sr., brig. -general ; Hugh Stewart, captain ; 
John B. Clark, Jr., brig. -general ; J. L. Calaway, lieutenant; 
Stephen Cooper, colonel ; James H. Finks, major ; 

H. H. Hughes, major ; William Merick, major ; 

G. H. Willis, captain ; H. Q. Martin, captain : 

Robert H. Walden, 1st lieutenant ; Thomas Turner, captain ; 
William O. Keeble, 2d lieutenant ; Abe Hayter, lieutenant ; 
Joseph Richards, lieutenant ; Frank Hargis, sergeant ; 

Sid. B. Cunningham, ensign ; Garris Allen, lieutenant ; 

C. D. Holtzclaw, captain ; William Todd, captain ; 

William Holtzclaw, lieutenant ; Eugene Todd, lieutenant ; 
Jack Cooper, captain ; Thomas Todd, captain ; 

John Cooper, lieutenant ; William B. Strode, captain ; 

Congrieve Jackson, colonel ; Calvin Sartin, lieutenant ; 

William F. Cunningham, captain ; William C. Boon, surgeon ; 
August Elgin, captain ; Layton Mansfield, lieutenant ; 

Tip. Elgin, lieutenant ; Virginia Leland, sergeant; 

Benjamin Clark, lieutenant ; Thomas Howard, captain ; 

Hays Farris, captain ; James Chorn, captain ; 

James A. Walden, lieutenant; Samuel Morrison, captain; 
L. B. Cooper, lieutenant ; John M. Hickey, captain ; 



Joseph Green, captain ; 
B. M. McCraig, captain ; 
John Robertson, lieutenant ; 
James Cason, captain ; 

€. B. Harris, 
Thomas B. Brooks, 
Brack Brown, 
John Brown, 
William Brown, 
J. K. Moss, 
Silas Moser, 
Tip. Ditzler, 
G. Settle, 

F. G. Canole, 
M. V. Sims, 
Elijah Sims., 

G. W. Knox, 
Benjamin Ray, 
James Ray, 
Captain Brooks, 
James Jordan, 
G. H. Jordan, 
Nick Jeter, 
Wilton Robertson, 
Neriah Brashear, 
William W. Hancock, 
Samuel Ray, 

Uriah Breashear, 
Alfred Gleary, 
Oliver Bailey, 
George Eaton, 
John Turner, 
E. W. Turner, 
William Wilkerson, 
N. B. Hughes, 
Robert Ainsworth, 
Parkinson Hocker, 
James Hocker, 
William Hocker, 
George Carson, 
Stephen Carson, 
James Todd, 
James Richards, 
William E. Walden, 
Barl. Harris, 
John Watkins, 

Q. Cary, captain ; 

George Stapleton, surgeon ; 

Dr. McGirk, surgeon. 


Enoch Crews, 

B. Scott, 
John Kile, 
Nero Thompson, 
George Craig, 
D. W. Whitt, 
John Phillips, 
Caleb Thomas, 
John D. Craven, 
Z. Yates, 
Given Johnson, 
Thomas Farmer, 
Robert Hughes, 
Clint Calaway, 
A. McCraig, 
Hardin Harris, 
Mack. Wilcox, 
John Holtzclaw, 
Benjamin Holtzclaw, 
James Holtzclaw, 
Robert Bobbitt, 
John Rossou, 
Milton Elkin, 
John Moore, 

John A. Walden, 
Sarshall Cooper, 

C. J. Walden, 
H. C. Tindall, 
Charles Cunningham, 
J. P. McCraig, 
Ezekiel Harris, 
John Thurman, 
William H. Hardin, 
James Colvin, 
James Cooper, 
Walter Cooper, 

H. N. Kivett, 
Henry Wilkerson, 
James Ashcraft, 
C. S. Swearingen, 
Joseph Swearingen, 
John H. Cooper, 




A. J. Howard, 
Thomas P. Newman, 
Thomas Worden, 
Coleman McCraig, 
Kichard Pearce, 
John Robertson, 
M. Cropp, 
Austin Jones, 
Strother Jones, 
O. Brown, 
A. Scrip, 
Townsend Wright, 
Patrick Woods, 
Henry Heberling, 
Turner Patterson, 
Turner Williams, 
Dick Childers, 
Shalen Ayers, 
Dick Jackson, 
Thomas Grider, 
William Jones, 
Simpson Nelson, 
Joshua Lakey, 
Abner Nash, 
Thomas Shields, 
Lafayette Marens, 
John Heberling, 
James C. Heberling, 
J. P. Witt, 
Joel Witt, 

James R. Hickerson, 
Henry Ditzler, 
James Jackson, 
Claib. Carson, 
James Bobbitt, 
John Garven, 
William Boyd, 
Frank Dey, 
William Shields, 
John A. Woods, 
George Heberling. 
Alfred Silvey, 
L. Silvey, 
Leroy Silvey, 
James Silvey, 
Joseph E. George, 
Dick Nichols, 
Joseph Jackson, 
John Cooper, 

Thomas Gibson, 
Joshua Wisdom, 
Frank Anderson, 
John Peyton, 
John S. Elliott, 
George Hackley, 
Patrick Allen, 
John D. Taylor, 
Thomas Creson, 
James Creson, 
James Muir, 
George Kirby, 
George R. Kirby, 
David Wilson, 
Alfred Yeager, 
Morris Owens, 
Richard Enyard, 
Joseph Cropp, 
Brown Chancellor, 
William Hackley, 
William Finney, 
James Robertson, 
James Linn, 
Oliver Rose, 
John Embree, 
William Kirby, 
John Krouse, 
David Yeager, 
John F. Tippett, 
Patrick O'Mely, 
George Robb, 
Benjamin Cropp, 
Abe Bobbitt, 
John Hackley, 
Benjamin Ashbury, 
John Finney, 
W. B. Miller, 
William Linn, 
George Muir, 
Benjamin Embree, 
Frank Kirby, 
J. M. Moore, 
A. F. Yeager, 
James Wiley, 
Press. Walls, 
Robert Smith, 
Jason Smith, 
Alexander Dudgeon, 
Logan Shipp, 



Joseph Todd, 
Asa Smith, 
Harvey Liggett, 
Jasper Stapp, 
Milton Jackson, 
Joseph Rasser, 
John Ridgway, 
Thomas Embree, 
John Rosebury, 
F. M. Thorp, 
William R. Carson, 
Jesse Spence, 
John Gowe, 
James Campbell, 
Barney Ballew, 
William Rosser, 
James Ridgway, 
John Cloyd, 
William Rosebury, 
Ike Stanley, 
Joseph Peacher, 
John Spence, 
John Gothan, 
William Watts, 
Martin Ballew, 
Benjamin Shipp, 
Henry Wills, 
Riley Boon, 
Ed. Bo wen, 
John Cavens, 
Peter Peacher, 
Emmet Spence, 
Stephen Campbell, 
Bud. Watts, 
Arch. Ballew, 
Robert Shipp, 
George Bobbitt, 
John Boon, 
Sock. Robertson, 
Dol. Minor, 
William Markland, 
Thomas Jordan, 
Ambrose Callaway, 
James Wilson, 
George B. Tolson, 
Strother McDonald, 
William Carson, 
James Burrows, 
Joseph Boggs, 

Hiram Shipp, 
William Coleman, 
Hamp. Boon, 
Robert Tinsley, 
Et. St. Clair, 
Luther Markland, 
Len. Smith, 
Neriah Todd, 
Barney Dudgeon, 
James Flemming, 
John Taylor, 
Mat. Stapp, 
Newton Stapp, 
H. B. Watts, 
John T. Markland, 
Charles Canole, 
William Smith, 
John Dudgeon, 
Si. Todd, 
Press. Smith, 
Ike Taylor, 
William Stapp, 
George Fisher, 
Samuel Rosser, 
Gus. Sears, 
James Grigsby, 
W. W. Cloyd, 
Thomas Warren, 
Thomas Croley, 
George Chorn, 
Ed. Ramey, 
Dick Crews, 
George Carter, 
Moses Ashbury, 
Marion Forest, 
William Harris, 
Newton Swearingen, 
Lewis Railey, 
Ebenezer Rankin, 
Asa Thompson, 
Joseph Lakey, 
Elliott Alsop, 
John C. Heath, 
James Laudram, 
Obadiah Swearingen, 
Samuel Hackly, 
Samuel Hardin, 
John Thompson, 
Lewis Collier, 


Theo. Stapleton, John Wheeler, 

'Harvey Hughes, W. B. McKinly, 

Charles Boulder, James G-lover, 

Oscar Willis, Achilles Carson, 

James Eaines, Ike Garvin, 

Owen Chora, William Burrows, 

George Kamey, H. H. Boggs, 

George Maupin, George Whitlow, 

Nick Ashbury, Jule Massey, 

Harvey Vivion, Willis Mason, 

Eichard Fristol, John Keyser. 
Roland Fisher, 


The following are the names of the officers of the various militia 
companies of Howard county : 

Boonsboro Township — W. A. Elkins, captain; G. A. Knox, 
first lieutenant ; W. B. Quinly, second lieutenant. 

Franklin Township — Hugh W. Stewart, captain; Charles 
Canole, first lieutenant ; N. Rollins, second lieutenant. 

Moniteau Township — George M. Pipes, captain; M. M. Basey, 
first lieutenant; Zach. Crews, second lieutenant. 

Bonne Femme Township — Platoon — J. N. Smith, first lieu- 

Prairie Township — W. S. Lynch, captain; W. A. Green, first 
lieutenant ; Thomas Montgomery, second lieutenant. 

Chariton Township — June Williams, captain; Martin Green, 
first lieutenant ; Peter Land, second lieutenant. 

Richmond Township — James H. Feland, captain ; Joseph Peeler, 
first lieutenant ; William Shafroth, second lieutenant. 

Colored Companies. — Richmond and part of Bonne Femme, — 
R. J. Patton, captain; Woolman Gibson, first lieutenant; A. M. 
Fielding, second lieutenant. 

Moniteau and part of Bonne Femme — No officers. 

Franklin and part of Boonsboro — No officers. 

Chariton — W. P. Etheridge, captain. 

Prairie Platoon — John Quinn, first lieutenant. 


The former owners of slaves, and their descendants in Howard 
county, may feel some interest in looking over the list of negroes who 
enlisted in the war of 1861. The list does not contain the names of 
all the slaves who entered the army from Howard county. The num- 


ber enrolled and in the service (U. S. army) was 600; the whole 
number fit for military duty was 930. This was in 1864. One of 
the most remarkable facts connected with the history of those times — 
a fact showing the astonishing credulity of the people — was the belief 
that the institution of slavery would either remain intact, or that the 
owners of slaves would be compensated for their loss. Notwithstand- 
ing the enrollment of negroes was going on in their very presence, 
where they could be seen drilling daily for service, they were bought 
and sold as though the existence of the "peculiar institution" had 
not been imperiled by the war. The sale of the following slaves took 
place as late as January, 1864 ; they were owned by Philip Robert- 
son's estate, and were sold at the court-house door in Fayette : — 

Dick, aged 31 years, bought by David E. Hays, price $140. Bal- 
timore, aged 25, by David Dennis, $100. Elizabeth, aged 13, by 
Jos. Robb, $200. Caroline, aged 9, by A. J. Robertson, $174.50. 
William, aged 11, by by Hiram Robertson, $211. Susan, aged 6, by 
"Wm. Shields, $78.85. Kitt, aged 3, by Jno. Mauion, $48.50. 


Cyrus, owned by Elizabeth Hughes. 
Turner, owned by John Burton. 
Squire, owned by Frank Williams. 
George, owned by John H. Withers. 
Sam, owned by Henry Knouse. 
John, owned by Joseph Hockersmith. 
Lewis, owned by A. W. Morrison. 
Ben, owned by A. W. Morrison. 
Henry, owned by Narcissus Snoddy. 
Ollie, owned by Wesley Green. 
Cyrus, owned by Richard Earickson. 
Harrison, owned by Wesley Green. 
Walter, owned by Roxanna B. Hern. 
George, owned by Roxanna B. Hern. 
Samuel, owned by L. T. Patrick. 
Henry, owned by Colonel John F. Williams. 
William, owned by S. T. Crews. 
Frederick, owned by Thos. C. Boggs. 
Howard, owned by Thos. C. Boggs. 
Toby, owned by John Kirby. 
Stephen, owned by Hampton Green. 
- Polk, owned by Wesly Green. 
Oscar, owned by P. W. Hawley. 
James, owned by W. P. Hawley. 
Baddies, owned by W. P. Hawley. 
Jacob, owned by P. W. Hawley. 


Edward, owned by J. R. Estill. 
Joseph, owned by estate of Roland Hughes. 
Frank, owned by Joe Swan Hughes. 
Martin, owned by J. H. Hughes. 
Andrew, owned by John Blakely. 
Lowry, owned by J. R. Estill. 
Olie, owned by J. R. Estill. 
Dennis, owned by John Hickerson. 
Ben, owned by Wm. Wigham. 
Robert, owned by James Ferguson. 
Martin, owned by Thomas Knouse. 
Jacob, owned by John Q. A. Bibb. 
Benton, owned by Ira C. Darby. 
"William, owned by R. T. Prewitt. 
James, owned by B. Eddins. 
Andrew, owned by S. T. Crews. 
Robert, owned by James P. Beck. 
Lewis, owned by J. P. Morrison. 
William, owned by J. P. Morrison. 
Martin, owned by J. W. A. Patterson. 
Jackson, owned by L. D. Brown. 
Jackson, owned by J. W. A. Patterson. 

George, owned by Nancy Snell. 

Sanford, owned by Nancy Snell. 

William, owned by R. J. Payne. 

William, owned by I. S. Brooks. 

Booker, owned by Willoughby Williams. 

James, owned by W. L. Reeves. 

John, owned by estate of John A. Talbott. 

Jeff, owned by W. L. Reeves. 

Richard, owned by Benj. Reeves. 

Samuel, owned by estate of J. Q. Hicks. 

William, owned by Benj. Reeves. 

Mack, owned by Willoughby Williams. 

Solomon, owned by Dr. Thomas Dinwiddie. 

Merit, owned by Jeff Payne. 

Alexander, owned by Hiram Robertson. 

John, owned by estate of David Johnson. 

Green, owned by John Embree. 

Reuben, owned by Mary Ann Cake. 

Howard, owned by S. T. Crews. 

Granderson, owned by Mary Withers. 

Henry, owned by T. H. Richards. 

Jackson, owned by John Snoddy. 

Ben, owned by Sarah Barnes. 

Jackson, owned by estate of William Brown. 

Charles, owned by Ann Miller. 

Lewis, owned by William Payne. 

Daniel, owned by estate of William Brown. 


George, owned by Susan Jackson. 

Sam, owned by James Means. 

Benton, owned by James Means. 

Willis, owned by Samuel Maddox. 

Lewis, owned by W. P. Jackson. 

Alfred, owned by Andrew Tolson. 

Bartlett, owned by Rice Patterson. 

William, owned by John R. White. 

Adam, owned by John R. White. 

Alfred, owned by John R. White. 

Sam, owned by John R. White. 

Andy, owned by John R. White. 

Preston, owned by John R. White. 

Jacob, owned by John R. White. 

Thomas, owned by W. B. Muir. 

Perry, owned by Ira C. Darby. 

Charles, owned by Gideon Wright. 

Shelby, owned by FederalWalker. 

Daniel, owned by Federal Walker. 

St. Andrew, owned by Federal Walker. 

Charles, owned by Gerard Robinson. 

William, owned by Wade M. Jackson. 

James, owned by David Isaacs. 

Ben, owned by David Isaacs. 

Barny, owned by Mark Jackman. 

Charles, owned by L. S. Eddins. 

Thomas, owned by L. S. Eddins. 

Judd, owned by L. S. Eddins. 

Oliver, owned by M. G. Maupin. 

Garland, owned by Ann Adams. 

Jim, owned by Bainer Spotts. 

Abraham, owned by estate of George P. Bass. 

Thomas, owned by Mrs. Sallie Patton. 

Jim, owned by Archie Woods. 

Warren, owned by estate of A. Leonard. 

Joseph, owned by A. Cooper. 

Henry, owned by A. Cooper. 

George, owned by A. Cooper. 

Robert, owned by Luther Cooper. 

Lunzen, owned by C. E. Givens. 

Isaac, owned by C. E. Givens. 

Thomas, owned by Stephen Mott. 

Edmon, owned by C. E. Givens. 

Jake, owned by estate of A. Leonard. 

Anderson, owned by Jack Haden. 

John, owned by Archibald Hill. 

David, owned by G. W. Stapleton. 

Harrison, owned by J. T. Carson. 

Charles, owned by Solomon Barnett. 


Antony, owned by George Harvey. 

Ambrose, owned by G. F. Stapleton. 

John, owned by Ira C. Darby. 

Amos, owned by James Perkins. 

James, owned by G. W. Stapleton. 

Aaron, owned by Wm. Long. 

Jacob, owned by Mrs. J. Blythe. 

Henry, owned by Moses Burton. 

Adam, owned by estate of F. E. Williams. 

Mack, owned by Eliza Stapleton. 

Lee, owned by James Proctor. 

Isaac, owned by estate of Wm. Elgin. 

George, owned by Thomas Dinwiddie. 

Allin, owned by estate of F. E. Williams. 

Ambrose, owned by H. Dudgeon. 

Pleasant, owned by Mrs. Sallie Patton. 

Alex, owned by Jo Davis. 

John, owned by Ben Beeves. 

Charles, owned by J. H. Petty. 

Sam, owned by B. W. Lewis. 

William, owned by J. G. Long. 


There were a few engagements, and one or two incidents that 
occurred in Howard county during the war, that we deem of sufficient 
importance to be chronicled in this history. We copy from Major 
John N. Edwards' " Noted Guerillas." 


A long night march and a dark one, succeeded to the evening 
of the fight, but by sunrise the next morning Todd had formed a 
junction with Quantrell , Poole, Anderson, Perkins and Thomas Todd, 
these two last being Confederate officers. Aggregated, the force 
numbered 277 rank and file, not a formidable force to do effectively 
the important work General Price required of it. Poole commanded 
52 men ; George Todd, 53 ; Anderson, 67 ; Quantrell, 16 ; Thomas 
Todd, 42, and Perkins, 47. All eyes were now turned towards Fayette, 
the county seat of Howard county, eleven miles north of the ren- 
dezvous, where 400 Federal soldiers did garrison duty, strongly forti- 
fied and capable of stout resistance. The command was first offered 
to Quantrell, but he refused it, next to Anderson who accepted. 
Quantrell argued in the counsel against attacking Fayette, and voted 
against it, as a piece of military folly. So did George Todd ; but the 
balance overbore them and decided to, make the venture. 

On the morning of September 20, 1864, the march towards 
Fayette began. Anderson moved first, Poole next, Stuart next, and 


Quantrell fourth. In the rear were George Todd, Perkins and Thomas 
Todd. Fayette had a strong stockade on the north as a defensive 
work, and in the town itself both the court-house and a female academy 
were strongly fortified. Anderson, Poole, and Quantrell were to 
charge through Fayette and invest the stockade, while the two Todds 
and Perkins were to look after the buildings on the inside of the cor- 
poration. Tom Todd led the advance in the attack on the town, as 
Fayette was his home. 

Fayette was reached about eleven o'clock and attacked furiously. 
Anderson, Poole, and Quantrell dashed through the square, losing 
some of their best men, and the two Todds and Perkins faced the two 
fortified buildings, and did what was possible to be done — bear 
breasts against brick and mortar. Sergeant McMurtry, of George 
Todd's company, fell first and close to the court-house fence. Oil 
Thompson was mortally wounded, Perkins lost ten men in as many 
minutes, Tom Todd seven, and Poole eight. Anderson lost in killed, 
Garrett, Cravens, Agen, Grosvenor, and Newman Wade; and in 
wounded, Thomas Maupin, Silas King, William Stone and Lawrence 
Wilcox ; Lieutenant Little, one of the oldest of Quantrell' s veteran's 
was badly wounded. Every attack was repulsed both upon the court- 
house and the stockade, and the guerrillas retreated finally, but un- 
pursued, with a loss of eighteen killed and forty-two wounded. 
Eichard Kinney and Jesse James volunteered to bring McMurtry out 
from under the guns of the enemy, and they dashed in afoot, and 
succeeded safely amid a shower of balls. Quantrell, infuriated at a 
loss of so many splendid fellows, fought with a recklessness unusual 
with him. Leading in person three desperate assaults upon the 
stockade, and wounded severely in the second assault, he would have 
commanded a fourth if Poole and Anderson, convinced at last of the 
uselessness of the sacrifice, had not shown the insanity of the effort 
and argued him out of his reckless purpose. Many feats of individ- 
ual and heroic daring were performed. Thomas Todd, his long red 
beard waving in the wind, and his black plume floating free where the 
fight was the hottest, dashed up once to the main gate of the court- 
house and emptied six chambers of a revolver into a door, from which 
twenty muskets were protruding. Peyton Long, losing his horse 
early in the fight, rushed desperately into a corral under cover of the 
stockade, coolly chose the horse which suited him best, mounted him 
bareback and galloped away unhurt into his own ranks again. Harri- 
son Trow, procuring from a citizen an excellent shot-gun, crept to a 
sheltered place close to the academy and silenced one window of it by 
the accuracy and rapidity of his fire. He was so cool and so calm 
always in danger, that his comrades called him " Iceberg." The 
night of the retreat, Oliver Johnson died. Only twenty-five years of 
age, he was six feet two in height, and large in proportion. Of im- 
mense physical strength, in a charge or close hand to hand fight he 
was simply resistless. Wounded six times, the seventh wound killed 
him. To find one to fill his place, who could be braver, more deadly, 


or more constantly in the saddle, was to hunt for' gold dust in a straw 
pile. There were none such. 

The above account is correct in the main, but is wide of the 
truth in reference to the number of men that were stationed in 
Fayette. The garrison consisted of 300 men all told. On the day 
of the attack Major Reeves Leonard was out ot town on a scouting 
expedition, and had with him 250 men, leaving 50 men in Fayette, 
but only 45 of these were able to bear arms. The Federals lost two 
men killed, and had one man wounded. One of the men killed, 
however, was not at the time a soldier. Had the guerrillas known at 
the time of the attack that there were only 45 effective men opposed 
to their number — 277 — they would have probably made a more des- 
perate effort to have captured the garrison. One of the men killed 
by the guerrillas was scalped, and this trophy of the bloody deed was 
found pinned to a tree south of Fayette, with an inscription badly 
written and badly spelled, stating in substance, " This is the way we 
do business." 


While Colonel S. D. Jackman was on his last recruiting expedi- 
tion in Howard county, in the spring of 1863, and while in the 
neighborhood of New Franklin, his company, consisting of about twenty 
men, was attacked by a detachment of Federals under Captain 
Samuel Steinmetz, from Glasgow. ' The guerrillas had taken a strong 
position in a ravine, and after pouring a single volley into Steinmetz's 
ranks, the latter scattered in every directiou, and did not halt until 
they reached Fayette. Major Reeves Leonard, commander of the 
post at Fayette, and a member of Colonel Guitar's regiment, aroused 
at the signal failure of Steinmetz to break up Jackman' s recruiting 
camp, hurried out himself at the head of sixty picked troopers. A 
combat ensued, brief but savage. Jackman and Leonard met face to 
face and fought a single-handed fight. Leonard was wounded 
severely in the leg. Jackman and his men retreated. 


On the 17th of August, 1861, the guerrilla, Captain Cason, ascer- 
tained that two steamboats, the White Cloud and the McDowell, 
were coming down the Missouri river en route to St. Louis. 
An ambuscade was immediately formed on the Howard county side, 
and almost opposite Saline city. Here the current of the river 


sweeps almost to the shore, which would of necessity bring them 
within rifle range of the concealed guerrillas. Unsuspicious of danger 
and crowded with human freight, the boat swept swiftly along. A 
sudden flame leaped out from the bushes as though some hidden fire 
was there, and then on the crowded decks were terror, confusion, 
bleeding and dead men. For nearly an hour Cason fought the boats, 
making of every embankment and earthwork, and of every tree a 
fortress. Finally a landing was effected and two pieces of cannon 
hurried ashore, and used for shelling the timber that concealed the 
guerrillas. Cason held on. As the infantry advanced he fell back, 
as it retired he advanced. Night alone ended the savage duel, the 
Federal loss being about sixty-two killed and more than that number 
wounded. The guerrillas lost no men. 


The following seems to illustrate the villainous and brutal char- 
acter of that inhuman butcher, who reveled in the blood and sufferings 
of his unfortunate victims : — 

[From Colonel Switzler's History of Missouri.] 

After the abandonment of Glasgow, the guerrilla chief, Bill 
Anderson, and his band of outlaws, came at night to the house of 
William B. Lewis, in the vicinity, 'and in the presence of his family 
and of Mrs. Clark, mother of the rebel general, John B. Clark, Jr., 
and Mr. Dabney Garth, brother-in-law of Sterling Price, both con- 
nected by marriage to Mr. Lewis, subjected their victim to the 
grossest and crudest indignities. He was knocked down with the 
butts of heavy pistols, bruised and battered while helpless on the 
floor, his clothes cut open, his flesh pricked with knives, and his body 
singed with the flash of pistols fired within a few inches of his face. 
In their savage cruelty, the villains stuck the muzzles of their pistols 
into the mouth of their unresisting victim, and threatened to blow out 
his brains, accompanying their threats with ribald oaths and impreca- 
tions. All this was done partly to wreak their fury on a Union man, 
and partly to extort money from him. Mr. Lewis, who was a wealthy 
citizen, gave his tormentors $1,000, which was all the money he had 
in the house, and was then permitted to go in the streets under guard, 
and borrow as much more as he could from his neighbors. Anderson 
demanded $5,000 for his ransom, and this sum by the active aid of 
neighbors and personal friends he was enabled to raise. It was paid 
over to his greedy persecutors, and he was released. Next day ho 
escaped from the town, together with several other citizens, and made 
his way to Boonville. 





We clip from the Howard county Advertiser, of April 30, 
1863: — 

On Wednesday night last, Brigadier-general T. J. Bartholow, com- 
manding the eighth military district of Missouri, was taken from bed 
at Glasgow, Missouri, by Jackmau's guerrillas, and was not heard 
from till yesterday. There was a company of enrolled militia in the 
town, but the general, having recently lost by death his wife and 
mother, was staying for the night (Wednesday) at his mother's late 
residence, situated on the outskirts of town. During the night the 
guerillas entered and carried him away. Yesterday, however, Gen- 
eral Gray received the following dispatch from General Bartholow : 

Glasgow, April 24. 

General John B. Bray, A. G,: I was released by Jackmaii yes- 
terday evening; have just arrived at headquarters. I positively 
refused to take any oath or accept any parole, or compromise my 
honor. Particulars by mail. T. J. Bartholow, Brig. Gen. 


General T. J. Bartholow, who was taken from his residence in 
the suburbs of Glasgow, Missouri, on the morning of the 23d inst., 
by Jackman and a band of his guerrillas, has communicated the par- 
ticulars of the affair by letter to General Gray. From the communi- 
cation, we learn that on the morning of the 23d of April, 1863, at 
about two o'clock, General B. was awakened by a few raps upon the 
front door of his residence. He arose from bed, struck a light, went 
to the door and demanded what was wanted. A man replied that he 
was a messenger to him from General Guitar, having a verbal mes- 
sage, and he desired an interview to enable him to deliver it. Gen- 
eral B. replied that he did not know him and would not admit him. 
He then turned off with the apparent intention of leaving, but in ;i 
few moments returned with the remark that his information was of 
an important nature, and hoped General B. would grant him an inter- 
view, so that he might return immediately to Columbia. General B. 
then looked out one of the sidelights by the door but could discern 
but one man. He then concluded to open the door, as he was armed 
with a navy revolver. As soon as General B. had admitted the man, 
he closed and locked the door and invited him into his chamber, 
where they had an interview of some ten minutes, during which Gen- 
eral B.'s suspicions were to a considerable extent removed, although 
he held his pistol in his hand all the time. The interview closed and 
the man started out. General Bartholow followed him to the door 
with his pistol in one hand and a lamp in the other. As he 
approached the door he observed that the man suddenly quickened 
his pace. This again excited General B.'s suspicions, and he sprang 


towards the door hoping to get hold of the key, but failed. The door 
was then suddenly opened and a large man forced his way in, despite 
of his efforts to prevent him. General B. then pointed his pistol at 
his breast, and was almost in the act of firing, when one of them 
caught his pistol, and the other took hold of him. Finding himself 
thus overpowered, he had no alternative but to surrender, which 
he did. General Bartholow was now informed that he was Colonel 
Jackrnan's prisoner, and that the alleged messenger from General 
Guitar was Major Rucker, lately escaped from Gratiot street prison. 
They were accompanied by ten men. 

General Bartholow was ordered to dress and go with them. 
They took him to his stable, and as soon as his horse was saddled, they 
started with him in a southeasterly direction at a brisk pace through 
the woods and farms, avoiding all public roads until daylight, when 
Major Eucker left with all the men but one, General B. remaining 
with Jackman and the man in the woods all day, some twelve miles 
from Glasgow where he had a good deal of conversation with the 
colonel, in which General B. told him that he would not take an oath 
or accept a parole from him, to which Jackman replied that he would 
then have to hold him. 

Late in the afternoon General B. proposed to Jackman that in 
consideration of his i-elease, he would give protection to the person 
and property of a man named Maxwell, of Howard county, at whose 
house a party of Jackrnan's men were captured last winter, in conse- 
quence of which Maxwell left home to avoid arrest, as he was under 
oath and bond. General B. having learned that Maxwell did not 
willingly harbor those men, but begged them to leave, stating that he 
was under bond and would suffer if they were known to have been at 
his house. This statement was corroborated by Jackman and his 
men. Jackman accepted the proposition, and General Bartholow was 

It is proper to say that General B.'s residence is nearly outside 
the town, and some distance from any other house, and the force in 
Glasgow at the time being small, it was impossible to picket all the 

These are all the facts connected with the affair. General Barth- 
olow is now at his post in attendance upon his ordinary duties, his 
standing as an officer of the militia unimpeached, and his honor in no 
wise jeopardized by the unfortunate occurrence. His course- under 
the trying circumstances in which he acted, cannot but be approved by 
-all judicious and just persons. 


The most important engagement that occurred between the Fed- 
erals and Confederates during the war, in Howard county, took place 
at Glasgow. 

While General Sterling Price was making his last raid into Mis- 


souri in 1864, and while he, with a portion of his forces were occupy- 
ing Boonville, Cooper couuty, he ordered General John B. Clark, Jr., 
to attack Glasgow. Clark's command consisted of his own brigade 
of cavalry, Marmaduke's brigade, Shelby's forces, which numbered 
at the time some three hundred men, and Colonel S. L. Jackman'g 
command, all told, about seventeen hundred men, with seven pieces 
of artillery. 

Glasgow was occupied by Colonel Chester Harding, who com- 
manded the 43d regiment of Missouri Volunteers. General Shelby, 
with one piece of artillery, commenced the attack on the morning of 
the 15th of October, 1864, at the dawn of day, from the western 
bank of the river. General Shelby moved his forces about sunrise up 
the eastern bank of the river, and opened a hot fire from his battery 
of six pieces (Major Pratt's artillery), which he stationed on the hills 
south of town. 

Shelby first directed his fire against The steamer Western Wind, 
which was lying at the wharf and occupied by Union soldiers. The 
boat was soon disabled and abandoned, when he turned his guns up- 
on the city hall, which was used by the Union forces as a commissary 
depot. Before ten o'clock a. m. the garrison defendiug the town 
was compelled to take to their rifle pits, which had been prepared at 
one of the highest points of ground in the town. The Confederates 
had completely surrounded the place and were closing in on the rifle 
pits, when the city hall was set on fire. A strong wind was blowing 
at the time from the northwest, and the fire was communicated to 
twelve or fifteen houses, which were entirely consumed with their 
contents. About 1 o'clock p. m. the garrison surrendered. There 
was fifty or sixty men killed and wounded of the Union forces, and 
about an equal number on the Confederate side. 

The prisoners were sent under an escort to Boonville, at their 
own request, fearing that if they remained unarmed at Glasgow, they 
would be killed by the guerrillas and bushwhackers. 


Dr. J. P. Vaughan, one of the oldest residents of Glasgow, 
went voluntarily out of the city during the engagement to the place 
where General Clark was sitting on his horse, watching the progress 
of the fight, to prevail upon the general if he could, to cease firing 
upon the city. He volunteered to be the bearer of a flag of truce, and 
actually returned to the city with a flag from General Clark, which he 
carried to the headquarters of Colonel Harding. General Clark in- 

j J J .; 

1 i I i i 


formed the writer that while the doctor was making his way back to 
the Federal commander's presence, on foot, he could occasion- 
ally see the dust rise from the ground, in front and upon every side of 
the doctor, which was thrown by bullets from guns in the rifle pits. 
The doctor, however, nothing daunted, delivered his message and re- 
turned to General Clark with Colonel Harding's answer. 

During the engagement a battalion of Confederates occupied the 
elegant residence of W. F. Dunnica, which was located about 225 
yards from the rifle pits. The house had ten openings fronting the 
pits, which were filled with sharpshooters. Six of the soldiers were 
wounded in the house ; the building and furniture were greatly dam- 
aged, as the house was pierced by about three hundred bullets (this 
number being afterwards counted on the side fronting the rifle pits). 


After the fight, the noted guerrilla chief, Quantrell, came up to 
General Clark and told him that he (Quantrell) was the first man to 
reach the rifle pits after the surrender. The General said that he was 
not aware of Quantrell' s presence at any time during the engagement, 
but saw him afterwards. 


On the evening of the second day, after the surrender, Quantrell, 
with his company of marauders, cut-throats and thieves, entered 
Glasgow, and sent two of his men to Mr. W. F. Dunnica's residence, 
commanding them to bring him to his bank (bank of Thomson & Dun- 
nica), which they did. After reaching the bank, Mr. Dunnica was com- 
pelled to unlock the bank vault and safe and deliver their contents to 
the thieves. Mr. Dunnica had anticipated something of the kind and 
had, the day before, buried $32,000, which he saved. Quantrell took 
all the money in the safe ($21,000) and told Mr. D. that he would 
conduct him home, so his men on the streets would not molest him, 
and did so. 


At a mass meeting of the citizens of Howard county, held at the 
court-house in Fayette on the 5th day of March, 1866, the object of 
which was to indorse the restoration policy of President Johnson, and 
to sustain him in his veto of the freedmen's bureau bill, the follow- 
ing proceedings were had and resolutions adopted : — 

At the request of the chairman, A. J. Herndon explained the 
objects of the meeting in a clear and forcible manner. 


A committee, consisting of I. N. Houck, G. C. Eaton and S. C. 
Major, of Eichmond township ; David Wilson and W. J. Talbot, of 
Bonne Femme ; E. P. Kirby and Jno. D. Eickets, of Moniteau; W. 
J. Baskett and N. G. Elliott, of Franklin ; Wesley Hyeronemus and E. 
H. Turner, of Boone's Lick; J. V. Bastin and A. W. Eoper, of Char- 
iton, and Eice Patterson and John Dysart, of Prairie, were appointed 
to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. 

During the retirement of the committee, Colonel Joe Davis, un- 
der repeated calls, addressed the meeting in well-timed remarks. 
The meeting was also addressed by S. C. Major, Jr., and H. Clay 
Cockerill in support of the resolutions. 

The committee reported the following, which, upon motion, were 
unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, Andrew Johnson, as president of the United States, 
in exercise of the powers vested in him by the constitution, has re- 
cently sent to the senate of the United States a message vetoing the 
act known as the freedmen's bureau bill ; and 

Whereas, He has been threatened and insulted for so doing by 
members of the senate and house of representatives in congress, and 
also by the concurrent resolutions passed by the radical members of 
the Missouri legislature, who in that, as in other acts passed by them 
in the present session, are misrepresenting the known wishes of the 
people of the state ; and 

Whereas, The president, in his messages and speeches, has 
submitted his cause to the judgment of the people, who are his con- 
stituents ; therefore be it 

Resolved, 1st, That the message of President Johnson vetoing 
the freedmen's bureau bill, meets the unqualified approval of the 
citizens of Howard county, and we hold that no enlightened and pa- 
triotic citizen can fail to discover evidence of profound statesmanship 
and heroic fidelity to the constitution. 

2d. That the system which the freedmen's bureau bill proposed 
to establish is radically repugnant to the principles of republican lib- 
erty ; that it would pauperize the negro race and tax the white race 
to maintain them and perpetuate the subordination of the civil to the 
military power. 

3d. That the disfranchisement of eleven states of the union is 
a usurpation of power, and is calculated to fill the public mind with 
alarm and keep alive the passions and prejudices kindled by the war, 
and make chronic disloyalty on the one hand and tyranny on the 

4th. That all legislation by congress solely affecting the eleven 
States which are denied representation, is unconstitutional and invalid, 
and should be so treated by the president of the whole country. 

5th. That we denounce without stint the action of the General 
Assembly in condemning, by concurrent resolutions, the veto message 
and declaring for negro suffrage ; that it is a gross misrepresentation 
of the public sentiment of Missouri ; that we tender those senators 


and representatives who opposed the passage of these resolutions, our 
warmest gratitude. 

6th. That the preservation of this government depends upon 
the maintenance of the foregoing principles, and that we pledge our- 
selves to cordially co-operate with the citizens of whatever former 
political complexion or party, who will honestly labor for them. 

7th. That we heartily approve and indorse the course of Hons. 
John Hogan and Thomas E. Noell, representatives in congress, for 
their able support of the chief magistrate in his elForts to maintain 
the supremacy of the constitution. 

8th. That we deem radicalism as antagonistic to the principles 
of a republican form of government ; that taxes cannot rightfully 
be imposed where there is no representation. 

9th. That we regard the new constitution of Missouri as objec- 
tionable to the people of the state, and an. infraction upon and depri- 
vation of the liberties of the citizens, and we pledge ourselves to use 
all lawful and proper means to repeal its odious provisions. 

10th. That we hereby invite all good citizens to unite with us in 
restoring to the people of this state and nation, the liberties guaran- 
teed to them by the constitution of the United States. 

11th. That Wm. H. Seward, secretary of state, by his co-op- 
eration with, and indorsement of, the acts of President Johnson, has 
given unmistakable evidence of patriotism and a desire for the perpe- 
tuity of the union of these states, and that however we may have 
differed with him in times past as to his political views, we tender 
him our thanks for the noble stand he has taken in upholding the 
president, and exhibiting his desire for the preservation of republican 

Mr. Herndon offei-ed the following, which was unanimously 
adopted : 

That we heartily indorse the course of Hon. F. P. Blair in first 
standing in the breach throughout the war, fighting gallantly for the 
union, and then in manfully and fearlessly opposing the reckless and 
revolutionary policy of the radicals of the country generally, and 
particularly of this state ; and we tender him our thanks, with a re- 
quest that he continue his work until the radical factionists and dis- 
unionists be hurled from power. 

On motion, it was adopted that the secretary furnish for publi- 
cation, a copy of these proceedings to the Howard county Advertiser, 
Glasgow Times and Missouri Republican. 

On motion, the secretary was directed to send a copy of same to 
President Johnson and Hon. Wm. H. Seward, secretary of state. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

E. P. Graves, Chairman. 

H. Clay Cockerill, Secretary. 

October 18, 1866, there was held in Fayette an unconditional 
union convention, as will be seen by the notice below, for the pur- 
pose of making nominations for the different offices : — 


The unconditional union convention of Howard county assem- 
bled at the court-house at Fayette at 1 o'clock v. m., and was organ- 
ized by electing Judge E. S. Davis president, and William Selman 

Nomination of candidates being hi order, the following gentle- 
men were unanimously nominated : 

State superintendent of schools — T. A. Parker. 

Kepresentative — J. D. Keebaugh. 

Judges of county court — David Wilson, E. S. Davis, Larkin T. 

Clerk of circuit court — John H. Lewis. 

Assessor — W. Con. Boon. 

County school commissioner — Wm. Watts. 

Supervisor of registration — James Andrews. 

The Democratic, or Conservative party had already made their 
nominations. The election resulted as follows : — 

For state superintendent common schools, J. F. Williams, 
980; congress, J. M. Glover, 1,011 ; state senate, T. B. Eeed, 986 
legislature, Cockerill, 618; Patterson, 375 ; sheriff, J. L. Morrison 
746 ; P. M. Jackson, 454 ; county justice, Heath, 928 ; Taylor, 933 
Hanna, 756 ; Minor, 277 ; circuit clerk, Stewart, '754 ; Holliday, 307 
county clerk, A. J. Herndon, 1,034 ; school superintendent, T. G 
Deatherage, 973 ; supervisor of registration, J. D. Eicketts, 834 
assessor, H. P. White, 818 ; Boon, 370 ; treasurer, T. W. Kadford, 
767 ; Ewing, 269. 

The following is the Radical vote of the county : — 
Superintendent common schools, Parker, 200 ; congress, Judas 

P. Benjamin, 204 ; state senate, Dr. Hays, 161 ; representative, J. 

D. Keebaugh, 213, justices county court, D. Wilson, 214; E. S. 

Davis, 214; L. C. Patrick, 213; circuit clerk, J. H. Lewis, 149 ; 

supervisor of registration, Andrews, 210. 


Agricultural Societies, Railroads and Miscellaneous Matters — Howard County Agricul- 
tural Society— Great Central Fair — Its Organization— Howard County Grange — 
Railroad History of Howard County — First Meeting of Citizens — First Vote — Sub- 
scriptions to Tebo and Neosho Railroad Company — Louisiana and Missouri River 
Railroad— Missouri and Mississippi Railroad — The St. Louis, Kansas City and Chi- 
cago Railroad — Bonded Indebtedness — Miscellaneous Matters. 


The above-named society was organized in the year 1852 and in- 
corporated in 1855, on the 28th day . of February. Rice Patterson 
was the first president, John F. Williams and A. J. Herndon were 
the succeeding presidents. The last fair was held in 1860. It was a 
success financially, but the war of 1861, prevented the parties inter- 
ested from attempting thereafter to hold another. One or two efforts 
have been made since the war to reorganize the society, but without 
success, until May 26, 1883.* The premium lists were always full, 
aud the prizes offered by the managers and stockholders were of such 
a character as to attract the attention of the farmer and the mechanic, 
and stir up the spirit of honest and commendable competition. 


The above-named enterprise was inaugurated in the year 1866, 
the object being to hold an annual fair at Roanoke, Randolph county, 
Missouri, which is located on the edge of Prairie township, on the 

* At a meeting held in the circuit court room on Saturday, May 26th, the following 
action was taken in reference to county fair : Meeting called to order by the chairman. 
Minutes of the last meeting read and adopted. The committee on organization made their 
report. On motion report adopted and the following were then selected directors to serve 
until their successors are elected. Richmond township, R. P. "Williams, A, F. Davis, Wm. 
Shrafroth, Solon Smith. Moniteau township, John Hammond. Franklin township, John 
H. Estill. Chariton, A. W. Morrison. Prairie township, Jos. H. Finks. Boone's Lick, 
Stephen Cooper. Bonne Femme, Geo. J. Winn. Burton, N. A. Taylor. All present 
signed the articles of association and paid in fifty per cent of their subscribed stock. All 
papers and minutes were turned over to the board of directors. Meeting adjourned. 

J. H. Estill, Chairman. 
W. F. Mitchell, Secretary. 



line between Howard and Randolph counties. It was to be held under 
the auspices of Howard, Randolph and Chariton counties. We copy 
from the Howard county Advertiser: — 

At a meeting of the citizens of Howard, Randolph and Chariton 
counties, held in Roanoke on the first day of August, 1866, to take 
into consideration the propriety of getting up the great central fair 
grounds for North Missouri, William Wayland was called to the chair 
and W. V. Hall appointed secretary. The object of the meeting was 
explained in an able manner by the chairman, whereupon the follow- 
ing-named gentlemen were appointed as a committee to meet and 
draft resolutions : — 

James M. Richardson, Rice Patterson, W. Y. Lockridge, J. H. 
Patterson, Geo. M. Quinn, Alex. Denny, W. P. Phelps, W."V. Hall, 
W. C. Harvey, R. J. Bagby, Rector Barton, Wm. Barton, Lewis 
Tinnell, J. T* Wallace, Judge Henry Blake, T. P. Fristoe, Jr., W. 
Wayland, C. F. Wright, A. T. Prewitt, J. R. Yancey, S. Phelps, 
W. E. Viley, J. W. Viley, R. Gilman, J. D. Head, W. Smith, R. 
Samuel, G. T. Green, J. H.Austin, Hon. W. A. Hall, J. White, R. 
W. Thompson, Capt. John Head, H. M. Porter, Thos. Kimbrough, 
Judge G. W. Burckhartt, J. C: Head, R. J. Mansfield, A. J. Robert- 
son, J. B. Bradford, J. L. Morrison, Jas. Brooks, C. H. Stewart, 
John Duncan, R. Patrick, Peter Land, I. N. Houck, June Williams, 
A. A. Pugh, John Turner, Jr., W. J. Eddings, J. B. Thompson, D. 
Pankey. A. W. Morrison, Thos. Boggs, T. J. Payne, A. W. Roper, 
John Miller, J. G. Maupin, J. Y. Miller, N. G. Elliott, John P. Se- 
bree, Jas. Morrison, John Hayden, Dr. Grinstead, J. W. Harris, J. 
W. Cox, L. Salisbury, W. C. Hereford, P. T. Dolman, Wm. Here- 
ford, Eli Wayland, W. J. Harvey, Geo. Williams, W. H. Plunkett, 
A. Moore, Wm. White, L. M. Applegate, C. A. Winslow, H. W. 
Cross, T. E. Gillian, John Ewing, T. T. Elliott, J. B. Naylor, R. 
James, J. A. Pitts, Frank Lyman, Frank Williams, J. Crews, B: F. 
Harvey, G. H. Harvey. 

Resolved, That we meet in Roanoke on Saturday, the 18th day 
of August, 1866, to form a permanent organization, and that all the 
gentlemen named in the three counties, and all others that feel inter- 
ested, are most cordially invited to meet with us upon that day. 

Resolved, That the secretary forward a copy of the proceedings 
to the Brunswicker, Randolph Citizen, Glasgow Times, and the 
Howard county Advertiser, requesting their publication. 

On motion the meeting adjourned to meet again on Saturday, 
the 18th day of August, 1866, to form a permanent organization. 

W. Wayland, Chairman. 
W. V. Hall, Secretary. 

At a subsequent meeting in August, 1868, the fair was organ- 
ized, as will be seen from reading an account of the meeting which 
we take from the same paper : — 



At a meeting of the citizens of Howard, Randolph and Chariton 
counties, held on the ground selected, A. W. Morrison was called to 
the chair, and W. V. Hall appointed secretary. A. J. Herndon being- 
called upon, explained the object of the meeting. The chairman then 
appointed the following gentlemen to select officers for the present 
year. Committee : A. Moore, J. J. Grinstead and Steve Phelps, of 
Howard ; G. T. Greene, Woodson Newby and W. Y. Lockridge, of 
Randolph; N. G. Elliott, John Miller and Jas. G. Manpin, of How- 
ard. The meeting then adjourned for dinner, after which the meet- 
ing was moved to the academy, when the committee made the follow- 
ing report : — 

For president — Jas. Richardson, of Randolph. 

Vice-presidents — A. W. Morrison, of Howard ; Alphonso Moore, 
of Chariton. 

Secretary — W. V. Hall, of Howard. 

Assistant secretary — Wm. Burton, of Randolph. 

Treasurer — Rice Patterson, of Howard. 

Directors — John Miller, N. G. Elliott, J. H. Patterson, of How- 
ard ; J.W. Harris, Jno. P. Williams, W. J. Harvey, of Chariton ; 
G. T. Green, Woodson Newby, W. Y. Lockridge, of Chariton. 

Upon motion, a committee was appointed to get up articles of 
association, composed of the following gentlemen : R. S. Head, chair- 
man ; A. J. Herndon, W. V. Hall, Thos. Kimbrough, T. T. Elliott, 
E. W. Thomson and Hon. W. A. Hall; said committee to meet at 
Roanoke and report on the 30th day of August, 1866. By a unani- 
mous vote the editors of the Glasgow Times, Howard county Adver- 
tiser, Randolph Citizen and Brunswicker, were elected honorary mem- 

Upon motion of N. G. Elliott, it was agreed that the directors 
meet at Roanoke, on the 30th day of August, to confer with the com- 
mittee appointed to get up tire articles of association, and to agree 
upon a time for holding the fair, and to attend to such other business 
as might come before them for immediate action. 

The chairman appointed J. H. Wayland, Jas. Richardson, W. 
Y. Lockridge, W. P. Phelps, W. V. Hall, J. H. Patterson and W. 
J. Harvey, a committee of arrangements. 

A. W. Morrison, President. 

W. V. Hall, Secretary. 

The last fair was held at Roanoke in 187—. W. H. Patterson 
was the last president. 


This organization, which was originally instituted in the inter- 
est of the farmer and agriculturalist, was introduced into Howard 
county about the beginning of the year 1874. It soon became a very 


popular institution, and numbered among its patrons and members 
a great many farmers. Its power and influence, however, began to 
wane after 1877-78. Below will be found the names and locations 
of the granges of the county in the month of June, 1874 : — 

Howard Grange, No. 281; W. G. Edwards, master; Geo. C. 
Edwards, secretary. — 

Glasgow Grange, No. 944 ; G. W. Moorehead, master ; John C. 
Woods, secretary. 

Central Hill Grange, No. 1011 ; Jas. K. McDonald, master; W. 
W. Gray, secretary. 

Oakland Grange, No. 1073 ; Bird Deatherage, master ; George 
B. Tolson, secretary. 

Washington Grange, No. 1010 ; B. F. Snyder, master ; James 
B. Shores, secretary. 

Ashland Grange, No. 1316 ; J. R. Gallamore, master ; G. Heb- 
erling, secretary. 

Bonne Femme Grange, No. 1161; Owen Williams, master; 
James H. Feeland, secretary. 

Sulphur Spring Grange, No. 1159; J. W. Champion, master ; 
George M. Pipes, secretary. 

Richmond Grange, No. 1317; J. T. Smith, master; H. C. Tin- 
dall, secretary. 

Rock Spring Grange, No. 1419; Seth H. Morgan, master; John 
M. Elgin, secretary. 

New Liberty Grange, No. 1110; E. M. Grimes, master; Pat. 
Dysart, secretary. 

Sebree Grange, No. 1375 ; Henry Grigsby, master ; Joseph Carr, 

Elm Grange, No. 1372 ; A. J. Kirby, master; D. Morris, secre- 

Maple Grove Grange, No. ; W. F. Cunningham, master; 

James Y. Miller, secretary. 

Richland Grange, No. ; John Tatum, master; William C. 

Warden, secretary. 

Burton Grange, No. 1194; William Creson, master; R. J. Pat- 
rick, secretary. 

Boone's Lick Grange, No. 1072; John M. Kivett, master ; M. 
W. Henry, secretary. 


Walnut Grove Grange, No. ; George G. Harvey, master ; 

A. C. Woods, secretary. 

Pleasant Hill Grange, No. ; W. A. Dudgeon, master; John 

H. Woods, secretary. 

Highland Grange, No. ; James Walker, master; J. Y. 

Hume, secretary. 

Moniteau Grange, No. 1160 ; Wade M. Jackson, master ; B. T. 
Jackson, secretary. 

Lisbon Grange, No. 1708 ; G. C. Shelton, master; Thomas A. 
Grider, secretary. 

The granges now have one co-operative store in Burton town- 


Scarcely had the smoke of the great civil conflict of 1861, been 
dissipated, when the people of Howard county, ever alive to their own 
interests as a people, and as a county, began to agitate the question of 
building a railroad, and in pursuance of their feelings, which seemed 
to have been almost unanimously concurred in, the following notice 
was given in the Howard county Advertiser of April, 1867 : — 


There will be a meeting of the citizens of Howard county, held in 
Fayette, on Monday, June 3d, 1867, for the purpose of organizing a 
railroad company, to build a road through the county, that will be of 
interest to the whole county. It is to be hoped that every township 
in the county will be represente*d ; books of subscription will be open 
for the commencement of this important enterprise, which has so long 
been neglected. 

One or two small meetings had taken place, even as early as 1866, 
but were of no special interest and attracted no particular attention. 
This meeting then, of June 3d, 1867, was the real beginning of the 
movement, which finally culminated in the building and completion of 
the Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroad, although several other ef- 
forts had been made to secure other roads prior to the building of the 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas. 

The meeting, as advertised, was held at Fayette, at the court- 
house. It was well attended and great enthusiasm marked its pro- 
ceedings. John P. Sebree, Esq., was called to the chair, and stirring 
speeches were made by Mr. Orick, of St. Charles, Col. John L. Wil- 


Hams, of Macon, Thomas W. Shackelford, A. J. Herndon, J. W. 
Robinson, Mr. Brown. After the matter was fully discussed, the com- 
mittee made ,a report : — 

Recommending the incorporation of a company under the railroad 
law of the state. Also, of submitting the proposition to the people of 
Howard county, to build a railroad from Boonville via Fayette and 
Roanoke, to Moberly, said road being intersected by a branch road 
from Glasgow, running in the direction of Roanoke. 

There were other meetings, but it was not until January 6th, 1868, 
about eight months thereafter, that any decided steps were taken in 
the interest of a railroad. The Advertiser, speaking of a meeting that 
occurred on the 6th of January, 1868, says : — 


In pursuance of the notice, the great railroad mass meeting was 
held at Fayette, on Monday the 6th instant, and truly there was a 
grand rally, considering the sudden and unfavorable change in the 
weather. On motion, J. P. Sebree was elected chairman, and I. N. 
Houck and W. A. Thompson were made secretaries. The chairman 
then appointed the following gentlemen a committee to draft resolu- 
tions and arrange for a thorough canvass of the entire county : — 

For Franklin township, N. G. Elliott ; for Boone's Lick township, 
R. Stanley ; for Chariton township, T. Shackelford ; for Prairie town- 
ship, W. H. Morris ; for Bonne Femme township, W. H. Adams ; for 
Moniteau township, C. E. Givens ; for Richmond township, S. C. 
Major, Jr. 

The committee retired, and in their absence General John B. 
Clark, Sr., by request, addressed the meeting. It would be impossi- 
ble to report General Clark's speech in full ; he contrasted the past 
with the present and showed the change and improvement that had 
taken place. He spoke lengthily of the farming interests of the coun- 
ty, and showed wherein that class of men would be benefited by the 
railroad. He alluded to the increase in the value of the lands, and 
urged that their increased value would more than pay the taxes in- 
curred in building the road. He made quite a lengthy and telling 
speech and showed that he was thoroughly alive to the work of making 
old Howard great, rich, and prosperous, as she ought to be. 

Judge Tompkins, of Boonville, was then introduced, and in an 
earnest manner spoke of the thorough arousement of Boonville, and 
Cooper county, in this railroad movement. He gave us assurances of 
the co-operation of his people, and said that the railroad from Renick 
to the Missouri river would receive encouragement from every man in 
Boonville, and material aid as far as they were able to give it. 

Judge Norman Lackland, of Audrian, one of the directors of the 
Louisiana and Missouri river railroad, and the authorized agent of 
said road, took the stand and in a short speech assured the meeting of 


the firm purpose of the company to build the road from Louisiana to 
Kansas City, and that speedily, provided the people on the proposed 
route would aid them. 

Mr. R. T. Prewitt next came forward as the champion for the 
railroad. He made a very stirring appeal ; hoped that before he died 
he would hear more stirring and thrilling music than that just dis- 
coursed by our excellent brass band. Mr. Prewitt's speech was kindly 
received and ought to have been heard by every man in the county. 
At this point in the proceedings the committee reported the following, 
as the result of their deliberations, viz. : — 

Resolved 1st. That we are convinced of the importance to the people 
of Howard county of the two railroad projects to be voted on by the 
people on the 21st day of January, 1868. 

2d. For the purpose of eliciting a full discussion on the subject, 
we recommend the appointment of the following persons to act as a 
committee to arrange for public meetings in the different townships : — 

Richmond township — S. C. Major, Jr., John Duncan, E. M. 
Patrick, W. H. Nipper, Richard Payne, J. W. A. Patterson, J. C. 

Bonne Femme township — W. H. Adams, George Gibson, George 
Dougherty, E. Andrews, E. Moberly, D. Wilson, S. B. Naylor. 

Moniteau township — C. E. Givens, W. L. Reeves, O. C. Hern, 
J. D. Patton, W. M. Jackson, Bazeleel Maxwell, Wm. Peeler, J. 
Gilvin . 

Chariton township — T. Shackelford, Boyd M. McCrary, P. Bair, 
John Tilman, D. B. White, P. M. Land, A. W. Roper, L. F. Hay- 

Prairie township — William Hughes, W. V. Hall, J. Quinn, W. 
M. White, W. Gates, A. C. Tolson. 

Boone's Lick township — Robert Stanley, James Lewis,W. Knaus, 
H. Miller, J. M. Kivett, Jackson Sterns. 

Franklin township — N. G. Elliott, S. T. Hughes, John Lee, J. 
C. Moore, W. L. Baskett, W. G. Edwards, J. C. Daily, J. W. Robin- 
son, Colonel B. W. Stone. 

Mr. Shackelford spoke very earnestly, and showed himself the 
staunch supporter of the propositions to be submitted to a vote on the 
21st instant. He urged all railroad men to vote on that day, and as- 
sured us that Glasgow was a unit for the roads. Mr. J. W. Robinson, 
of Franklin township, next came forward. He said that the subject 
had already been exhausted, and kindly offered to allow any anti-rail- 
road man to take his place on the programme. No one coming for- 
ward, he proceeded to address the meeting, acquitting himself with 
much credit ; for though the day was far spent and the crowd had been 
standing many hours, yet Mr. Robinson commanded the undivided at- 
tention of all, and met with frequent and hearty applause. L. W. 
Robinson, of Rocheport, being present, was called on and addressed 
the meeting in the interest of the people of Rocheport and that direc- 
tion. He favored the building of railroads in Howard county, and 
wished the people of this county, in case they could not succeed in the 


scheme of building the roads proposed, that they would aidKocheport 
and Boone county, in continuing the Columbia branch of the North 
Missouri railroad, from Columbia via Rocheport, through Fayette to 

Mr. A. J. Herndon next addressed the meeting ; thought the 
crowd was already tired, and that enough had been said to convince 
any unprejudiced mind present. He said that all white male citizens 
qualified under the old law would be allowed to vote on the 21st 
instant, no oath being required. He said he intended to work until 
the last day in the evening for the success of the proposition. He said 
he thought the county of Howard would be better off to give a million, 
rather than loose the roads. At the close a resolution of thanks was 
tendered the Fayette cornet band, and three hearty cheers (given with 
a will) went up for the railroads. 

Well done, Howard county, — you will redeem yourself on the 
21st instant, and rapidly take your place in the front ranks of the 
counties of the State. 

The county court made an order of publication, and directed an 
election to be held at the different voting precincts in the county, on 
Tuesday after the third Monday in January, 1868, to give the voters 
of Howard county an opportunity to vote upon the proposition of 
subscribing $250,000 to the capital stock of the Louisiana and Mis- 
souri river railroad company, and $250,000 to the Tebo and Neosho 
railroad company. 

Below we give the returns from each township : 

Richmond - 

Bonne Femme 
Whites' Shop 
Boone's Lick 



















1,276 54& 

Majority - ... . 727 

Total vote, 1,825. 

This was the first vote upon a proposition to subscribe to the 
building of a railroad. It carried by such a large majority that the 
county court, believing that their action would be approved by the 
people, of their own motion made an order subscribing $750,000 to 
the Louisiana and Missouri river railroad and the Tebo and Neosho- 


railroad companies. Four hundred thousand dollars in bonds were 
issued to the latter, and three hundred and fifty thousand to the former. 
The Tebo and Neosho railroad company completed their road in 
187-, and have since been operating their^cars. It is now known as 
the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, and is one of the branches of the 
Missouri Pacific railroad. The Louisiana and Missouri river railroad 
company constructed a road bed through the county, but never com- 
pleted the road, even after availing themselves of the bonds which 
were given them for that purpose. These bonds are now in suit in 
the United States supreme court. 

The people of Chariton township subscribed $100,000 in 
bonds to the Missouri and Mississippi railroad in 1870 ; the road is now 
known as a branch of the Wabash. The bonds have been compro- 
mised at 66| cents on the dollar; new bonds were issued (5-20 
bonds) bearing six per cent interest and payable in twenty years. 

The St. Louis, Kansas City and Chicago (now leased to the Chi- 
cago and Alton railroad company), was built by individual stock- 
holders in 1879, to run from Mexico, Missouri, to Kansas City. Bonds 
to the amount of three millions of dollars were issued. The Chicago 
and Alton railroad company guarantee the interest on the bonds, and 
pay a certain per cent of the gross earnings of the mad. The Chicago 
and Alton road have a perpetual lease. 

Below will be found a short, but full and comprehensive state- 
ment of the bonded indebtedness of the county : — 


Sixteen eight per cent ten year bonds of $1,000 each, issued De- 
cember 1, 1869, and seventy-three eight per cent ten year bonds of 
$1,000 each, issued November 3, 1871, to aid in the construction of the 
Tebo and Neosho railroad, interest payable semi-annually at Bank of 
Commerce, New York. 

Thirty-seven eight per cent ten year bonds of $1,000 each, issued 
September 1, 1870; fifty-seven eight per cent ten year bonds issued 
March 1, 1871 ; eighty-four eight per cent ten year bonds issued June 
1, 1871, and forty-nine eight per cent ten year bonds issued September 
1, 1871, to aid in the construction of the Louisiana and Missouri river 
railroad, interest payable annually at Bank of Commerce, New York. 

All these bonds are in litigation and the interest is not promptly 
paid; interest and sinking fund tax of fifty cents on $100 valuation 
levied for Tebo and Neosho bonds, nothing for bonds issued to Louisi- 
ana and Missouri river railroad. 




Thirty-three eight per cent fifteen year bonds of $1,000 each, issued 
July 1, 1869, to aid in the construction of the Missouri and Mississippi 
railroad, interest payable annually at Bank of Commerce, New York. 

Fifty-nine six percent 5-20 bonds of $1,000 each, issued January 
1, 1880, in compromise and redemption of bonds issued to the Mis- 
souri and Mississippi railroad company, interest payable annually at 
the banking house of Bartholow, Lewis & Co., St. Louis. 

The interest is promptly paid on the funding compromise bonds ; 
interest and sinking fund tax of fifty cents levied on $100 valuation ; 
interest not paid on $33,000 in bonds issued to the Missouri and Mis- 
sissippi railroad. 

Howard county does not owe one dollar aside from the railroad 
debt. The current expenses of the county during the past ten years, 
have averaged about $17,000 per annum. The railroad debt is small ; 
even if the county and townships have the entire amount — approxi- 
mately about $400,000 — to pay, it will not affect the financial condi- 
tion of the county. 


Population of Howard county in 1860 - 15,946 

Population of Howard county in 1870 17,233 

Population of Howard county in 1880 18,428 


Bonne Femme - - 1,786 

Boone's Lick - - - 2,008 

Chariton, including Glasgow 4,006 

Glasgow city - - 1,841 

Franklin, including Franklin town 1,938 

Moniteau - 2,499 

Prairie, including Armstrong village 2,585 

Armstrong village - 76 

Koanoke town - - 215 

Richmond, including Fayette city 3,606 

Fayette city ... _ i ? 247 
Population by race in 1880, white, 13,197 ; colored, 5,231. 

Population by nativity in 1880, native, 17,954 ; foreign, 


Born in the state 14,499 


Born in Illinois --_._. 245 

Bom in Kentucky - - - 1,060 

Born in Ohio - - 343 

Born in Tennessee - - 135 

Born in Indiana - - - 158 

Born in British America - 48 

Born in England and Wales - 29 

Born in Ireland - - 98 

Born in Scotland 24 

Born in German Empire - 220 

Born in France - - - - - 9 

Born in Sweden and Norway - 20 

Number of farms .... - 1,926 

Number of acres of improved land - - 198,601 

Value of farms, including land, fences and buildings - $4,448,883 

Value of farming implements and machinery - 190,326 

Value of live stock - 1,001,988 

Cost of building and repairing fences in 1879 - 49,301 

Cost of fertilizers purchased in 1879 - - 10,645 
Estimated value of all farm productions (sold, consumed or 

on hand) for 1879 - - 1,048,077 


Buckwheat, bushels - - 1,039 

Indian corn, bushels - -1,770,520 

Oats, bushels ... - 164,155 

Rye, bushels - 12,018 

Wheat, bushels - - - 308,934 

Value of orchard products - $21,434 

Hay, tons - - 8,440 

Potatoes, Irish, bushels - - 21,385 

Potatoes, sweet, bushels 2,839 

Tobacco, pounds - - 604,794 


Horses - - - - 6,716 

Mules and asses - - 3,153 

Working oxen - - - 12 

Milch cows - 5,851 

Other cattle - - 11,719 


Sheep - - - - - - 18,622 

Swine ... - - 53,877 

Wool, pounds - - - 138,235 

Milk, gallons - - ■ 1,410 

Butter, pounds - - 304,408 

Cheese, pounds - - 1,934 


Number of establishments - 44 
Capital - - -.____- $96,950 

Average number of hands employed, males above sixteen - 100 

Children and youths ... - 3 

Total amount paid in wages during the year - - $ 25,980 

Materials - - - - 165,730 

Products -, - - 234,431 


Real estate - - $2,780,957 

Personal property - - 1,897,419 

Total - - $4,678,376 


State ... . _ $18,733 

County _ 23,392 

City, town, village and school district - - 21,956 

Total - - $64,061 


Bonded debt - - -' $402,100 

Gross debt - . . 402,100 

Sinking fund - _ _ 921 

Net debt - ... . 401,179 


Revenue fund - . . $10,977.85 

Interest fund - . 8,461.85 

State school money -----_. 3 987.51 
Glasgow registered bonds, seven per cent, 5-10 years 

funding - 5,100.00 




No. of acres (1881) - - 288,550 

Average value per acre - - $9.40 

Valuation ... . . $2,713,160 

No. of town lots - - 1,658 

Average value - - $ 4,276 

Valuation - - - - 70,900 

Total valuation, real estate - 2,784,060 

Total taxable wealth, real and personal - - 4,898,352 

Taxable wealth for 1882 ------ 4,987,585 

Collections from merchants and manufacturers (1881) 763.55 

Ad valorem taxes and licenses collected - 732.92 

Collections from back taxes (1881) - - 1,618.58 

Commissions on taxes of 1881 - - 620.90 

No. of dramshops in the county (1882) - - 11 

No. of wine and beer saloons ----- 4 

Rate of state license paid for six months by dram shop 

keepers $ 25.00 

Rate of county license - 125.00 
Rate of state license for wine and beer saloons, 

twelve months ------- 25.00 

Rate of county license for wine and beer saloons, 

twelve months ------- 25.00 

Amount of state licenses and ad valorem taxes paid by 

dram-shop keepers for year ending July, 1882 - 626.45 
Amount of county licenses and ad valorem taxes paid 

by dram-shop keepers for year ending July, 1882 3,027.55 
Amount of state licenses and ad valorem taxes, same 

period, wine and beer ----- 132.09 

County license for wine and beer, same period - - 132.09 

Total amount paid for all ----- $3,918.18 

No. of dram-shops in Fayette (1882) - - - 8 

License every six months - - 50.00 

Amount paid by saloons (1882) - - - 742.87 

Amount paid for wine and beer - - 51.00 

Total amount paid by saloons 




State taxes - ... ,40 

County revenue - - - .40 

County interest - - - - .50 

Eoad tax, county - - - .10 

t i 

Total levy state and county - - $1.40 

Average school tax ---- ... ,50 


For felony cases - - $ 197.78 

Misdemeanors ----- - _ 342.50 

Total amount paid for costs in criminal cases - - $1,945.63 
Cost of transporting prisoners ------ $83.15 



Politics in the Early History of the County — Early Candidates for Office— Their Methods 
and Devices — Travelling Together Over the County — Prom 1816 to 1860, no Political 
Conventions — Two first Elections — Elections of 1838, 1844, 1846, 1848, 1851, 1868, 
1872, 1874, 1875,1876, 1878, 1880, 1882 — Howard County's Influence in Politics — What 
the St. Louis Evening News said — The Leaders of the Whig and Democratic Parties — 
The County Generally Democratic — Henry Clay Carried the County in 1844 — Harri- 
son's Election — The Campaign — The .Result — Whigs Give a Grand Ball — Political 
Rhymers and Poets — Parody — Difficulty Between General John B. Clark and Claiborne 
F. Jackson — The Former Challenges the Latter to Fight a Duel — The Correspond- 
ence Between Them. 

" There is a mystery in the soul of state, 
Which hath no operation more divine 
Than breath or pen can give expression to." 

From 1810 to 1830, or during the first twenty years of the 
county's history, party politics wielded but a slight influence in the 
local government of the county. While it is true that many of the 
first settlers, from the eai'liest days, possessed well-defined political 
views and tenets, and were thoroughly partisan upon all questions 
pertaining to national or state elections, an indefinite number of candi- 
dates were usually permitted to enter the race for the respective 
county offices, and the one possessed of superior personal popularity 
generally led the field and passed under the wire in advance of all 

In the early days it was not at all unusual to meet the energetic 
candidate for the sheriff's office, the treasurer's office, or the candidate 
who aspired to represent the people in the state legislature, astride 
his horse, going from settlement to settlement to meet with the voters 
of his county at their own firesides, to sleep beneath their humble 
roofs, and sup with them at their family boards, to compliment their 
thrifty housewives, and to kiss the rising generation of little ones. 

The historian would not dare draw upon his imagination to sup- 
ply the stock of rich, rare and racy anecdotes, moulded and circulated 
by these ingenious canvassers, or to describe the modes and methods 
by them adopted to increase their popularitv with the people. There 



was then no press, as now, to perpetuate daily events as they trans- 
pired. Many of the manoeuvres and capers, successes and failures, 
with their pleasures and sorrows, of sixty and more years ago, in this 
county, are hidden from us by the shadows of time. Darkness inter- 
venes between us, and many sayings and doings of bygone days, 
which, could we but penetrate that darkness and gather them in, 
would shine out upon the pages of this history " like diamond set-, 
tings in plates of lead." In vain have we tried through the lens of 
individual recollection to ferret them out. We could not do it. Our 
discouraged fancy dropped the pencil and said 'twas no use. We 
could not paint the picture. A little consolation may be found in 
these lines : — 

" Things without all remedy 
Should be without regard; what's done is done." 

In some of these early campaigns the various candidates for a 
single office, and sometimes those running for the different county 
offices, would travel together from settlement to settlement throughout 
the county. Every camp meeting, log-raising, shooting match, and 
even horse race, occurring in the county during the season preceding 
election, was a favorite resort for the electioneer, and every honorable 
device was adopted by each candidate to develop his full strength at 
the polls. 

For many years after the settlement of the county, no political 
conventions were held in the county, and the result was that a num- 
ber of candidates entered the race for the same office. We shall not 
attempt to give the election returns in the county during the entire 
period of its political existence, but will give the results as far as we 
can. The first election that was held in the county occurred in 1819, 
for delegates to congress. The successful candidates were John Scott 
and Samuel Hammond. The second election was held in 1820, for 
the purpose of electing five delegates to the convention to frame a 
state constitution. Benjamin H. Reeves, N. S. Burckhartt, Duff 
Green, John S. Findley and John Ray were elected: 


For congress — Harrison (Federalist) - - - - 886 

Miller " 881 

Allen (Whig) - - 671 

Wilson " 642 

Election of 1840 we mention further on in this chapter. 



Benton Ticket. Anti-Benton Ticket. 


Edwards - - - 981 Allen 908 

Lieutenant-Governor . 

Young - - - 975 Almond - - 897 


Price .... 979 Sims - - 831 

Parsons - 855 Hudson - 824 

Bowlin ... 978 Boone 819 

Relfe - - - - 982 Thornton - - 817 

Phelps - -- - 980 Jones - 819 

Leonard (Whig) for state senate, - - - 953 

Bawlins (Dem.) ""<<-. ... 963 

Davis (Whig), house of representatives, - - 974 

Woods " "«"----.- 964 

C. F. Jackson (Dem.) " " ... 960 

C- Jackson «»«<»« . ... 958 


Green, for congress, - ... 903 

Miller, " 873 

Jackson was chosen representative. 


Austin A. King received 991 votes for governor, J. S. Rollins 
879 ; T. L. Price, 984 votes for lieutenant-governor ; J. S. Green, 990 
votes for congress ; C. F. Jackson for state senator, 986, J. B. Clark, 
862; H. W- Smith for representative, 973; John Dysart, 862. 


F«r supreme judges — William Scott, 482; John F. Ryland 
135 ; H. R. Gamble, 448 ; William B. Napton, 392 ; Peyton R. Hay- 
den, 414; Philip Williams, 5; William T. Wood, 273; Charles 
Jones, 6; Priestly H. McBride, 111. For judge circuit court, 
William A. Hall, 727. 


For President and Vice-President United /States: — 

' Seymour and Blair , . - - - 1206 

Grant and Colfax -163 

J. F. Williams, congress, ---- - 1256 


A. F. Denny, congress, ... ... 163 

G. H. Burckhartt, circuit judge, - - - 1270 

J. D. Keebaugh " <<--_- 166 

S. C. Major, Jr., circuit attorney, - - 1108 

George Quinn " "... - - 158 

T. B. Bead, state senator, - .... 1269 

Geo. McCullough " - - - 142 

L. A. Brown, representative, - 1265 

Rice Patterson, sheriff, ______ 1277 

H. P. White, assessor, - - - 1265 

J. M. Beid, treasurer, - - - 1269 

M. A. Taylor, judge county court, _____ 1231 

S. C. Major, public administrator, - 1265 

Joshua T. Allen, surveyor, ------ 1238 

T. G. Deatherage, superintendent public schools, - - 1270 

J. D. Pickets, superintendent of registration, - - 1269 

J. M. Pierce, Coroner, - - - - - 1253 

election 1872. 

For President and Vice-President United States : — 

Greeley and Brown - - - - 1972 

Grant and Hamlin - - - 873 

John B. Clark, Jr., congress, - - - 2008 

Mark L. Demoth " ------ 856 

James M. Bean, state senator, --_-__ 2017 

Wm. J. Ferguson " " - - 858 

John Walker, representative, - - 2003 

James D. Keebaugh <<---- 847 

John M. Hickman, judge county court, - 2023 

John McConley " " " - - - - 847 

William O. Burton, sheriff, - - " - 1879 

P. W. Land " - 806 

C. E. Burckhartt, collector, - - - - 2022 

Thomas Ward " - - - 837 

J. M. Reid, county treasurer, - - - - 2016 

L. C. Patrick " " ... 851 

Harrison Cross, assessor, - - 2020 

E. S. Davis " - 845 

J. H. Robertson, county attorney, - 1988 

J. B. Harriston, superintendent public schools, - - 2018 

David Wilson " " " 842 

S. C. Major, public administrator, - - - - 2023 

Jesse R. Evans " " - 837 

H. C. Shields, county surveyor, - 2018. 

Harrison Morris " " - _ 848 

Jim Williams, coroner, --_-___ 2742 


John B. Clark, Jr., congress, - - 1840 

George H. Burckhartt, state senator, - 1774 

R. B. Caples " " - 1807 

H. C. Cockerill " «« ... 14 

G. W. Moorehead, representative, - - - 1787 

Ignatius Naylor " - - IS 

W. W. Cockerill, registrar, ----- 355 

C. E. Burckhartt, county collector, - - - 1876 

V. J. Leland, sheriff, - - - 1859 

James Wildhart " - - - - - 14 

Jacob Fisher, county treasurer, - - - - - 1817 

Joseph H. Finks, clerk of circuit court, - - 1907 

Wm. A. Dudgeon " " " - 25 

Win. H. Moss, county assessor, - 1802 

Joseph Eobinson " " - 14 

B. H. Tolson, judge of county court, 1728 

J. R. Shepherd " " " - 17 


For Member Constitutional Convention January 26, 1875. 

H. M. Porter 451 

A. M. Alexander - - - - - 454 

A. J. Herndon - - - 35 

L. A. Brown -------- 63 

John Walker - 45 

Henry Fort - - - - 14 

HELD MAT 4, 1875. 

For Member Constitutional Convention. 

Thomas Shackelford - 962 
Burckholder - 86 

NOVEMBER, 1876. 

For President and Vice-President United States : — 

Tilden and Hendricks - - - - - 2372 

Hayes and Wheeler - - 1048, 

ELECTION 1878. , 

John B. Clark, Jr., congress, ------ 2339 

M. L. Demoth <<____ 1 

Jo. H. Finks, representative, - - - 2339 


L. A. Brown, representative, - - 859 

W. C. Knaus, circuit clerk, - - - - 2308 

I. N. Houck " 835 

S. B. Cunningham, county clerk, - - - 3085 
John R. Galletnore, assessor, ------ 2269 

J. H. Feland " - - 942 

Stephen Cooper, collector, - - - 2202 

W. B. Strode, " - - 990 
N. B. Cooper, sheriff, - ... - 1227 

J. Y. Miller « - - - - 949 

J. FisheY, county treasurer, - - - 3195 

J. T. Smith, probate judge, - - 3146 

J. H. Robertson, prosecuting attorney, - - 2164 

G. A. Perkins " " 921 

R. W. Engart, coroner, - - - 3095 

C. J. Walden, " 63 

John M. Hickerson, presiding justice county court, - - 3126 

R. A. Rowland, judge county court, first district, - 1246 

E. L. Davis, " " "««»«« - 194 

M. Markland " " " second district - 480 

election 1880. 
For President and Vice-President United States : — 

Hancock and English - - - 2047 

Garfield and Arthur - 1166 

John B. Clark, congress, - - - 2037 

James C. Heberling " - - - - - -1452 

George H. Burckhartt, circuit judge, ----- 2305 

Walter A. Martin, " " - - 1051 

Owen T. Qouse, state senator, - - ■ - 2115 

George W. Smiser " " - 947 

Joshua R. Benson " " - 450 

Samuel C. Major, representative, - - - . - 1922 

James H. Boggs " - - - - 1301 

Stephen Cooper, collector, - - - 2199 

Robert T. Kingsbury «---_- 1341 

Jacob Fisher, treasurer, - - - - 3508 

Nestor B. Cooper, sheriff, - - - - - 2182 

Boyd M. McCrary " - - 1368 

Robert C. Clark, prosecuting attorney, - - 2119 

Green A. Perkins " "• - 1345 

John P. Gallemore, assessor, - - - 2229 

William D. Warden " - - - - 1294 

Willard W. Cloyd, surveyor, - - 2227 

Thomas Owings, public administrator, - 2161 

Jos. Hackensmith " " - 1363 

Von Q. Bonham, coroner, - - 2194 

Wm. M. Crawford " - - 1340 



John Cosgrove, congress, - ■ ... 1738 

W. C. Aldridge " - _ 1268 

H. W. Cockrell, representative, - - - 1862 

W. D. Jackson " . 1106 

H. C. Tindall, clerk county court, - - 1866 

G. H. Wallace " " " " - H33. 

V. J. Leland, sheriff, - _ 1831 

J. H. Feland " - - 1155 

N. B. Cooper, collector, - 1820 

G. W. Cason " - - - 1171 

R. C. Clark, prosecuting attorney, - - 1798 

J. H. Eobertson " " - 1159 

H. A. Norris, presiding judge county court,- - - 1774 

J.C.Woods " " " " - 1219 

George J. Winn, judge first district circuit court, - - 1037 

B.F.Robinson " " " " " 521 

John C. Lee " second" " " 778 

J.W. Boggs " " " " " - 669 

J. T. Smith, judge of probate, - 1881 

Thomas Ward " " - - - - 1126 

Wm. A. Dudgeon, county treasurer, .- 1829 

M. Lehman " " 1172 

H. K. Givens, coroner, - - 1824 

J. T. Bailey " - - 1196 

Hamp. B. Watts, assessor, - - - 1785 

B. M.McCrary " ... . 1223 

Howard county tor many years,, even as late as the war of 1861, 
wielded more power in politics than any other county in Missouri. 
In reference to this fact, the St. Louis Evening News, of June 3, 
1852, says : — 

Howard county, in this state, has for a good while been regarded 
as a sort of Delphic region in the matter of politics, especially with 
the democratic party of Missouri. There are long heads and shrewd 
fingers in old Howard, and the democratic politicians there "know 
the ropes ' ' and pull the wires about as skilfully as any other men in 
the country. The whigs of that county are likewise extremely 
"well-developed" in all that pertains to a masterly vindication of 
the principles of good government. They may be defeated now and 
then, by a philistine, who plows with a locofoco heifer, but they 
never lose the spirit and courage, which a consciousness of right 
always gives to men of true chivalry. 

The Jefferson City scheme was concerted iu Howard county, 
and a very pretty dead-fall it has proved to manj' scores of the truest 
sort of Benton democrats. The " milliners " about Fayette, are 
the old regency of Missouri, and they planned the Jefferson City 


"slaughter-house," with the sole purpose of taking the hide and 
tallow from the friends of the ex-senator of Missouri. 

They succeeded pretty well — we may say, admirably well. 
They got what they went for. But they have got rather more than 
they wanted. They have got the hoofs and horns of the Missouri 
bull — right after him. Any one who has been made to quake by 
the unearthly bellowings of a herd of cattle, who have come upon 
the scene of the murder and spilt blood of one of their comrades, 
can appreciate the terror that Benton, and the Benton line of the old 
Jacksonian democracy, will soon send into the ranks of the butchers 
who slew so many of the honored members of that family at Jefferson 

That Howard county wielded more influence in politics than any 
other county in the state, from 1825 to 1860, there can be but little 
doubt, and, when we consider the number, character, and intellectual 
calibre of her politicians and prominent men, we are not at all sur- 
prised that this statement is true of the period named. Such men 
as General John B. Clark, Sr., Governor C. F. Jackson, Governor 
John G. Miller, Colonel Joseph Davis, Colonel James H. Birch, Judge 
Abiel Leonard, and a score of other men, scarcely less able and dis- 
tinguished, would have been conspicuous anywhere as leaders of men 
aud champions of a great cause. The democratic party has been 
the predominant party in politics, but occasionlly, the whig candi- 
date, because of his popularity, would succeed in representing the 
county in the general assembly. The difference between the two 
parties, at some of the early presidential elections was not very great. 
In 1844, Henry Clay carried the county by forty-four votes. Take for 
instance the presidential election of William Henry Harrison, in the 
year 1840. That was one of the most exciting, and perhaps the 
most hotly contested of all elections that ever occurred in Howard 

The campaign for the whigs, was in the hands of Judge Leonard, 
General John B. Clark, Sr., Colonel James H. Birch, and others who 
were ably supplemented by the Boone's Lick Times, an aggressive 
and wide-awake paper, edited at the time by Cyril C. Cady. The 
democratic party was led by Claiborne F. Jackson, John G. Miller, 
Governor Boggs, and others, and supported by the Boone's Lick 
Democrat, which was also a strong and influential paper, and devoted 
to the cause of its party. 

The campaign was opened in the spring of 1840, at Fayette, 
when General Clark and Colonel Birch addressed a meeting of whigs. 
In May following, a Tippecanoe club was organized with Major Gerard 
Bobinson for president. 


The election resulted as follows in Howard county. Whigs 
marked thus *. Others Democrats. 

For Governor. —Clark,* 789 ; Keynolds, 892 ; Bogy, 781 ; Mar- 
maduke, 887. 

For Congress. — Samuel* 780; Sibley, 781; Edwards, 891; 
Miller, 890. 

State Senate. — Cooper,* 755; Rawlins, 871. 

House of Representatives. — Birch,* 748; Kring,* 748; An- 
derson,* 748; Jackson,* 741; Peeler, 886; Bouldin, 876; Jack- 
son, 859 ; Redman, 847. 

Although the whigs were defeated in Howard county, they felt 
so happy over the result of the election of General Harrison , that on 
the 5th of December following, a grand ball was given at Fayette 
in honor of the victory and called the " Harrison ball." The floor 
managers upon that occasion, were Judge Leonard, Colonel Davis, 
George W. Given, W. T. Tyler, L. Bumgardner, D. Kunkle, J. T. 
Cleveland, George W. Ward, C. P. Brown, and others. 

During Harrison's campaign, there were a greater number of po- 
litical rhymers and poets than ever before or since known in similar 
campaigns. There was hardly a paper issued that did not contain 
one or more eulogistic or denunciatory poems on the candidates for 
the presidential office. In the Boone's Lick Times of 1840, a parody 
on the poem entitled Hohenlinden , was written for that paper by a 
local poet, and being an ingenius production, we here reproduce a 

portion of it : — 

On the Wabash when the sun was low, 
In ambush lay the hidden foe, 
And dark as winter was the flow 
Of Wabash, rolling rapidly. 

But Harrison saw another sight, 
When the drum beat at dead of night, 
Commanding fires of death to light 
The darkness of the scenery. 

By torch and trumpet fast arrayed, 
Bach freeman drew his battle blade, 
And furious every charger neighed, 

To join the dreadful revelry. 

See Harrison rush from place to place. 
While smoke and fire begirt his face, 
To crush the assaulters of his race, 

With Kentucky's gallantry. 

Hark! how the falling foes retreat, 
Bold Harrison's victory is complete, 
And every turf's a winding sheet, 

Of, some Indian warrior. 


While there was much rejoicing among the whigs of Howard 
county over the result, there had grown out of the contest a bitter al- 
tercation between GeneralJohn B. Clark, Sr., and Governor C. F. 
Jackson, which was occasioned by Governor Jackson giving publicity 
to a private letter written by General Clark, to Colonel James H. 
Birch. Below we give the correspondence in full, in reference to the 
matter, which almost ended in a duel. 

Fayette, September 14, 1840. 
Sir : In the course of a correspondence respecting a letter 
purporting to have been written to me by General John B. Clark, 
from Versailles, on the 9th of July last, and published in the Demo- 
crat of the 9th instant, I have been referred to you as having furnished 
it to the gentleman who caused it to be published. My right to de- 
mand, not only its restoration, but to be informed when, where, and 
in what manner you became possessed of that letter, will, of course, 
be recognized at your earliest convenience. 


Your obedient servant, 

J. H. Birch. 

Fayette, September 16, 1840. 
Mr. James H. Birch: 

Sir : Your letter of the 14th instant in relation to General 
Clark's letter addressed to you from Versailles, on the 9th of July 
last, has been received. 

That letter was found by me with some other papers in my house, 
some two weeks after the close of our late election. Whether it fell 
in my possession by an exchange of saddle-bags, or was placed in my 
own saddle-bags by mistake, is a matter that I do not know, and 
cannot determine. The saddle-bags which I was using at the time 
were borrowed, and I am not informed sufficiently to determine more 
explicitly, how this letter came into my possession, than above stated. 
That letter is still in the possession of the editor of the Democrat, as 
you have already been informed by C. F. Jackson, Esq., and can be 
had at any time when applied for, and by leaving with the editor a 
written statement acknowledging its authenticity. 

Respectfully, Owen Rawlins. 

Fayette, September 11, 1840. 
C. F. Jackson, Esq.: 

Sir : Your name having been surrendered by the editor of the 
Democrat, as the author of a communication which appeared in that 
paper on Wednesday last, over the signature of " Anti-Fraud," I em- 
brace the earliest practicable moment to call your attention to the im- 
putations which it seems to convey, in derogation of my personal 

Desiring, nevertheless, in a matter of so much delicacy, that you 
should have an opportunity of reviewing those strictures and frankly 


stating whether they were either originally intended to convey such 
imputations, or are, from your subsequent reflections, justified either 
by the tenor of my alleged letter to Colonel Birch, or in any other 
act of mine, I have requested Colonel Birch to wait upon you with 
this note, and ask you to mention the time against which I may be 
favored with a reply. Respectfully yours, 

John B. Clark. 
Fayette, September 12, 1840. 

Sir: Your note of yesterday, by Colonel Birch, has been re- 
ceived. If there be any particular part or parts of the communication 
in question which, in your opinion, reflects on your " personal honor," 
and you will point them out, they will be considered, and such reply 
given as the facts in the case may warrant. I take this occasion to re- 
mark, that I cannot consent to receiving any further communications 
from you by the hands of Col. Birch, connected with this subject. 
The relation which he bears to the matter under consideration, in my 
opinion renders it improper. 

Very respectfully, 

C. F. Jackson. 

General John B. Clark. 

Fayette, September 12, 1840. 

Sir : If my note of yesterday be of doubtful or uncertain con- 
struction, it resulted either from the imperfection of our language or 
my incapacity to adapt it to the purpose intended. By recurring to 
that note, you will discover that my object was to call your attention 
to the communication signed " Anti-Fraud," and to know of you if 
you intended by that communication, or any part of it, to reflect on 
my personal honor. If so, it was further designed to suggest to you 
a review of those strictures, and then to demand of your candor 
whether the tenor of my alleged letter to Colonel Birch, or any act of 
mine, justified such imputation. Being thus in possession of my ob- 
ject and purposes, and perceiving no further reason for suspending 
your reply, I shall await its reception at your earliest convenience. 

The suggestion you have made, concerning the double relation by 
which Colonel Birch has been thus far connected with this transaction, 
coupled with the more ample explanation of your friend, Dr. Scott, 
relieves that gentleman from any embarrassment in declining the fur- 
ther prosecution of a duty, which he reluctantly assumed in the first 
instance, at my reiterated solictaition. 


John B. Clark. 

C. F. Jackson, Esq. 

Fayette, September 12, 1840. 

Sir : I have received your note of this date by the hands of Mr. 
Leonard.* Personally, I have naught against you, and have not 
sought to make an attack upon your "personal honor." My object 
in writing the article published in the last Democrat, signed, " Anti- 

* Judge Abiel Leonard. 


Fraud," was to expose the political fraud which, I consider, had been 
put under way to deceive the Democratic party, and in that matter 
my views remain wholly unchanged. 

Very respectfully, 

C. F. Jackson. 
General John B. Clark. 

Fayette, September 14, 1840. 
Sir : Your note of the 12th, was received late on Saturday 
evening'. It is wholly unsatisfactory. I therefore demand of you a 
personal interview. My friend, Mr. Leonard, is authorized to arrange 
all necessary preliminaries on my part, with the understanding that 
if other engagements should withdraw him before its final adjustment, 
another gentleman will be substituted in his place. 


John B. Clark. 
C. F. Jackson, Esq. 

Fayette, September 14, 1840. 
Sir : I have a few moments since received your note of this 


The interview demanded can be had. My friend, Dr. Scott, is 
now absent ; on his return he will attend to arranging the prelimina- 
ries necessary on my part. Yours, etc., 

C. F. Jackson. 

Fayette, September 15, 1840. 
Sir: In compliance with the note of my friend C. F. Jackson, 
Esq., of yesterday, I herewith enclose you the terms, the time and 
place, that my friend proposes to give General Clark in the interview 
invited by him. 

1. The parties to meet at six o'clock to-morrow morning, within 
one mile of the town of Fayette, the place to be selected by you and 
myself this evening. 

2. The parties to be armed with rifles, with calibres to carry balls 
weighing not less than fifty-six to the pound. 

3. The distance to be seventy yards. 

4. The parties to take their stations in the position of "present 

5. After the parties shall have taken their respective stations, the 
word "fire" shall be given immediately, after which the words 
"one," " two" "three" shall be given, and between the words 
"fire " and " three," the parties shall fire ; the giving of the word to 
be balloted for by you and myself. 

6. No persons to be admitted upon the grounds except the sec- 
onds and surgeons. Respectfully, 

C. R. Scott. 
A. Leonard, Esq. 

Fayette, September 15, 1840. 
Dear Sir: I have no objection to the terms proposed in your 
letter to me of this evening, with the exception of the " place." 


I cannot consent to advise my friend to meet Mr. Jackson at any 
place in this state. So far as the knowledge of the practice of this 
state in matters of this kind extends, the place proposed is unusual 
and without precedent. Such a meeting would subject both principal 
and friends to penalties and inconveniences that may be readily 
avoided by a meeting elsewhere. 

I hope, therefore, that it will meet your views to name a place 
not liable to the objections suggested. Yours respectfully, 

A. Leonard. 
Dr. C. R. Scott. 

Fayette, September 15, 1840. 
Sir: I have noted the contents of your note of this day's date, 
and cannot consent to any alteration in the place of meeeting pro- 
posed in my former communication. Respectfully yours, 

C. R. Scott. 
A. Leonard. 

to the public. 
I pronounce Claiborne F. Jackson a cold-blooded slanderer, a 
reclainiless scoundrel and a blustering coward, the truth of which I 
pledge myself to establish the moment my engagements will permit 
me sufficient leisure. I will take the same occasion to render to my 
fellow-citizens the most ample explanation in relation to a letter 
alleged to" have been written by me to Colonel Birch, on the 9th of 
July last. John B. Clark. 

Wednesday, September 16, 1840. 



The area of Howard county is about 463 square miles, with a 
frontage on the Missouri river on the west and south of thirty-four 

It originally consisted nearly altogether of timber, with two 
small upland and two bottom prairies, which have long since been 
under tribute to the husbandman. The bluffs near Glasgow rise to a 
height of 260 feet above average water mark in the Missouri ; and 
this probably is about the general elevation of the highlands through- 
out the county. The river bluffs at the western border of the coun- 
ty, are steep and sometimes perpendicular, but on the southern 
border are more gentle. The streams often pursue their way 150 feet 
below the tops of the ridges, and the valleys are connected with the 
ridges by long and very easy slopes. 

The southern portion of the county is not as hilly as some other 
districts. We have near the Missouri some steep bluffs with white oak 
growth. Near the Bonne Femme and south of Fayette for several 
miles extending to the Missouri bluffs, is a tract of rich, rolling, 
heavily timbered land, including many varieties of excellent timber, 
such as white, red and rock chestnut oak, black walnut, elm, hickory » 
white walnut, ash and linden. Southeastwardly from Fayette, is a 
similar country, and also westwardly, to Glasgow, but here it is more 

Towards Boonsboro, and west, an occasional sharp and crooked 
ridge occurs, covered with a heavy growth of chiefly white oak. 

The northwestern part of the county sustains a growth of timber 
similar to that lying south, but the country is not so hilly, and in fact, 
the slopes are quite gentle. 

The northeastern part of the county is broken and hilly, and 
sustains chiefly a growth of white and post oak. 

Black and white walnut are very abundant, being very common 
over most of the county. Blue ash and sassafras abound, this county 
being almost the western limit of the former in north Missouri. The 
spice bush (Laurus benzoin), is common on the Missouri bottoms, 
hut dog-wood (Cornus florida), is rare, and is not probably found 



further west. Many of the trees on the ridges, including walnut, 
white oak, red oak and rock chestnut oak, attain a great size. One 
of the latter measured thirteen feet three inches in circumference, 
three feet above the ground. This tree was on the Missouri bluffs ; in 
the bottoms, Cottonwood, elm and sycamore grow to a very large size. 

The principal streams in the eastern part of the county, are Mon- 
iteau creek (Manitou) with its tributaries, and Bonne Femme. This 
last rises about the middle of township 52, range 15 west, and flowing 
in a southerly direction, empties into the Missouri about three miles 
below Boonville, Cooper county. The principal tributary of Moniteau 
creek in this county, is Hunger's Mother,* which heads in the north- 
west part of township 51, range 14 west; and the principal one of 
Bonne Femme is Salt Fork, rising in the southeastern part of town- 
ship 52, range 15, and flowing southwest empties into the Bonne 
Femme in the northwest quarter of section 30, township 51, range 15. 

Other streams flowing southward, are Salt Creek and Sulphur 
Creek, and those running westward, are Richland, Hurricane, Gregg's 
and Bear creeks and Doxy's Fork. They all run into the Missouri, 
and some of the smaller ones on entering the bottom, waste their 
waters on the flats and are lost. 

* This stream, it is said, received its name from a party of hunters, early settlers, who 
were hunting bears, and meeting with no success, got out of meat on this creek. Bad 
weather came upon them, and they were prevented from hunting, and threatened with star- 
vation. They therefore christened the creek "Hunger's Mother." 


In the following list there are many localities given at which the 
coal is too thin to work, but it must be remembered that the coal 
beds mentioned are only those that are exposed or very near the sur- 
face at each locality. Except in the cases where the lowest coal (E) 
is mentioned, there is every probability of finding a thicker bed by 
sinking shafts. Coal is found in every township, and in some of them, 
in nearly every section. 




Q. F. Beach.... 
S. T. Garner.. 

B. M. McCrary.. 

S. Garvin 


Mrs. Hackley . 


Mrs. Howard . 

Judge McCafferty., 
Judge McCafferty. 


M. Reynolds 

James "Ware 


Rice Pattison 

James Sperry 

Richard Lee 

Dr. "Walker , 

James McDonalds.. 



S. E. 25 



N. E. 15 

N. E. 11 





S. E. 7 

N. E. 10 


N. pt. 17 

S. E. 17 

N. pt. 16 


N. E. 2 

S. W.35 




S. "W.? 17 

S. "W.22 
S.E. i 

N. W. 29 
S. W. 5 
S. E. 34 






18 to£ 









"Worked or not. 

Not worked at present - 

Not worked. 

Has been worked by local 

Has been worked. 

Near Garvin's, and is 

Covered; worked exten- 
sively at one time. 

Not worked. 
" " (has been). 

"Worked but little. 

"Worked for domestic use. 

Not worked. 

This is at the Bonne Fem- 
me bridge, on the Pay- 
ette and Rocheport road. 
Worked but little. 

Covered ; has been worked. 

Has been worked ; covered. 

This was covered ; has been 

* Mr. B.'s coal was covered, and its position relative to the general section could not be ascer- 
tained. Everything was in a confused state. Masses oi sandstone No. 1, and of the rhomboidal 
limestone were found, but they appear to have been transported by water. The coal is found in a 
valley running north and south, with the Burlington limestone on one side and the coal on the 




M. Reynolds.. 

J. Tatums., 



William Daviss. 

N. Kobb.. 

N. Pitney 

T. M. Pitney 

Dr. J. P. Becks. 
Dr. J. P. Becks., 

T. C. Boggs 

E. Diggs 


T. B. Harris.. 
B. Reynolds.. 



S. E. 17 

N. E. 2 

N. E. 10 

W. hf. N. E. 16 

S. W. 7 

N. W. 18 


S. E. 5 

W. hf. 8 

S. E. N. W. 36 

N. E. 36 

S. E. 25 



4 and 5 

N.E. 8 

N. E. 18 
N. E. 20 
S. W. 10 






1 to 9 



24 to 

18 to 20 

18 to 28 



























"Worked or Not. 


1.0 to 24 






Not worked. 

Has been worked a little. 

Not worked. 


Worked occasionally. 


Not been worked. May 
thicken after going into 
the hill a distance. 

Do not think this coal is 
known. _ 

Very good coal; worked 
but little. 

Not worked. 

Worked extensively. 



Said to reach 36 inches, 
and is worked exten- 
sively ; very good coal. 


Not opened. 


The mineral springs of this county, from their number and rep^ 
utation, are entitled to notice. 

They occur in nearly every portion of the county, and nearly all 
of them are briny, and from some of them salt was made as much as 
sixty-five years ago. Formerly it would pay to make salt, but facili- 


ties of transportation and the low price of the imported article has 
superseded its home manufacture. 

In importance we may regard Boone's Lick as of the first, Burck- 
hartt's as of the second, and that of Fayette as of the third class. 

Boone's Lick is in section 4, township 49, range 17. 

There are four salt springs and one well at Boone's Lick, each 
one affording a free supply of water, all quite strong of brine. A 
white deposit is found on the surface of the ground at some of the 
springs, and a black at others. 

The first salt was made here in 1807 by Nathan Boone. His 
old works were on a mound in the valley northwest of the main 
spring, and just east of a small branch coming into Salt creek from 
the west. Other old salt works were on the east side of another 
small branch. Large beds of charcoal and ashes are almost the only 
remains of the former works, but salt was made here at various times, 
and almost constantly until about the year 1855 or 1856. The salt 
made here was sold in 1837 at one cent per pound, and rating a 
bushel at fifty pounds, this paid very well. As an evidence of former 
work here, we would state that for four square miles around Boone's 
Lick, the timber has been entirely cut off at various times for fuel for 
the salt works. At the present time these grounds are entirely cov- 
ered over with a thrifty growth of young white oak, with some wal- 
nut, black oak and hickory. These trees are mostly six by eight 
inches in diameter, but many are as much as one foot. 

Dr. J. C. Heberling, W. N. Marshall and others are the present 
owners of the property. In 1869 they began to bore for salt water, 
and continued their work until the fall of 1872, when the boring had 
reached a depth of 1,001 feet. They then stopped work. At thirty- 
seven feet water was obtained; at sixty-eight feet, weak saltwater, 
and at 163 feet 9 inches, the size of the stream had increased a fourth, 
with percentage of salt about the same as the outside stream, or 4.5 
per cent. 

At a depth of 481 feet they report a vein of salt water, with an 
increased strength of one-third. At 707 feet 9 inches a small addi- 
tion of water was reached ; also a strong, offensive gas, with a cor- 
responding increase of strength of the brine from 4.5 — 9 per cent 
( double ) . 

A 10-inch square wooden conductor was put into the bottom of 
the quicksand, twenty-two feet. Below this a one and one-half-inch 
pipe was inserted, from which the flow is about thirty gallons per min- 
ute. The volume of water is sufficient for a two and one-half-inch pipe. 


burckhartt's SPRING. 

This spring is two miles west of New Franklin, at the edge of a 
small valley coming into the Bonne Femme from the west side. The 
water issues forth very freely from the valley clays, not very far from 
a bluff of Burlington limestone. • A white deposit is formed in the 
bed of the branch. In former times considerable salt was made here. 


The Lewis spring, near Glasgow, is ou the land of Jno. F. Lewis, 
one and one-half miles from Glasgow, on the west branch of Gregg's 
creek. The salt water here flows from clay at several places within 
a space of twelve feet square. In some places a white, and in others 
a black deposit is found in the bed of the rivulet. 

There is another small salt spring on Bear creek, just outside of 
the limits of Glasgow. 

A weak-flowing salt spring appears on the west side of Sulphur 
creek, near where it enters the Missouri bottoms. 

On the flat below the railroad depot at Fayette, is a salt and sul- 
phur spring of about the strength of the Lewis spring. The cattle 
have formed, by licking and tramping, an extensive lick fifty by one 
hundred feet. This was originally known as Buffalo lick, and 2,800 
acres of the neighboring lands were originally reserved as saline lands 
for the use of the state. 

Simpson's lick, or Simpson's branch, one mile from the Missouri 
bottom, is a weak salt spring. No salt was ever made here, although 
the land was entered for " saline lands." 


There are a number of salt water springs in the eastern part of 
the county, at all of which salt has been made at one time or another. 

On Mrs. Wilhite's land, in northwest quarter of section 2, town- 
ship 49, range 15, there is a weak salt spring. This was formerly 
known as the Moniteau lick. Four thousand acres of the adjoining 
lands were originally selected for the use of the state. On the 
Messrs. Morris land, in section 34, township 50, range 15, there is 
another which affords a great deal of water, but which is also weak. 
Judge Wade Jackson says that he made salt from the water of each 
of these springs, but that it required from 500 to 600 gallons of water 
to make a bushel of salt. He then dug a well on his place, in section 


35, township 50, range 15, to the depth of fifty feet to limestone, and 
then bored 250 feet. After boring 200 feet he struck salt water, but 
it being no stronger than the water in the springs, he bored fifty feet 
more, and obtaining no water at that depth, abandoned the enter- 
prise. It is his opinion that the water obtained by boring contained 
less sulphur and magnesia than that in the springs. It all probably 
came from the same source. 

On Judge McCafferty's land, in east half of southwest quarter 
section 16, township 51, range 15, there is an old lick which is known 
as Cooley's lick. Mr. McCafferty states that salt was first made here 
fifty or sixty years ago, and that John Cooley made salt at the lick in 
1841. He says he first saw the spring in that year, and at that time 
there were trees growing up from old stumps that he judged to be 
thirty years old. According to Mr. McCafferty's calculations, salt 
must have been made here as far back as 1811. Mr. Cafferty has 
owned the lick for twenty-five years and made salt in 1862, using the 
few remaining kettles that were first used fifty or sixty years ago. 
He was unable to state how much water was required to make a 
bushel of salt, but says that in making a bushel he burned four cords 
of wood. At one time he would obtain more salt from a certain 
amount of water than at another. The water has a sulphurous smell, 
and leaves and pieces of wood left in the spring are soon covered with 
a yellowish-white coating. 

At Mr. Adams', in the northwest quarter, section 83, township 
49, range 15, there are several salt and sulphur springs combined. In 
some the salt predominates and in others the sulphur. They are all 
close together and the water is weak, about seven hundred gallons of 
it being required to make one bushel of salt. Salt was made here fifty 
years ago. 

Quarries of limestone and sandstone are found in various portions 
of the county. There is also iron ore, fire-clay, and rock which would 
make good hydraulic cement. 



The Utility of Public S6hools — Public School System of Missouri — Comparison with Other 
States — Teachers' Institute — Report for 1882, Showing Number of "White and Colared 
Children— Number of School Houses and Districts — Number of Teachers — Salary of 
Teachers — Amount Expended for Fuel — Repairs — Past Indebtedness — Unexpended 
Funds — Annual Distribution. 


The following chapter is one which we have found hard to write, 
owing to the difficulty in obtaining full and accurate information. It 
should be the most interesting of all the chapters in the book. We 
have endeavored to remain in the realm of the real, and deal as little 
as possible in the ideal and imaginative. Comparatively little has been 
made a matter of record relating to the early schools of the county. 
What has been so made, and what has been remembered by the old 
settlers whom we have seen, are here given. 

The schools of the county are sharing with the contents of the 
newsboy's bundle, the title of the universities of the poor. The close 
observation of the working of the public schools shows that if the in- 
duction of facts be complete, it could be demonstrated that the 
public schools turn out more men and women better fitted for business 
and usefulness than most of our colleges. The freedom and liberty of 
the public school afford less room for the growth of effeminacy and 
pedantry ; it educates the youth among the people, and not among a 
caste or class, and since the man or woman is called upon to do with a 
nation in which people are the only factors, the education which the 
public schools afford, especially when they are of the superior stand- 
ard reached in this country, fit their recipients for a sphere of useful- 
ness nearer the public heart than can be attained by private schools 
and academies. 

The crowning glory of American institutions is the public schoo 
system ; nothing else among American institutions is so intensely 
American. They are the colleges of democracy, and if this govern- 
ment is to remain a republic, governed by statesmen, it must be from 
the public schools they must be graduated. The amount of practica 
knowledge that the masses here receive, is important beyond measure 



and forms the chief factor in the problem of material prosperity ; but 
it is not so much the practical knowledge, which it is the ostensible 
mission of the public schools to impart, that makes this system the 
sheet anchor of our hopes. It is rather the silent, social influence 
which the common schools incidentally exert. It is claimed for our 
country that it is a land of social equality, where all have an equal 
chance in the race for life ; and yet there are many things which give 
the lie to this boasted claim of an aristocracy of manhood. Our 
churches are open to all, but it is clear that the best pews are occupied 
by the men of wealth and influence. The sightless goddess extends 
the scales of justice to all, but it will usually appear that there is 
money in the descending beam. It requires money to run for office, 
or, at least, it takes money to get office. The first experience of the 
American citizen of to-day, however, is in the public schools. If he 
is a rich man's son, his classmate is the son of poverty. The seat 
which the one occupies is no better than that occupied by the other, 
and when the two are called to the blackboard, the fine clothes of the 
rich man's son do not keep him from going down, provided he be a 
drone, neither do the patches on the clothes of the poor man's son 
keep him down, provided he has the genius and the application to make 
him rise. The pampered child of fortune may purchase a diploma at 
many of the select schools of the laud, but at the public schools it is 
genius and application which win. That state or nation which reaches 
out this helping hand to the children of want, will not lack for de- 
fenders in the time of danger, and the hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars annually expended for the common education of children, is but 
money loaned to the children, which they will pay back with com- 
pound interest, when grown to manhood. In a common, unassuming 
way, our schools inculcate lessons of common honesty. The boy hears 
his father make promises, and sees him break them. Mr. Jones is 
promised twenty dollars on Monday, he calls on Monday and again on 
Tuesday, and finally gets the twenty dollars on Saturday. The boy 
goes with his father to church, and frequently gets there after the first 
prayer. In vain does that father teach his boy lessons of common hon- 
esty, when the boy knows that the father disappointed Jones, and 
never reaches the church in time. The boy soon learns at the public 
schools that punctuality and promptness are cardinal virtues ; that to 
be tardy is to get a little black mark, and to be absent a day is to get 
a big black mark. A public school in which punctuality and prompt- 
ness are impartially and fearlessly enforced, is a most potent conser- 
vator of public morals. 


It has been often said that the state of Missouri has not only been 
indifferent to the subject of education, but that she has been hostile to 
the cause of common schools. To prove that these are gross misrep- 
resentations, and that her attitude towards an interest so vital and pop- 
ular does not admit of any question, it is only necessary to say that 
the constitutions of 1820, 1865 and 1875 make this subject of primary 
importance and guard the public school funds with zealous care. The 
fact is, the constitution of no state contains more liberal and enlight- 
ened provisions relative to popular education than the constitution of 
Missouri, adopted in 1875. During the past sixty-two years of her 
existence not a solitary line can be found upon her statute books in- 
imical to the cause of education. No political party in all her history 
has ever arrayed itself against free schools, and her governors, each 
and all, from 1824 to the present time (1882), have been earnest ad- 
vocates of a broad and liberal system of education. As early as 1839, 
the state established a general school law and system. 

In 1853-, one-fourth of her annual revenue was dedicated to the 
maintenance of free schools. Her people have taxed themselves as 
freely for this cause as the people of any other state. With the sin- 
gle exception of Indiana, she surpasses every other state in the Union 
in the amount of her available and productive permanent school funds, 
the productive school fund of Indiana being $9,065,254.73, while that 
of Missouri is $8,950,805.71, the state of North Carolina ranking 
third. The state of Indiana levies a tax for school purposes of six- 
teen cents on the one hundred dollars of taxable values, and does not 
permit a local tax exceeding twenty-five cents on that amount. The 
state of Missouri levies a tax of five cents and permits a local tax of 
forty cents without a vote of the people, or sixty-five cents in the 
country districts and one dollar in cities and towns, by a majority vote 
of the tax-payers voting. 

For the year ending in April, 1880, only two counties in the state 
reported a less rate of local taxation than the maximum allowed in 
Indiana, only one the amount of that maximum, and the average rate 
of all the counties reported was about thirty-nine cents, or fourteen 
cents more than the possible rate of that state. It may not be known 
that Missouri has a greater number of school-houses than Massachu- 
setts, yet such is the fact. The amount she expends annually for 
public education is nearly double the rate on the amount of her as- 
sessed valuation that the amount expended by the latter state is on 
her valuation, while the public school funds of Missouri exceed those 
of Massachusetts, $5,405,127.09. 


The Missouri system of education is, perhaps, as good as that of 
any other state, and is becoming more effectively enforced each suc- 
ceeding year. The one great fault, or lack in the laws in reference to 
common schools, is the want of executive agency within the county. 
The state department should have positive and unequivocal super- 
vision over the county superintendent, and the county superintendent 
should have control over the school interests of the county under the 
direction of the state superintendent. When this is done the people 
of the state will reap the full benefits that should accrue to them from 
the already admirable system of free schools which are now in suc- 
cessful operation throughout the state. 

The public schools of Howard county were organized in 1867, 
under the law of 1866. There had been, since an early date, public 
money distributed for the benefit of the children of the poor and in- 
digent of the county, but no distinctive public schools taught in the 
county until 1867. These schools were organized generally by Thomas 
G. Deatherage, who, though not teaching at the time, was friendly to 
'the public schools, and was anxious to see them firmly established 
and bearing fruit. 

The school districts at that time numbered about sixt}', and in 
each of these a school was organized. The system was not popular 
at the beginning, but as time passed, and the schools have gradually 
grown better, it has increased in favor until the public schools are 
now liberally patronized. 


The report for 1882, shows the number of white persons in the 
county between six and twenty years of age were : Males, 2,131 ; 
females, 1,886. Colored persons between six and twenty years of 
age: Males, 711; females, 589 — making a total of 5,317. This 
was an increase over the preceding year. 

The county is at present divided in sixty-five school districts. 

To accommodate the number of pupils attending the public 
schools, the county has increased from year to year the number of 
school houses, until they now (1883) number about seventy, a ma- 
jority of which are neat, frame buildings, a few being brick, but all 
constructed with reference to the health, comfort and convenience of 
both teachers and pupils. These pupils are under the care and instruc- 
tion of fifty male and forty-two females, making a total of ninety-two 
teachers. The teachers are, in the main, not persons who have tem- 
porarily adopted the vocation of a teacher as a mere expedient to 


relieve present wants and with no ultimate aim to continue teaching, 
but are men and women who have chosen their profession from choice, 
expecting to prosecute their labors for many years to come. The 
male teachers are paid a salary which averages $36.44 per month, 
and the females $37.10 ; the general average being $36.77. We hope 
the day is not far distant when Howard county will be as liberal in 
the salaries of her female teachers in the public schools, as Green, 
Dallas and a few other counties of our grand and noble state. These 
counties have recognized the fact, that the services of the female 
teachers are worth as much as the services of the male, and pay her 
about an equal salary. Why a woman should not be paid as much as 
a man as a teacher in the public schools is a problem, we frankly con- 
fess, we have never been able to solve upon any reasonable hypothesis. 
The sum paid to teachers for the school year of 1881 amounted to 
$20,640.43; paid for fuel, $678.55; for repairs and rent, $573.10; 
past indebtedness paid, $938. Unexpended funds on hand, $8,301.26. 


Cash on hand at settlement with county treasurer, in 
April, 1881 $ 4,974 49 

Amount of revenue received from state fund by auditor's 
warrant, of 1881 3,975 78 

Amount received from county fund, 1881 (interest on 
notes and bonds) ...... 2,418 15 

Amount of revenue received from township fund, in 1881 
(interest on notes and bonds) .... 1,534 05 

Amount received from district tax in 1881, as per settle- 
ment with county treasurer, in April, 1882 . . 21,113 48 

Amount received from all other sources, as per settle- 
ment with county treasurer, in April, 1882 . . 101 30 

Total amount $34,117 25 

Total amount expended, as shown by settlement with 
county treasurer, in April, 1882 .... 25,815 99 

Cash on hand $ 8,301 26 

Amount of township school funds, .... $16,537 60 
Amount of county public school funds, . . . 5,849 79 

$22,387 39 
Amount received during year for fines and penalties . $1,159 97 



Introductory Remarks — Baptist — Christian — Presbyterian and Episcopalian Churches. 
For history of Methodist Episcopal church, South, the reader is referred to addendum. 


The question as to which one of the religious denominations 
(Baptist, Methodist, or Presbyterian) first held aloft the banner of 
Christ, in Howard county, is extremely problematical. They seem to 
have all been equally zealous in the cause of Christianity, in uphold- 
ing and sustaining their respective churches. The most authentic 
record that we have found in reference to the establishment of the 
early churches in this county are the memoirs of James M. Peck, 
D. D. 

Dr. Peck visited the county in 1818, and in writing about the 
establishment of his own church (Baptist), said : — 

" During the war, when the people had to live in forts, and until 
1818, no correctly-thinking person could expect Christian churches to 
be organized, revivals to follow, and the baptism of converts to be 
reported. With five Baptist preachers and as many more Cumber- 
land Presbyterians and Methodists, only five Baptist churches, with 
numbers not much exceeding one hundred in all, were gathered before 

From the above we find there were five Presbyterian ministers in 
the county, as early as 1818,. and equally as many preachers repre- 
senting each of the two denominations. Which, then, was actually 
the pioneer religious organization in the county we do not know, the 
three churches named having an equal number of preachers upon the 
ground as early as 1818. 

It is, however, claimed, that the Baptists erected the first church 
edifice, called Mount Pleasant, near the town of New Franklin. The 
first camp-meeting in the county was held by the Cumberland Pres- 
byterians, in 1824, about two miles above Old Franklin, on the 
Adkin Lee farm. Among the ministers present upon that occasion, 


were Revs. Samuel Pharr, J. W. Campbell, and Finis Ewing. The 
latter was quite a distinguished preacher, being the founder of that 
denomination (Cumberland Presbyterians). The Methodists held a 
camp meeting at Clark's chapel, many years afterwards. 


[Prepared by Rev. M. J. Breaker.] 

General Sketch. — The Baptists were the pioneers of religion in 
Howard county, and laid the strong foundation of the education, 
morality and religion of the present population. The faith of the 
earliest settlers was that of the Baptists, and the oldest protestant 
organization now existing in the state, north of the Missouri river, 
and lacking but little of being the oldest in the whole state, is the 
Mt. Pleasant Baptist church, near Franklin. This venerable church 
was organized in 1812, and has had a continuous existence ever since. 
It was composed chiefly of persons who had first settled, and had or- 
ganized a Baptist church near Loutre island, in Montgomery county, 
but who, having been disturbed by the Indians, came to the Boone's 
Lick country for greater security. From Mt. Pleasant the Baptists 
vapidly spread all over the country (including the territory now called 
Cooper, Boone, Randolph and Clinton counties, as well as Howard). 
For some years they were the only religious denomination having or- 
ganized churches in the county. During that time they were earn- 
estly engaged in discharging the responsibility they felt God had 
laid on them. Life in a frontier country was rough, but they found 
time and had inclination to attend to the duties of religion. Their 
preachers were illiterate and had to support themselves by manual 
labor, but they abounded in efforts to save sinners, and their Master 
blest them. The people were scattered over a wide territory, and 
often surrounded by savage enemies, but they met for Divine worship, 
though they had to take their rifles with them ; and their places of 
meeting were often uncomfortable. In the pleasant weather, the 
spreading branches of an oak, or an arbor of boughs afforded fine 
facilities for preaching and hearing — the preachers had lungs in those 
days, and, report says, the sound of their voices could sometimes be 
heard for miles ; but in inclement weather they had to crowd into the 
log cabins of the settlers, or into the but little larger meeting-houses 
they were able to erect. The first meeting-house in the county and 
all the territory north of the Missouri river, was that built at Mt. 
Pleasant, in about 1816. It was about twenty feet square, and was 


built of unhewn logs. The roof was made of clapboards, kept on by 
poles laid on them. The chimney was built on four posts in the cen- 
tre of the house. The house had no windows, and the two doors had 
thick shutters. The floor was the native soil. In the middle of the 
floor, under the chimney, a fire was built to warm the worshippers, 
but, plainly, they were better warmed by a fire within them. The 
seats were long stools made of slipt logs. There was no pulpit, but 
the preacher stood on the floor wherever it suited him best. The 
babes, which the mothers always brought with them, amused them- 
selves by piaying in the wholesome dirt on the floor. But great pros- 
perity attended these earnest efforts to serve God, so that by 1834 — 
just twenty-two years after the planting of the first church — the de- 
nomination had increased from one church, with twenty-three members, 
to some twelve churches, with upwards of 750 members. 

Up to this time the utmost harmony, both in doctrine and practice, 
had prevailed ; but now, and for some four years, strifes and schisms 
occurred. In 1834, the views of Elder A. Campbell were introduced 
into some of the churches, and confusion followed. The result was 
that, in some of these churches, the members and preachers were di- 
vided, and new organizations were formed. These new organizations 
took the name of " The Christian Baptist Church," — so at Mt. Pleas- 
ant — from which they afterwards dropped the word " Baptist." 

In 1835, occurred the great split in the denomination. This was 
on the subject of missions. Two years before there had been a simi- 
lar split in Virginia on the same subject. One party opposed mis- 
sionary operations by district associations, general associations, state 
conventions and general conventions, and likewise opposed Sunday- 
schools and ministerial education. The other party, which in this 
part of the country was in the minority, favored these things. For 
some years the points at issue were warmly discussed ; finally, at a ses- 
sion of the Mt. Pleasant Association, at Mt. Zion church, the matter 
came to a head. The minority submitted to the majority these prop- 
osition, preferring the first to the second , and the second to the third : — 

"1. We are willing to be at peace on the principles of the 
United Baptists of the United States. 

"2. We are willing to be at peace if the association will adhere 
to its advice given at its last session, giving to all liberty of conscience 
on the subject of missions. 

" 3. If a division upon the subject of missions is inevitable, the 
minority proposes that it shall be effected by advising the churches to 
grant to ministers in each church, if the ministers request it, a copy 


of the record of the church book ; and that the majority in each church, 
whether for or against the foregoing propositions, retain the regular 
days of meeting and the church book. Should the minority in any 
case require it, they shall be entitled to the use of the house two days 
in every month, selecting for themselves any other day, Saturday and 
Sunday, than those upon which the majority meet." 

The majority in the association voted down the first and second 
of these propositions, and adopted the third. This divided the denom- 
ination. Each party continued the association, but for a time retain- 
ing the old name — "The Mt. Pleasant Association of United Bap- 
tists" — but after some years the anti-missionary party changed the 
name of their association to " Mt. Pleasant Old School Baptist asso- 

After this split the missionary party showed great vigor, and 
numbers now some eighteen churches and 1,200 members. The op- 
posing party has declined to three churches and about 150 members. 

Soon after the close of the late war the negro members withdrew 
and formed churches of their own. These will be more particularly 
mentioned below. 


The Baptists of Howard county have ever been among the fore- 
most in the state in the support of the missionary and educational 
work of the denomination. In 1818 " The Mt. Pleasant Association 
<>f United Baptists" was organized at Mt. Pleasant church. Than 
this, there are but two older associations in the state — Bethel and St. 
Louis — and for many years it was the most efficient body of its kind 
among the Baptists of Missouri. Until 1880 its main strength had 
always lain among the churches of Howard county. Here lived its 
wisest leaders and its strongest supporters. Since 1880, most of the 
churches of the county have belonged to the Mt. Zion Baptist associa- 
tion, which was organized in that year at Mt. Zion church, and which 
is a vigorous and efficient body. 

The general organization of the Baptists of Missouri for missions 
iind education is the general association, which has exerted a great in- 
fluence and done vast good in the state. This body — first called the 
"Central Society or Committee" — took its origin in 1833 from a 
prayer-meeting in the house of John Jackson, near Fayette, in this 
county, which meeting was composed of Elders Thomas Fristoe, 
Ebenezer Eodgers and Fielding Wilhite. For some years the execu- 
tive board of the general association was located in Fayette, and Mr. 
Leland Weight, now a resident in Fayette, was the corresponding 


secretary. And the Baptists of Howard county have never failed to 
support most warmly this great missionary body. 

William Jewell college, Liberty, Mo., is the male college which 
the several associations founded and fosters. It is the chief Baptist 
college of the state. Many of its trustees, and some of the most 
liberal contributors to its endowment, have been found among the 
Baptists of Howard county. And Mount Pleasant college, which 
existed for many years at Huntsville, partially derived its origin and 
its strongest support from the churches of this county. For the past 
few years the average annual contributions of the denomination in the 
county for Christian work has been about as follows : — 

To sustain the preaching of the gospel in the churches, $3,300; 
missious, education and other benevolent purposes, $1,200; total, 


In almost every neighborhood in the county there has been and 
is a Baptist church. Among the points where there used to be 
churches, but where for various reasons they have become extinct or 
been removed, may be mentioned Boonsboro, Eichland, Old Chariton, 
Lower Moniteau. The following list embraces churches now existing 
in the county : — 

1. Mount Pleasant church, near New Franklin, was organized 
near its present site, April 8, 1812, by Elders David McLain, Golden 
Williams and John Sneethen, presbytery. The original members, 
besides these three preachers, were Samuel Brown, Abraham Groom*, 

William Creson and wife, John Berry and wife, William Monroe, 

Stephenson and wife, Mrs. Winscott, Nancy Goggin, Nancy Cojuni, 
Joseph Boty, Mrs. John Sneethen, Sophia Swearingen, Josiah Boon 
and wife, Dan Rider and wife. The following have been the pastors 
till now : David McLain, William Thorp, Ebenezer Rodgers, Reuben 
Alexander, William Duncan, Green Corey, Noah Flood, B. F. T. 
Coke, B. F. Smith, X. X. Buchner, J. D. Murphy, M. H. William*, 
H. M. King, E. D. Isbell, M. J. Breaker. The church now numbers 
about forty-two members, and worship in an excellent frame house — 

2. Mount Zion church grew out of the above, and was organ- 
ized December 20, 1817, at the house of Elisha Todd (now Mr. 
Richard Payne's) by Elders David McLain, Edward Turner, Thomas 
Hubbard and Colden Williams. These were the original members: 
David McLain and wife, Thomas Hubbard, Elisha Todd, and wife, 


Henry Burnham, Golden Williams and Edward Turner. The follow- 
ing have been the pastors : Edward Turner, William Thorp, Colden 
Williams, Fielding Wilhite, William Duncan, Green Corey, Noah 
Flood, Thomas Fristoe, B. F. T. Coke, T. H. Olmstead, X. X. 
Buchner, G. E. Pitts, W. E. Painter, M. F. Williams, B. F. Lawler, 
E. D. Isbell, N. T. Allison, M. J. Breaker. 

The house of worship is a neat frame building, owned by the 
church and situated near where the church was organized. Present 
membership about thirty — ■ a small but intelligent and active body. 

3. Glasgow church is a continuation of the Old Chariton church, 
and so also is the Chariton church below. This Old Chariton church 
was organized at the town of Chariton, Chariton county (about one 
and a half miles from Glasgow), April 8, 1820. The presbytery 
consisted of elders John B. Longan, William Thorp, Charles Herry- 
mau, and Thomas Henson. The constituent members were : General 
Duff Green, Daniel Biggs, Ebenezer Eodgers, John Tooley, Benj. F. 
Edwards, John Bowles, David Love, Enoch Morgan, Elizabeth 
Bowles, Sally Maddox, Kitty Bailey, Nancy Biggs, Phoebe Tooley, 
Sarah Botts, Sally Love, Nancy Morgan, Lucretia M. Green. The 
pastors until 1848 were Wm. Thompson, D. D., Ebenezer Eodgers, and 
Thomas Fristol, with Addison M. Lewis as assistant pastor. In 1827 
the church moved from the town of Chariton to a point about two 
miles northeast from Glasgow. Here it remained until 1861, when it 
removed to Glasgow. The pastors from 1848 to 1861 were Thomas 
Fristol, Addison M. Lewis, A. P. Williams. And from that until the 
present time, the pastors have been A. P. Williams, D. D. M. L. 
Laws, M. J. Breaker, J. F. Kemper, W. Pope Yeaman, D. D., W. F. 
Harris. When the church removed to Glasgow it built a substantial 
brick house — now owned by the Presbyterians — which was sold in 
in 1866, when the majority of the church withdrew and reorganized 
the present Chariton church. After some years the Glasgow church 
built, at a cost of $12,000, the present house of worship, the most 
elegant in the county. The present membership is about sixty. 

4. Chariton church, about six miles north of Glasgow, is a con- 
tinuation of the Old Chariton church just referred to and located at its 
present place in 1866. At the reorganization the presbytery was com- 
posed of Elders Jesse Terril, Thomas Kilbuck, S. Y. Pitts, and G. W. 
Eogers. The pastors from 1866 until the present time have been W. 
R. Painter, F. M. Wadley, L. M. Berry, M. P. Matheny, A. F. Pear- 
son. The church worships in a substantial frame house which it 
owns. Present membership about 130. 


5. Mount Moriah church was organized August 13, 1823, by- 
elders Ebenezer Rodgers and Colden Williams. The original members 
were Henry Burnham, Sarah Burnham, Samuel Hughes, Nancy 
Hughes, John Jackson, Susannah Jackson, John Matthews, Rachel 
Matthews, James Reid, Abraham Dale, Pleasant Wilson, Susannah 
Wilson. Pastors : Ebenezer Rodgers, A. J. Bartee, William Duncan, 
Wm. Thompson, B. T. F. Cake, G. R. Pitts, W. R. Painter, M. F. 
Williams, M. J. Breaker. The house of worship is a substantial brick, 
situated about four miles west of Fayette, and is owned by the Bap- 
tists and another denomination. Present membership about sixty. 

6. Roanoke church is a continuation of the old Mount Moriah 
church, which was formed about twelve miles north of Fayette in 1826, 
but the names of the original members and of the pastors before 
1836 could not be obtained. In 1836 the name was changed to Mount 
Olive, and after some years the church removed to the town of Roan- 
oke, and has been called by that name ever since. The pastors have 
been since 1836, as follows : — 

Thomas Fristoe, Jesse Terril, W. H. Mansfield, Wm. Thompson, 
Noah Flood, S. G. Pitts, W. L. T. Evans, F. M. Wadley, L. M. 
Berry, W. P. Yeaman, W. F. Harris. The church owns the lower 
story of a substantial frame house in Roanoke. Present membership 
about 120. 

7. Gilead church was organized in April, 1820, by Elders Ed- 
ward Turner and Colden Williams. Original membership: Edward 
Turner and wife, Daniel Lay and wife, Sally Brashears, Amos Death- 
erage and wife, Henry Saling and wife, Elizabeth Saling, Jane 
Maughan, Paten Maughan, Henry Bowman.- The pastors have been 
Edward Turner, J. D. Butts, Thomas Turner, A. J. Bartee, William 
Duncan, Jesse Terril, R. H. Harris, Noah Flood, W. R. Woods, 
Green Carey, Wm. H. Morris, J. D. Murphy, J. W. Terrill, P. T. 
Gentry, M. F. Williams, E. D. Isbell, J. B. Dotson, L. M. Berry. 
House of worship is situated about five miles east of Fayette, a 
frame house, owned in part by the Baptists. The present member- 
ship of the church is about ninety. 

8. Fayette church grew out of Mt. Moriah in 1839. The mem- 
bers were these : Wm. Taylor, Emily Taylor, Sarah C. Birch, Olivia 
C. Birch, Elizabeth Daly, Louisa Major, Elizabeth Major, James 
Bradley, Susan Wilson, Adelia Garner, Euphemia Turner, Geo. W. 
Lydiletes, D. E. Searcy, David Morrow, Eleanor Morrow, Mary Ann 
Anderson, Elizabeth J. Searcy, Eliza Holliday, Terry Bradley, Chris- 
topher Cockerill, Hardin A. Wilson, Amanda Shepard, Eliza Ann 


Reynolds, Letty Watts, Polly Litchlev, John Hanson, Jane Hanson, 
John W. Searcy, Mrs. W. R. Dickerson, John H. Potts, Priscilla 
Price, Susan, slave of Jos. Major; Esther, slave of Eunice Payne; 
Esther and Eliza, slaves of Mrs. E. Daly. The pastors have been : 
A. M. Lewis, Thomas Fristoe, A. B. Hardy, W. W. Keep, G. C. 
Harris, N. Flood, Wm. Thompson, Green Carey, F. Wilhite, X. X. 
Buckner, G. R. Pitts, A. M. King, E. D. Isbell, T. A. Reid, M. J. 
Booker. The house of worship is a substantial frame building, well 
situated in the town. The present membership is about eighty. 

9. Mount Ararat church was organized 117 1865 by Elder William 
Woods and Jesse Terril. The original members were : T. Creeson 
and wife, T. Pemberton and wife, William Nicolas and wife, Andrew 
Nicolas and wife, Sallie Nicolas, Eunice Creeson, Jane McGruder, 
James Creeson, Willis Graves and wife, Ruark Graves, Nancy Cree- 
son. Pastors: W. H. Woods, S. G. Pitts, F. M. Stark, L. A. 
Minor. No house of worship is owned by the church, but services 
are held in the Pemberton school-house, about eleven miles north of 
Fayette. Present membership about seventy-five. 

10. Friendship church, about six miles north of Fayette, was or- 
ganized May 9, 1829, by Elders Edward Turner, Ebenezer Rodgers, 
Thomas Turner, A. J. Bartee and Thomas Todd. The original mem- 
bers were : Benjamin Cook, Polly Cook, Wm. Cornett, Nancy Cornett, 
John Kirby, John Leach, Jemima Leach, Wm. Baskett, Susan Baskett, 
Samuel Fields, Elvira Gibbs, John Swetnam, Sarah Swetnam. 
The pastors have been : A. J. Bartee, Jesse Terril, W. H. Woods, 
W. L. T. Evans, Joshua Terril, J. D. Smith. Present membership 
about seventy-five. A good frame house is owned by the church. 

11. Sharon church was organized January, 1877, by Elder J. W. 
Terril. The original members were W. A. Morris, Sr., and wife, B. 
0. Morris and wife, Bettie Morris, Mary J. Morris, J. S. Morris, Til- 
ford Pemberton and wife, Sarah Pemberton, Florence Pemberton, 
Henry Hatler, J. C. Taylor, Thomas Magruder and wife, W. H. Mor- 
ris, Jr., Annie Morris. The pastors have been J. W. Terril, G. C. 
Brown, W. R. Woods. The church partly owns a good frame house 
about ten miles north by west from Fayette. Present membership 
about twenty. 

12. Boone's Lick church, near Lisbon, was organized January 20, 
1870, by W. R. Woods and William Kilbuck, presbytery. The original 
members were Preston V Smith, Mary Smith, Nancy Cooper, Martha 
Booth, J. H. Bodle, Rachel Bodle, Mary Stuart, Mary M. Wiseman, 


Kichard Jackson, Louisa Garvin, M. E. Ainsworth, Martha A. Dunn, 
Mary E. Johnson, Susan Burton, Eobert Tippett, Catharine Tippett, 
Eglantine Headrick. The pastors have been Jackson Harris, W. L. 
Baskett, Luther Cloyd. The present membership is about twenty- 

13. Moniteau church, at Bunker Hill (Myer's post-office) was 
organized at the house of Mr. John Perkins in 1847 or 1848, by 
Elders J. W. Terril and Green Carey. The original members were 
John and Eachel Perkins, Aaron and Willis Andrews, Henry and 
Cynthia Lynch, A. Banes. The pastors have been Jesse Terril, 
Bartlett Anderson, James Burton, William B. Woods, W. L. T. 
Evans, John Byrum, W. L. Baskett, Green Carey. The church 
worships in a good frame house in which it owns a half interest. The 
present membership is about sixty. 

14. Ruhamah church, six miles north by west from Fayette, 
was organized in 1870 by Elders M. L. Laws, R. J. Mansfield, W. L. 
Baskett, John Byrum and W. R. Woods. The original members 
were Martin and Nancy Andrews, Nancy and William and VanBuren 
Andrews, Bennett Brown and wife, James Y. Miller and Ann his wife, 
Willis Rout and Sally his wife and Nancy his daughter, Harriet An- 
drews, Joe Andrews and Fannie his wife, Strotta Pritchett and Patsy 
his wife, Russia Branham, James Hutson, and Alex, his son and Re- 
becca his wife, Robert and Jimmie Andrews, Mrs. Eaton and Ike, 
Kibble, Nancy and Jane her children, John Eaton and Mary his wife, 
Lucy H a °kley, Eva Hackley, James Miller, James Branham, William 
Pulliam, Luther Pulliam, Bradley Pulliam, Emma Broaddua, Mary 
Hudson, Newton Hudson, George Rout, Franklin Smith and Bett Ann 
his wife, Dora Browning, Nicinda Andrews, Mary Gibbs. The pastors 
have been W. L. Baskett and William Kilbuck. The church worships 
jn a school-house. Present membership is about forty-eight. 

15. Mizpah church, about four miles northeast of Fayette, was 
organized in 1872, by elders M. L. Laws, M. F. Williams, and H. 
M. King. The original members were J. Q. Moberly, Prior Burton, 
Robert Dougherty, Charles Berkley, Mrs. A. E. Berkley, Mrs. S. 
Burton, Mrs. M. E. Moberly, Mrs. Mary Dougherty, Mrs. H. George, 
Mrs. E. Williams, Mrs. J. Patterson, Miss Laura Patterson, Mrs. M. 
Jourdan, N. Brown, S. R. Jourdan, Miss N. George, J. Stroby, Mrs. 
P. George, Owen Williams. The pastors have been P. S. Collop,M. 
F. Williams, W. K. Woods, J. D. Smith. The church is a union 
house, a good frame building. Present membership about fourteen. 


16. Sulphur Springs church, about three miles northwest from 
Eocheport, Boone county, was organized September 22, 1880, by 
elders J. B. Dotson and B. E. Harl, with these members : J. H. 
Jordan and wife' and daughter, Levi Barton and wife, John Farris 
and wife, William Dodson and wife, Mrs. L. Minor, Miss Ada Row- 
lings. The pastors have been B. E. Harl, J. B. Starke, J. F. Par- 
mer. The church owns a good frame house. Present membership 
about forty. 

17. Rock Spring church (old school) is situated about eight 
miles west of Fayette. It was organized in 1823 by Elders Ebenezer 
Rodgers and C. Williams. The original members were the same as 
those given for Mount Moriah, for this church is a continuation, in 
one line, of the Mount Moriah church. The pastors since 1839 have 
been: R. Alexander, A. B. Frioreor, J. W. Akers, Martin Doty, 
James Bradley, L. B. Wright. In 1872, the name of the church was 
changed to its present name, and the church built its present sub- 
stantial house of worship. The membership numbers about fifty. 

18. New Hope church (old school), near Bunker Hill, was organ- 
ized as early as 1830, but further information could not be obtained. 
The present membership is probably about eighteen persons. 

19. Sharon church (old school) has the same location as the 
Sharon church above. It was organized as early as 1826, and is a 
continuation of the old Mount Ararat church. It has a membership 
of about eighteen persons. No further information could be obtained 
concerning it. 

N. B. — These three churches do not contain quite all the Old School 
Baptists in the county. At all the above points where churches were 
organized prior to 1835, that organization continued in two lines, and 
we have given the line that has kept up an organization till now. In 
many cases the old school line continued many years parallel with the 

20. Second church, Fayette (negro), was organized soon after 
the close of the war, but no names or dates could be obtained. The 
present membership is supposed to be about 100. 

21. Bethel church (negro) is situated in the Missouri bottom, a 
few miles west of New Franklin. This is all that could be ascertained 
about it. 


Whole number of churches, 21 ; aggregate membership, about 
1,200. Number of preachers now resident in the county were, viz. : 


W. K. Woods, Jackson Harris, M. J. Breaker, W- F. Harris. Most 
of the churches are presided over by preachers not resident in the 
county. Most of the missionary churches have Sunday schools, but 
no statistics could be- obtained. 

[Prepared by Elder James Randall.] 

Two of the Christian churches of this county were organized at 
a very early day — between 1816 and 1820. They were organized 
substantially on the same basis as those which were afterwards known 
as the Disciples of Christ and Christian churches, that originated from 
the ministry of B. W. Stone, of Kentucky. The ministers who or- 
ganized and who became the pastors of these churches, were Thomas 
McBride, and James McBride, his son ; he and his son left the county 
at an early day. Joel H. Hayden came to the county in 1827 or 1828, 
and labored with the McBrides. He was a man of strong mind and 
spotless reputation. Joel Prewitt was among the early ministers, 
coming in 1830, and did much for the cause of Christ. 

Several other churches were organized about 1830, at which period 
a union was effected between the Stoneites, New Lights, Camp- 
bcllites, Reformers, and Disciples in Kentucky. After the union 
of these churches in Kentucky, the churches elsewhere throughout 
the country were united and were known as Disciples or Christians, 
and were organized under the name of " Church of Christ." From 
1830 to 1840, Elder Marcus Wills of Callaway county, Missouri, 
preached in Howard county. Elder F. M. Palmer preached also for 
'several churches. From 1840 to 1850, D. P. Henderson, T. M. 
Allen, H. S. Boon, William Boon, Jerry Lancaster, and Dr. Win- 
throp H. Hopson labored here in the ministry. Henderson and Allen 
left for California in 1849. Dr. Hopson came to the county in 1847, 
and after practising medicine for a short time gave himself entirely to 
the ministry ; he was an influential man and an eloquent speaker. 
From 1840 to 1860, William Burton probably did labor more and with 
larger results than any other minister. His education was limited, 
but he possessed fine social qualities and great power as an exhorter. 
About the year 1840, Elder Thomas M. Allen, of Columbia, Boone 
county, spent a portion of his time in Howard. Elder S. S. Church 
was in the county in 1849 and 1850. From 1850 to 1860 Alexander 
Proctor, now of Independence, Missouri, and a graduate of Bethany 
college, Virginia, began his ministry here. In 1851, John W. McGar- 


vey, also a graduate of Bethany college, began his ministry here, 
remaining one year. 

Thomas W. Gaines was pastor of several churches in the county 
about the same time. N. B. Peeler, another graduate of Bethany 
college, commenced his ministerial labors in Howard county in 1860, 
and remained until 1870. There are seventeen organized churches < 
in the county ; two of these, Big Springs and Roanoke, are partly in 
Boone and Randolph. Total membership is about 1,000. Ten of 
these churches own houses of worship valued at $9,700, and a half 
interest in two other houses of worship valued at $1,000 ; one-fourth 
interest in three houses of worship, valued at $800 ; making about 
$12,000 of church property. 

Church of Christ was organized by Elder Thomas McBride or 
Joel H. Hayden, about 1830. Among the original members were 
Thomas McBride and family, Joel Ii. Hayden and wife, Joel 
Prewitt, Henry Crisman and wife, Major Johnson and wife, 
George Saffran, Mrs. Ruth White, A. J. Herndon, Thomas Roy, 
Sr., F. E. Williams and wife, Dr. S. T. Crews and wife (the 
last three named and A. J. Herndon are still living). Eider 
McBride, Elder Hayden and Elder Prewitt were the pastors up 
to 1840 ; after that time for several years Jerry Lancaster was 
pastor. Between 1840 and 1850, T. M. Allen preached quite often 
at Fayette; as did Dr. Hopson, S. S. Church and D. P. Hen- 
derson, H. L. Boon and T. M. Allen, in 1851 ; J. W. McGarvey and 
William C. Booh, in 1854; Thomas N. Gaines, in 1867; J. A. 
Berry, in 1868 ; W. H. Blank in 1871-2 ; W. M. Featherstone, in 
1873-5 ; James M. Tennyson, 1878-80 ; James Randall, from 1882- 
83, and is the present(1883) pastor. W. H. Hopson, A. J. Hern- 
don, L. Cook and John H. Bradley each occasionally officiated as 
ministers of the Fayette church, from 1849 to 1867. Alexander 
Campbell visited Fayette in 1852 and agaiu in 1858. In 1850 the 
church had 284 members ; it now has eighty members. The house of 
worship was built in 1840 and is valued at $1,000. 

Church at Roanoke was organized in 1845, by Allen Wright. 
Robert Terrill, James Terrill, and Presley Halley were among the early 
members. In 1850, S. S. Church was the pastor, J. A. Berry from 1865 
to 1870. J. A. Wedington has preached for them during the four years 
past. Captain Bagley, Colonel James Richardson, and Dr. Walker are 
among the prominent members of the church at this time. 

Ashland church, originally called Salt Creek, was organized by 
Elder McBride in 1820. Among the earliest members were the Bradleys 


and Martin Little, Sr. Samuel Eodgers, of Kentucky, visited this 
church as early as 1821 or 1822. McBride, Hayden, and Prewitt offici- 
ated with others up to 1850. J. W. McGarvey filled the pulpit in 1851, 
J. V. Gains in 1856 and 1857. D. P. Henderson, T. M. Allen, and 
others, from 1850 to 1860. W. H. Koberson and N. B. Peeler were 
born and raised in the church, the latter preaching from 1865 to 1873, 
and again in 1880 and 1881 for this church ; James Randall from 1874 
to 1877 ; V. Hockensmith from 1878 to 1879. William H. Little, 
James Smith, J. F. Hockley, and B. Maxwell have each preached for 
this church at different times. J. M. Tennyson and O. A. Carr are 
the present ministers. This is the largest church of this denomination 
in the county, having a membership of 150. They own a house of 
worship valued at $1,200. 

Mount Moriah church was organized by Elder Prewitt in 1835. 
Prewitt and wife and Martin Verian and wife were among the early 
members. Prewitt and Hayden preached for this church several years. 
The church organization was discontinued in 1845 and reorganized 
again in 1871. W. H. Blank, J. R. Gallemore, and J. H. Headington 
have each filled the pulpit of this church. Present membership, 
thirty. J. H. Headington is the present pastor. 

Church at Armstrong, was organized August 9, 1881, by R. N. 
Davis, James Boggs, and T. N. Gates, elders. J. P. Witt is the pres- 
ent pastor. Twenty-one members have an interest in a union house 
of worship. 

Church at New Liberty' — In 1873, this church" was organized by 
M. M. Davis. F. M. Grimes and family, and J. W. Thompson and 
wife were among the original members. Grimes and Thompson have 
been elders from the organization of the church, and D. Long and 
Patrick, deacons, D. M. Granfield and O. A. Carr have held meet- 
ings for this church. Membership is about twenty. 

Chui-ch at Glasgow — This church was established in 1841, by 
H. P. Boon. John H. Estill and wife, Alfred Roper and wife, Weston 
F. Birch, W. C. Boon, W. B. Tolley and William Allega were the 
constituent members. H. P. Boon was the first pastor. A. Proctor, 
S. S. Church, I. W. Waller, Dr. J. W. Cox, J. M. Tennyson 
and T. W. Allen have each filled the pulpit of this church. The 
church went down in 1860, and wae reorganized in 1878. T. W. 
Allen, present pastor. Membership twenty. Building cost $1,500. 

Church at Boonsboro was formed in 1850, by W. M. Burtin, 
with the following members : John Arnick and wife, William Arnick 
and wife, Greenfield Hefflefiuger and wife, Henry Cooper, Nancy B. 


Cooper, Lettie Sims, Caroline Smith, Ann Sims, Caswell Dunking 
and Thomas Campbell. Elders of the church at that time were John 
Arnick and Greenfield Hefiiefinger. William Burton, Castleman, Joel 
Hayden, Wilmot, Robert N. Hudson, Giles Phillips and Thomas 
Campbell have each preached for this church. Present member- 
ship, ninety-nine. 

Rose Hill Church was organized in 1872, by Elder C. P. 
Evans. George W. Arnick and wife, and B. J. Ballew and wife were 
among the original members. Thomas Campbell and R. N. Davis 
have preached for this congregation. Present membership, seventy- 

Church at Pleasant Green — Elders Joel H. Hayden and Thomas 
E. Gates organized this church, September 30, 1861. William Allega 
and wife, and Joseph Silvey and wife were a few of the constituent 
members. William Burton, Stephen Bush, Taltou Johnson, R. N*. 
Davis, M. M. Davis, W. N. Tandy, I. P. Witt and R. H. Love have 
been pastors of this church. James Randall is present minister. 
House erected, in 1867, at a cost of $1,000. Members number 

Church at Big Springs was organized by John O. White, in 
1860, with the following persons : Judge David Pipes and wife, Por- 
ter Jackman and family, John Arnold, James Pipes, George Pipes, 
Charles Pipes, and their wives, Talton Johnson and wife, George 
Drake and wife, and Lyre Martin and wife. Talton Johnson, N. 
Hockensmith, M. M. Davis and G. M. Perkins have each administered 
to the spiritual wants of this church. Present membership, sixty ; 
own a nice house of worship. 

Richland Church — This is the oldest church of this denomina- 
tioti in the county, having been established in 1816 ; Elder Thomas 
McBride officiating. Sion Bradlev and wife, John Thomas and wife, 
and Holt and wife were a few of the early members. Mc- 
Bride and son preached for the congregation until 1832. Among 
other ministers who succeeded the former were Samuel Rodgers, Wil- 
liam Burton, Joel H. Hayden, A. Proctor, W. H. Roberson, R. N. 
Davis, M. M. Davis, Robert N. Hudson, I. P. Witt, John C. Woods, 
William Warden and E. P. Graves. Present membership, eighty. 
The church owns an edifice worth $800. 

Mount Pleasant Union Christian church, situated in Bonne 
•Femme township, Howard county, was organized by Elders William 
White and John McCuue in September, 1854. The organization num- 


bered twenty-eight members when it was organized — twelve males 
and sixteen females, to wit : 

Males. Females. 

John Evans, Minerva Davis, 

Moses Cleeton, Sarah L. Fisher, 

Samuel Moody, Nancy Bailey, 

G. H. G. Jones, Elizabeth Ancell, 

Joseph McCune, Rutha Estis, 

Elijah Ancell, Jane Bailey 

John Asbury, Sarah A. McCune, 

Miuter Bailey, Sarah A. Jones, 

Edward S. Davis, Moriah Cleeton, 

Anderson Johnson, Agnes Asbury, 

John McCune, Mary Manning, 

Thomas Ancell, Lucinda Moody, 

Sally Ann Gilvin, 
Sarah J. Johnson, 
Sarah F. Ancell. 

The local elders were Minter H. Bailey and Edward S. Davis; 
the deacons, Thomas Ancell and Anderson Johnson. The church was 
organized at the Baldridge school-house ; a house of worship was be- 
o-un the same fall, which cost $700. Elder John McCune preached 
about nine or ten years — until the war troubles became so bad that he 
moved to the state of Illinois. The members have been greatly re- 
duced by the organization of Locust Grove congregation, and also 
Newhope congregation, and by a number moving away: They now 
number only about thirty-five members. Elders at present : George 
W. Potter, Thomas Ancell, Elijah Ancell, Minter H. Bailey ; deacons : 
Dr. Dougherty, Elisha Ancell and Ed. St. Clair. 

Locust Grove church — The Church of Christ was organized on the 
Saturday before second Lord's day in November, 1870, at LocustGrove 
school-house, in Howard county, Missouri. Elders Talton Johnson and 
Stephen A. Bush were present and assisted in the organization. Abner 
Holtzclawand Silas B. Naylor were the elders of the congregation, and 
Berry Williams and Thomas Jackson, deacons. The organization num- 
bered twenty — ten males and ten females, to wit: 

Males. Females. 

Montreville Reynolds, Frances Reynolds, 

Y. L. Atkins, Elizabeth Reynolds, 

Berry Williams, Sarah Ann Craig, 

J. A. Durnall, Tabitha Holtzclaw, 



Males. Females. 

J. C. Foster, Mary Frances Williams, 

George F. Craig, Margaret A. Holtzclaw, 

William Campbell, Mary M. Nay lor, 

Thomas M. Jackson, Elizabeth Campbell, 

Abner Holtzclaw, Emmarette Campbell, 

Silas B. Naylor, Sarah A. Foster. 

Elder Talton Johnson preached two years. On the second 
Lord's day in September, 1871, Silas B. Naylor was ordained as teacher, 
elder and bishop, with the privilege of solemnizing marriages, etc., 
Elder Talton Johnson officiating. Elder Silas B. Naylor began 
preaching in 1873 and continued until 1880. The congregation at one 
time numbered between eighty and ninety members, but a number 
died and moved away ; it now numbers about sixty members. Elders 
in the congregation now are, Abner Holtzclaw and Silas B Naylor; 
deacons acting now, Berry Williams and James Holtzclaw ; clerk, 
George Craig. 

The Christian church at Newhope, near Bunker Hill, in Howard 
county, was organized by Elder William Anderson, of Eandolph 
county, on Saturday before the fourth Lord's day in October, 1874, 
with about thirty-three members. The local elders selected at the 
organization were, Dr. Boyd, Augustus G. Atkins and Y. L. Atkins ; 
the deacons were Robert Dougherty and James T. Reynolds. Elder 
William Anderson preached about five years. Since that time Elder 
Silas B. Naylor has been, and is yet, preaching for this church. The 
officers at this time are, Elders A. G. Atkins, Dr. Boyd, Judge 
George I. Winn and John W. Lynch; deacons, James T. Reynolds, 
Robert Dougherty and Jesse Kirby. Present membership is about 

Mount Pleasant church — The Church of Christ at Mount 
Pleasant, near New Franklin, was organized about 1830. The exact 
date and original members are not known as the books were consumed 
by fire. The following were among the original members : Wm. Scott 
and wife, Charles Swope and wife, James Hughes and wife, Thomas 
H. Hickman and wife, Owen Rowlings and wife, Richard Brannen and 
wife. They were organized by either Joel Prewitt or Joel H. Hay- 
den. These were the pastors of the church up to 1840. Elder Wm. 
Burton was pastor, preaching from 1840 to 1846 ; 1846-49, Elder T. 
M. Allen, was their preacher; 1849, Elder Samuel S. Church; 
Thos. M. Allen, 1850, 1851. John W. McGarvey, now of Bible col- 
lege, Lexington, Kentucky, author of " Commentary on Acts of 


Apostles," and " Land of the Bible," was their preacher — the first year 
of his work as a preacher of the gospel. From 1854 to 1860, 
Thomas H. Gaines ; 1860, Jonah Atkinson ; 1863, Elder Wilmot ; 1865, 
T. N. Givens; 1866-70, V. B. Peeler; Wm. H. Blanks, 1872; 
1873-78, Jas. Randall ; 1878-79, Jas. M. Tennyson ; 1880-84, James 
Randall. Wm. Scott was elder of the church from organization to 
his death, 1849 ; James R. Estill, elder from 1846 to the present, Jas. 
Randall from 1873 to 1878. Wm. Tutt and Matthew Mullins, deacons 
from an early day in the history of the church. Robert E. McGooch 
was deacon until his death, 1875. 


Church at Old Franklin (O. S. ) — The first church established 
in the county by the Old School Presbyterians, or Presbyterians of any 
name, was organized at Old Franklin on the 28th day of April, 1821, 
by Rev. Edward Hollister, and known as the Franklin Church. There 
were twenty-three constituent members ; the names of these we 
could not get, as no record of the church has been retained and none 
of the original members are now living. 

This church was moved to Boonville a few years afterwards, and 
called the Boonville church. Among the early ministers were Ed- 
ward Hollister, Augustus Pomeroy, W. P. Cochran and Hiram Cham- 

Church at Glasgow — The Old School Presbyterians organized a 
church March 9, 1845, at Glasgow, Howard county. The constituent 
members were George Humphreys, Mrs. Mary Burke, Martha N. E. 
Feazel, Pauline Stratton, Miss Evalina Dyer, Mrs. Nancy Tui-ner, 
Mrs. Minerva Tillet, Daniel McSwain. This church was organized by 
Rev. C. D. Simpson, who came from St. Louis, the church being 
under the charge of the Lexington presbytery. 

George Humphreys was the elder. In 1866 this church reor- 
ganized, purchasing the Baptist church edifice at a cost of $5,000, to 
which were added repairs to the amount of $3,000. 

The church edifice is a large and substantial brick building with 
a basement. At this time (1883) they have no regularly employed 
minister. The last pastor was Rev. Lyman Marshall. The present 
officers are C. Dantel and T. G. Diggs, deacons. J. W. Marshall, 
J. M. Feazel and Samuel W. Steinmetz, elders. Present members, 


Church at Fayette — In 1848, Kev. Charles Simpson, who 
had already organized a Presbyterian church at Glasgow, visited 
Fayette and reorganized the Presbyterian church, it having 
already been instituted as early as 18 — , by Eev. Augustus 
Pomeroy. The members were : Mr. and Mrs. McNair, Miss M. 
Anderson, Dr. W. Snelson ( and wife, Mrs. Prior Jackson, Mr. 
and Mrs. Frank Hanna, Miss Jane Hughes, Mr. H. Lynch, Mr. 
and Mrs. Samuel Todd with their daughters Laura and Maggie, 
Miss M. Lynch, Mr. and Mrs. Hunter, Mr. and Mrs. Gatende, 
Dr. and Mrs. William Everett, William T. Davis and Dr. Dun- 
widdie* who were made elders, and Mr. James Allen, deacon. 
Mr. Simpson held services regularly once a month (meeting in the 
Baptist church) until he was called to St. Louis. The church, though 
few in number, were a faithful and energetic little band, working faith- 
fully for the cause of Christianity until they became scattered by the 
great civil war and other causes. Of the resident members who 
were present at the reorganization in 1848, Mrs. Prior Jackson is the 
only one left in Fayette. 

In 1850, Dr. Gallaher held a meeting in Fayette in the chapel of 
Central college ; at that time quite a number of adults were added to 
the church and several infants baptized. He administered the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's supper at the close of the meeting, the commu- 
nicants all being seated at a long table, which had been placed upon 
the platform for that purpose. 

After Mr. Simpson left Glasgow for St. Louis, Eev. Lee Byer 
preached once a month in the Methodist church edifice. Like Mr. 
Simpson he was highly esteemed by the members, but was soon called 
to another field of labor. Eev. James Quarles was the last pastor 
that officiated for this church, who remained until the breaking out 
of the civil war. 

Church at Roanoke (C. P.) was organized in 1851 by Rev. 
James Dysart with thirteen members. We were unsuccessful in 
our efforts to get the names of all the constituent members, but 
have the names of Arrarah Wayland, Martha Wayland, William 
Ferguson, Eufe Lockridge, Kate Lockridge and James Wallace. 
The first ministers were James Dysart, J. W. Morrow and J. B. 
Mitchell, D. D. The church is in a prosperous condition and now 
numbers 135 members. 

Armstrong Organization — The Cumberland Presbyterians have 
an organization at Armstrong and worship in the Union church 



[Prepared by Rev. J. L. Gay.] 

The first service in Fayette, according to prayer book, was held 
by Bishop Kemper in the fall of 1835. No further services were at- 
tempted until November, 1836, when .the Rev. Frederick F. Peake 
visited Fayette and held service on the 9th day of that month. At 
that time and for two years afterwards Mr. Peake was only in deacon's 
orders. He found six members of the church. At his first service a 
dozen persons joined in the responses. In January, 1837, he gave 
half his time to Fayette, and in June following he came to reside in 
the town to take charge of the female academy. Bishop Kemper 
confirmed five persons in 1837. In May, 1838, Mr. Peake returned 
to Boonville, where he remained until October, 1839, when he en- 
tered upon duty in Christ church, St. Louis. In May, 1846 or 1847, 
Mr. Peake moved to Pensacola, Florida, whither he went in search of 
his health, and where he died July 21, 1849. The mission at Fay- 
ette remained vacant until September, 1840, when Rev. James D. 
Meed held a service every alternate Sunday. There were seven or 
eight communicants and thirteen families attached to the church at 
that time. Mr. Meed remained about eight months, when he resigned 
and went to the Sandwich Islands in search of health. He now re- 
sides in Woodbridge, Ontario. Bishop Hawks, on May 9, 1845, 
officiated in the Baptist church. He reported an earnest desire for a 
resumption of church services. The long vacancy was ended on the 
10th of May, 1846, when Rev. Enoch Reid took charge of the church. 
He was formerly a Methodist minister, and was the first person or- 
dained by Bishop Hawks. It was during Mr. Reid's incumbency, in 
1847, that the parish of St. Mary's was organized and admitted into 
union with the convention. The congregation was at that time wor- 
shipping in an upper room of the old court-house, but the sum of $900 
had been raised for a church building. Mr. Reid resigned in June, 
1847, and died August 6, 1876, in Virginia. In July, 1847, the Rev. 
John W. Dunn entered upon his work in the parish. In the spring 
of 1848, the erection of the church edifice was begun ; it was 
finished November 23, 1850. In the spring of 1851, the trees which 
now stand in front of the church were planted by Mr. Dunu. 
In May, 1853, Mr. Dunn reported that in addition to his duties 
in Fayette he was continuing a monthly service in Glasgow, 
which he had commenced several years previously, and that a gentle- 
man of that place had donated a lot for the church, and that a suffi- 


cient amount of money had been raised to build a church, which, by 
the way, has never been erected. In August, 1855, Mr. Dunn re- 
signed. When he left there were twenty-three communicants. Mr. 
Dunn now resides in Independence, Missouri. 

In November, 1856, Eev. William E. Pickman took charge of 
the parish. In May, 1857, he reported twenty communicants. He 
resigned December 1, 1858, and went to St. Joseph, Mo. Eev. C. 
F. Scoss entered upon duty in September, 1859. In May, 1860, he 
reported twenty-three communicants ; he resigned in 1860, and went 
to California. 

During the four years, when the dark cloud of war hung over 
the land, the parish remained vacant. Eev. John Portmess, an 
Englishman, entered upon duty as a missionary, June 12, 1864, and 
remained till January 1, 1865. He could find only thirteen commu- 
nicants. He is still living in Texas. After another vacancy of four- 
teen months, Eev. Thomas Greene, entered upon the pastorate of 
the church. During his ministry, the church lot was enclosed, lamps 
were purchased and an organ bought. Mr. Greene resigned March 
31, 1867, and now lives in Wisconsin. 

In the summer of 1868, Eev. Granville C. Walker took charge 
of the church, but retained it only until the close of the year. He is 
now in Kentucky. In the summer of 1870, the parish was served by 
two young lay readers, namely, Mr. Abiel Leonard and Mr. Ethelbert 
Talbot. In 1871, Eev. C. J. Hendley, assumed the rectorship, and in 
May following, he reported twenty-four communicants, and also re- 
ported that Mrs. Abiel Leonard (wife of Judge Leonard, now 
deceased) had donated an acre of land on which to build a rectory, 
for which $1,350, had been subscribed. In 1872, the rectory was 
finished and paid for. He resigned in March, 1873, and moved to 
Maryland. After another vacancy of sixteen months, Eev. J. F. 
Hamilton took charge of the parish in 1874, and relinquished the same 
in the spring of 1878. 

On February 1, 1879, Eev. J. L. Gay assumed the pastoral 
care of the parish, and reported twenty-eight communicants. Mr. 
Gay still has charge and has held it longer than any of his predeces- 
sors, except Mr. Dunn. 





1816. David Barton. 1840. John D. Leland. 

1818. Nathaniel B. Tucker. 1847. Win. A. Hall. 

1819. David Todd. 1862. G. H. Burckhartt, present 
1837. Thomas Reynolds. incumbent. 


1816. John J. Heath. 1838. J. M. Gordon. 

1821. H. E. Gamble. 1848. C. H. Hardin. 

1826. Abiel Leonard. 1852. E. T. Prewitt. 

1827. Charles French. 1856. John F. Williams. 

1828. John Wilson. 1860. H. M. Porter. 

1836. Eobert W. Wells. 1862. A. J. Harbison. 

1837. W. B. Napton. 1864. W. C. Barr. 

1838. Samuel N. Bay. 1868. John H. Overall. 

Office abolished in 1872, then the office of county attorney wsi* 


1821. Henry V. Bingham, David E. Drake, Thomas Conway. 
1825.* Enoch Kemper, George Chapman, John Walker, Ed. 
V. Warren, John Myers, John Harvey, and others. 

1826. John Bird, Joseph Sears, William Taylor, Asa Q. Thomp- 
son, Adam C. Woods, and others. 

1828$ Robert Wilson, Urial Sebree, Eichard Cummins, 
I Urial Sebree, George Stapleton, Jonathan Crawley. 
C George Stapleton, N. T. Burckhartt, Jonathan Crawley, 
1829 3 George Stapleton, N. T. Burckhartt, Wm. Wright (ap- 
( pointed). 

* The clerk of the county court selected men from the different townships to act as 
members of the county court. 



1830$ Wm " Wri S ht ' N - T - Burckhartt, John P. Morris, 
( John P. Morris, Henry Lewis, Owen Rawlings. 

1831. David R. Drake, Henry Lewis, John P. Morris. 

1832. David Peeler, David R. Drake, Henry Lewis. 
1838. Alfred W. Morrison, Wm. Botts, William Buster. 
1840. Wm. Buster, Wm. Botts, A. F. Walden! 

1846. C. C. P. Hill, W. M. Jackson, A. F. Walden. 

1850. C. C. P. Hill, W. M. Jackson, Thomas J. Owen. 

1851. C. C. P. Hill, Wm. Botts, Wm. R. Heath. 
lg54 ( Wm. R. Heath, H. L* Brown, C. C. P. Hill, 

( H. L. Brown, John Swetnam, F. W. Diggs. 

1857. John Swetnam. W. M. Jackson, F. W. Diggs. 

1858. Wm. R. Heath, Morgan A. Taylor, James McCafferty. 

1862. M. H. Harris, John P. Sebree, Isaac P. Vaughan (W. B. 
Hanna, appointed in July to fill Harris' place, who resigned.) 

1863. Wm. B. Hanna, F. W. Diggs, Edward P. Graves. 
1865. Wm. B. Hanna, Edward S. Davis, F. W. Diggs. 
1867. Wm. R. Heath, Wm. B. Hanna, Morgan A. Taylor. 
1870. Wm. R. Heath, Morgan A. Taylor, James McCafferty. 
1872. Morgan A. Taylor, John M. Hickerson, James McCafferty. 
1874. John M. Hickerson, B. H. Tolson, James McCafferty. 
1876. John M. Hickerson, J. R. McDonald, B. H. Tolson. 
1878. John M. Hickerson, M. Markland, Sulton Johnson. 

1880. John M. Hickerson, M. Markland, H. Kingsbury. 

1881. B. H. Tolson, M. Markland, H. Kingsbury. 
1883. H. A. Norris, G. J. Winn, J. C. Lee. 


1821. Hampton, L. Boon, clerk 1845. James H. Saunders. 

pro tern. 1846. Leland Wright. 

1821. Armstead S. Grundy, ap- 1847. Andrew J. Herndon. 

pointed in May. 1874. Sid. B. Cunningham. 

1823. John B. Clark. 1882. Henry C. Tindall. 
1842. Nathaniel Ford. 


1816. Gray Bynum. • 1870. John C. Woods elected ; 

1842. S. Bynum. Jos. H. Finks filled the 

1856. Andrew Cooper. office. 

1860. C. H. Stewart. 1879. Walter C. Knaus, present 




1816. Nicholas T. Burckhartt. 

1822. Benj. R. Ray. 

1826. David Prevvitt. 

1829. Nathaniel Ford. 

1832. Alfred W. Morrison, and collector, ex-officio. 

1840. Lewis Crigler, and collector. 

1844. Jacob Headrick, and colle'ctor. 

1848. Newton G. Elliott, and collector. 

1852. Bird Deatherage, and collector. 

1856. Boyd McCrary, and collector. 

1860. James H. Feland, and collector. 

1862. Thomas G. Deatherage, and collector. 

1865. Prior M. Jackson, and collector. 

1866. John L. Morrison, and collector. 

1867. Rice Patterson and collector. 
1871. James G. Maupin, and collector. 

1873. Wm. O. Burton (office of collector separated). 

1874. V. J. Lelaud. 
1878. Nestor B. Cooper. 
1882. V. J. Leland. 

David Prewitt. 
Samuel Shepherd. 
Enoch Kemper. 
Wm. B. Warren. 
The sheriffs were then ex-officio collectors till 1873. 
1873. C. E. Burckhartt. 1883. Nestor B. Cooper. 



Joseph Patterson. 1825. 


Benj. B. Ray. 1826. 


John Harvey appointed in 1827. 

August. 1831. 

1879. Stephen Cooper. 


1821. Nicholas T. Burckhartt. 1832. John S. Rucker. 

1822. Price Prewitt, Glenn Owen, 1833. Lewis Wilcoxon. • 

Watts D. Ewin, Geo. -1834. James Turner. 

Jackson, J. Meyers, 1837. Strother Bramin. . 

Benj. H. Reeves, John 1845. Andrew Crews, Newton G. 
Rooker. Elliott. 

1823. Watts D. Ewin. 1847. John W. Patton. 








Joshua W. Redman. 1848*. John Swetnam. 

Watts D. Ewin appointed 1850. Boyd M. McCrary. 
in July. 1853. Joseph F. Hughes. 

Alfred W. Morrison. 1857. James H. Feland. 

County divided into four assessment districts. John W. Mor- 
ris, assessor first district; Jus. H. Feland, second; Wm. E. 
Hackly, third ; Stephen Stemons, fourth. 

Jno. R. Hitt, first district; Jas. H. Feland, second; Wm. B. 
Yager, third ; John Q. Hicks, fourth. 

Jno. R. Hitt. 1866. Harrison P. White. 

Miles Baldridge. 1872. 

Boyd M. McCrary, ap- 
pointed December. 

Prior M. Jackson. 1883. 

W. Con. Boon. 

Harrison Cross. 
1874. Wm. H. Moss. 
1879. J. R. Gallemore. 

H. B. Watts. 


1823. John B. Clark, pro tern. 
1825! Robert Wilson. 
1830. John B. Clark. 
1833. John H. Turner. 
1840. Alfred W. Morrison. 

1845. Leland Wright. 

1846. Adam Heudrix. 

1858. Walter Adams. 
1862. Thomas Ray. 
1865. John E. Ewin. 

1867. Thomas W. Radford. 

1868. John M. Reid. 
1876. Jacob Fisher. 
1882. Wm. A. Dudgeon. 



Elias Bancroft, 


H. T. Fort. 


Lawreuce J. Daley, 

ap- 1868. 

Joshua T. Allen. 

pointed in November. 


Henry C. Shields. 


James Jackson. 



Willard Cloyd. 

1816. John Monroe. 

1821f Jeremiah Rice. 

1841. Nathan H. Stephenson. 

1849. Joseph Cary. 

1856. R. T. Basye. 

1862. James H. Saunders. 

1867. John M. Pierce, 
1870. Isaac Hamilton. 
1872. June Williams. 
1878. Richard Enyart. 
1880. Von. Bonham. 
1882. H. K. Givens. 

* The early records were very meagre in reference to the surveyors of the county. 
t Early records meagre in reference to coroner. 



1841. Samuel C. Majors. 1854. Samuel C. Majors. 

1850. John W. Henry. 1880. Thomas O wings. 

1853. Thomas M. Perkins. 


1841. Owen Rawlings. 1866. W. H. Watts, appointed in 
1856. John F. Williams. August. 

1856. E. K. Atterbury, resigned. 1870. John B. Hairston. 

1857. Wm. T. Lucky, appointed. 1872. Thomas G. Deatherage. 

1860. James R. Saltonstall. 1874. J. B. Hairston. 

1861. Thomas G. Deatherage. 1876. Thomas Owings. 
1866. C. W. Pritchett, appointed 1881. A. F. Willis. 

in July. 


1824. Robert Wilson, appointed by the governor, and served 
until 1827, when the duties of that office were transferred to the 
county court, which tribunal continued to have jurisdiction of pro- 
bate matters until 1878, when the probate office was again created. 

1879. J. T. Smith. Present incumbent. 


The office of county attorney was created in 1872. Prior to that 
time the business of that office was done by the circuit attorneys. 
1873. James H. Robertson. 1881. Robert C. Clark. 

1875. R. B. Caples. 1882. Robert C. Clark. 

1879. James H. Robertson. 

The following in reference to the history of Boonsboro, Boone's Lick township 
should have been placed on page 156 ; but owing to the fact that it was handed us too 
late for insertion in its proper place, we insert it here . 


named, also, in honor of Daniel Boone, was laid out in 1840 by 
Col. N. G. Elliott, Joseph Cooper, Achilles Callaway and Lindsay P. 
Marshall, on section four, township forty-nine, range seventeen, and 
twelve miles southeast of Fayette, the county seat. 


The first house in the place was erected by Achilles Callaway, 
soon after the laying out of the town. It was built of logs, and in it 
Callaway opened a small stock of goods, consisting principally of 
tobacco and whiskey. He was a native of Howard county, but his pa- 
rents were from Kentucky. He died in Boone's Lick township, since 
the late war. He left a widow and several children. 

The first dry goods and general stock of merchandise was kept 
by R. H. Turner ; Turner was also the first mail contractor. The first 
mail facilities enjoyed by the town was during the year 1853, when 
the people supplied their own mail by the way of New Franklin. 
The first post-office was established there in 1856, John A. Fisher post- 
master. The first church edifice was erected about the year 1850, 
but was not completed until 1853. This was built as a union chapel 
by the Methodists, the Christians, the Cumberland Presbyterians and 

the Baptists. Wm. K. Woods was the Baptist minister, Morrow 

was the Presbyterian, James Penn the Methodist, and Wm. M. Bur- 
ton was among the early Christian ministers. About the year 1868, 
the building was taken down and a new one erected in its place by 
the Christian denomination principally, but with the understanding 
that it was to be free to all religious bodies. This is all the church 
building in the town. 

Hamp. Carson was the first blacksmith. W. J. and F. M. Baugh 
were two of the first merchants. Stephen Bynum sold goods there 
soon after the war of 1861. The town contains a population of one 
hundred and fifty souls. It contains beside the house of worship 
above mentioned, a school house, two general stores, two drug stores, 
one blacksmith shop, one wagon and carriage shop, two saloons and 
a post-ofiice. The postmaster at present is Henry A. Deistelhorst. 


Many years ago — before the late war — a young married man by 
the name of Cassius Nelson, was riding along very fast, horseback, 
into Boonsboro, and after reaching the town his horse in making a 
short turn in the road threw him against a stump, killing him almost 





one of the oldest members of the medical profession in Howard 
county, was born in Campbell county, Va., January 25, 1824. His 
parents were also natives of the Old Dominion, and were both de- 
scended from early colonial families. His father, Robert V. Bailey, 
was born in that state, December 2, 1799, and was married in early 
manhood to Miss Lucy L. Buster, of which union, Dr. John F., the 
subject of this sketch, was the first of a family of twelve children. 
In 1837, the family came to Missouri, and settled in Boone county, 
and there Dr. Bailey, then a youth thirteen years of age, attended the 
local schools and received a substantial English education. He then, 
in 1844, entered vigorously upon the study of medicine, under the in- 
struction of his uncle, Dr. Buster, of Rocheport, Mo., in which he 
continued four years. In the meantime he attended the medical 
school in the University of Louisville, Ky., and, in 1848, located at 
Miami, Mp., in the practice of his profession. There he remained 
until the fall of 1849, when he returned to Boone county ; but, in 
1850, he went to California, where he practised until in 1854. Re- 
turning then to Missouri, in June of that year, he came to Howard 
county, locating at Bunker Hill ; and four years afterwards, in 1858, 
he came to Fayette, his present home. He was married February 1, 
1858, to Mrs. Mary E. Nichols, a widow lady of the most excellent 
worth, and two children were born to them — Robert V., now deceased, 
and Fannie L. Dr. Bailey is a member of the I. O. O. F., and of the 
Masonic order, in which he is also a Knight Templar. His life has 
been an active and eminently useful one. Visiting the sick and admin- 
istering to the suffering for a period of nearly forty years, he has 
attained and long held a position in his profession as an able and suc- 
cessful physician. 


Nearly all the old settlers of Howard county are either Virginians 
by birth or by descent, for those who came from Kentucky and the 
other states were generally of Virginia parentage. But many came 
directly from the Old Dominion, that mother of pioneers as well as of 



presidents, and among these were Robert W. Baskett and his parents. 
Robert Baskett, the father of Robert W., was born in Virginia, in 
1790, and when a young man was married in that state to Miss Lu cy 
,Crewdson, who was born in 1788. They had five children, of whom 
Robert W. was one. In 1839, they came to Howard county, settling 
near Fayette, where the father subsequently died. Mrs. Baskett died 
in 1844. Robert W. was born in Fluvanna county, Va., April 18, 1820, 
and was therefore nineteen years of age when he came to this county. 
Having been reared on a farm, he naturally chose farming as his occu- 
pation in life, which he has since followed. On the 18th of February, 
1845, he was married to Miss Emeline P., daughter of Uriah Sebree, 
who came to Howard county in 1818. They have two children — 
John S. and William C. In 1850, Mr. Baskett settled on the farm 
where he now lives. It contains 470 acres of superior land, and is 
one of the best improved farms in the county. As a farmer, Mr. B. 
has been more than ordinarily successful. Industry, enterprise and 
intelligent management have made him one of the solid men of How- 
ard county. Aside from his success in a pecuniary point of view, he 
is a man that commands the respect and wins the good opinions of all 
who know him. Conservative and fair in his views, and careful not 
to form unjust conclusions, when he does determine upon a course as 
a proper one, he is the most resolute and inflexible of men. And be- 
cause of this firmness of character, resulting from strong and intelli- 
gent convictions, he is a man whose opinions are not only respected 
but are felt to be a potent force whenever and wherever given. 


Thirty-two years devoted to the service of God and humanity, sums 
up in a line the career, thus far, of Rev. William F. Bell. Having 
now passed the meridian of life, and as the shadows of old age 
approach, it cannot but be the consolation of consolations to look 
back over the path he has trodden, rough and thorny though it may 
have been, and reflect that the world has been made better and purer 
and brighter, by his having travelled it. Rev. William F. Bell was 
born in Old Franklin, Howard county, Missouri, February 16, 1831. 
John W. Bell, his father, was a native of Virginia, and was born in 
Augusta county, July 4, 1805. Having emigrated to Missouri in 
1830, settling first at Old Franklin and subsequently at other points, 
he died in Mexico, this state, in 1880. Mrs. Bell, whose maiden 
name was Elizabeth Combs, the mother of Rev. William F., was also 
a native of Virginia, having been born in that state in 1803. She 
preceded her husband in death six years. The first nine years of the 
Rev. William F. Bell's life were spent in Old Franklin, where his 
father's family then lived. In 1840, the family moved to Macon 
county, Missouri, and there he was reared and educated. In 1851, 
having qualified himself for the ministry in the meantime, he returned 
to Howard county, the home of his childhood, and during the same 


year was admitted to the Missouri conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, south. Thereupon, he entered actively upon the duties 
of the ministiy, which he has since followed. Among the prominent 
fields in which he has labored may be mentioned the following : 
Fulton circuit, Callaway county ; Maryville circuit, Nodaway county ; 
Oregou circuit, Holt coiinty ; also Savannah circuit, and Chillicothe 
circuit. In 1859, he was appointed to the New Franklin circuit for 
two years ; and for the next succeeding two years he was on the 
Columbia circuit. Continuing in the ministry, in 1867-68-69, he was 
on the Fayette circuit. The last two years immediately preceding 
his present charge, he occupied the Roanoke circuit ; and now he is 
again on the New Franklin circuit, where he was nearly twenty-five 
years ago. In 1854, August 2d, he was married to Miss Martha L. 
Kenyon, of Nodaway county, Missouri, and of this union two 
children were born, both of whom are now dead. Having lost 
his wife, who shortly followed her children to the grave, on the 
1st of April, 1861, he was again married, Miss Sarah D. Ridgeway, 
of Howard county, becoming his wife. Of this union eight children 
were born, five of whom are still living, namely : John B., Anna L., 
William C, Marvin P., and Ada P. Mr. Bell never used liquor or 
tobacco in any form, or played a game at cards. As a man and 
citizen, Rev. William Bell occupies the place in the esteem of the 
people a minister of the gospel should hold, and as a clergyman he is 

Whose hands are pure, whose doctrine and whose life, 

Coincedent, exhibit lucid proof 

That he is honest in the sacred cause. 


groceries and hardware. John B. Bell, son of Rev. William F. Bell, 
a sketch of whose life has just been given, is perhaps the youngest 
man engaged in business on his own account, in Fayette, being now 
but twenty-one years of age. He began business in July, 1880, and 
his career thus far has been characterized by marked success, and he 
carries a large and well-selected stock of goods. He was born in 
Howard county, Missouri, February 3, 1862, and was reared and 
educated in this county. Besides excellent school advantages in early 
youth, young Bell had the benefit of constant instruction from his 
father, not only in the knowledge derived from books, but in the 
deeper and better lessons of life which go to form and strengthen 
character. And it is due to this, doubtless, more than to any other 
cause, that at so early an age he is qualified to conduct, with success a 
large and important business. 


the eldest of a family of five children, was born in Clark county, 
Kentucky, March 5th, 1841. His father, John W. Berkley, was a 
native of the same state, born August 13th, 1813. His mother, 


whose maiden name was Sallie A. Lisle, was also a native of Ken- 
tucky, the date of her birth being February 3, 1824. Their marriage 
occurred January 6, 1840. The'former died May 23, 1862, and the 
latter March 19, 1862. Charles was reared on a farm at his birth 
place and remained there until 1861, when he came to Howard coun- 
ty, Mo. In 1867 he settled where he now lives in section thirty. His 
farm consists of 276 acres of land. He was married February 8th, 
1865, to Miss Anna E. Patterson, daughter of J. W. A. Patterson, 
of this county. They have a family of four children living: — Stella, 
Mary, William, and Thomas L., three being deceased. 


a relative of the distinguished Hampton family, of South Caro- 
lina, and whose father was a nephew of Daniel Boone, the pioneer of 
civilization in Kentucky and Missouri, lived a life and died a death 
worthy of his name and lineage. Hampton L. Boon was a man of 
strong character, yet a man of the most tender sympathies and of the 
most devoted domestic affection. His family he loved above all else 
on earth, yet in his heart there was a divine love that led him to adorn 
One above the earth, and to devote much of a well -spent life to His 
service. In the time and the new country in which he lived, ministers 
of the gospel were compelled to provide mainly for their own support 
and for that of their families. Hence we find him alternating between 
the pulpit and secular employments, and often doing service in both 
for years at a time. Thus he lived out his lease of life, reared his 
family in the fear of God and finally died a death such as only the true 
Christian can die. He was born in Shelby county, Kentucky, June 
29th, 1802. He was educated for the profession of the law, but 
nature intended him for the pulpit ; so that instead of entering the 
former, he gave himself to the duties of the sanctuary. In the year 
1818, he came with his father's family to Loutre island, in what is 
now known as Montgomery county, this state, where he sold goods 
for his father, William Boon, about two years. In 1820 he came on 
to Old Franklin in this county, where he also engaged in the mercan- 
tile business, and on the 18th of December^ 1822, he married Miss 
Maria Louisa Roberts. Subsequently, he followed merchandising in 
Fayette, and at another time was employed as clerk under Captain 
Whitmore, the agent of the government appointed to make certain 
payments to the Indians then due, aud while thus employed made 
several trips up and down the river. He was then appointed register 
of the land office at Old Franklin and afterwards at Fayette, which 
position he held about twelve years and until the inauguration of Gen- 
eral Harrison .as president, in 1841. In the meantime he had been 
giving much thought to religious matters, and, having joined the 
church in 18-28, he entered the Methodist Episcopal ministry, in which 
he continued as a local preacher until 1840. Having studied closely 
the church tenets of the different denominations, his convictions of 


duty lead him to sever his relations with the Methodist church, which 
he did, and he then joined the Christian church, becoming a minister 
in that denomination, in which he continued the remainder of his life. 
About 1832 he came to Fayette and one year afterwards engaged in 
the mercantile business in this place, which he followed until 1840. 
In 1842 he was appointed clerk of the supreme court at Jefferson 
City, where he went the same year, and two years afterwards his fam- 
ily followed him. He was clerk of the supreme court about six years 
and until the court was divided about 1848. For several years during 
his official term in Jefferson City he was the editor of the Metropoli- 
tan, a democratic newspaper published there, and that paper, under 
his editorship, was the first paper in the state to take a stand against 
Thomas H. Benton. The winter of 1849-50 he spent in St. Louis, 
but, his health failing, he returned to Fayette in March of 1850, 
and here resumed work in the Christian ministry until his death, which 
occurred in March, 1851. Notwithstanding he led an active business 
life, for he was a man of great energy, he never lost sight of his 
duties as a minister ; and during much of the time that he was engag- 
ed in business pursuits, he also filled his place in the pulpit ; and the 
purity of the doctrines he taught was revealed in the purity of the life 
he led. Benjamin W. Boon, his son, was born in Fayette, Howard 
county, Missouri, December 2, 1843. In 1858 the family moved 
to Savannah, Andrew county, this state, where young Boon at- 
tended school, and received a practical English education. In 
1863, he returned to Fayette and shortly afterwards entered a 
dry goods store as clerk, which business he continued until 1880, 
when he was appointed deputy county collector under Colonel 
Stephen Cooper. At the expiration of Colonel Cooper's 'term, 
in 1882, he was again appointed by Mr. N. B. Cooper, who 
succeeded Colonel Cooper in office, and this position he now 
holds. Ben Boon possesses all the qualifications to make him a use- 
ful and popular man in any community. Generous, honest and genial, 
he naturally wins the good opinion and confidence of all with whom 
he comes in contact. 


of Boughner, Tolson & Smith, dealers in grain, groceries, hard- 
ware and implements, a Canadian by birth and one of the self-made 
business men of Howard county, came to this county in 1865. He 
was born December 18, 1848. At the age of eighteen he resolved to 
seek his fortune on this side of the St. Lawrence. In 1862, there- 
fore, he came to the United States, pushing on before settling, to 
Memphis, Tennessee, where he engaged in the lumber business, con- 
tinuing there two years. Influenced by the recollections of his early 
home, which he cherished fondly, he then determined, with Hamlet, 
that— *■ 

" At night we'll feast together 
Most welcome home !" 


and accordingly he returned for a short visit to the scenes of his 
childhood. His stay was brief, however, for in 1865 he was again 
found journeying to the southward, or rather to the south westward , and 
this time came to Howard county, arriving here in December of that 
year. Here he engaged in farming and the stock business with K. 
E. Earickson, in which he continued with marked success until 1876,. 
when he became a contractor for convict labor from the Missouri 
penitentiary, employing it mainly in the manufacture of wagons at 
Jefferson City. This he discontinued after the expiration of a year 
and returned to Howard county, engaging in Estill in merchandising, 
which he followed two years from 1878. In 1880 he came to Fayette 
and became a partner in the firm of Boughner & Hughes, which was 
the predecessor of the present firm of Boughner, Tolson & Smith. 
Enterprise and industry has stamped him as one of the self-reliant, 
successful business men of the county. December the 18th, 1878, 
Miss Mollie Burkhart became his wife. Mr. Boughner is a member 
of the Masonic order and is a Knight Templar in that order. 


of Boyd & Shafroth, grocers, etc. A sketch of Mr. Boyd's life, so 
far as Howard county is concerned, covers a period of but twelve 
years, yet so thoroughly has he become identified with the business 
interests of Fayette that his biography justly claims a place in this 
work. He was born in Virginia December 8, 1844. His father, 
John Boyd, and his mother, Mrs. S. A. Boyd, whose maiden name 
was King, were both also natives of Virginia, where they were mar- 
ried ; and in Warren county, of that state, Mortimer A., the subject 
of this sketch, was reared and educated. In 1861, Mr. Boyd enlisted 
in the Confederate army in company E, 12th Virginia cavalry, and 
continued in the service until the close of the war. Keturning to his 
native county in 1865, he remained but a short time, coming to Mis- 
souri in the spring of 1866. In this state he first settled in Eoche- 
port and engaged there in the mercantile business, which he followed 
at that place until 1872, when he came to Fayette, Missouri. Here 
he at once engaged in the grocery trade, Mr. Carson being his part- 
ner in business ; but a year afterwards he formed his present partner- 
ship, which has since continued without interruption. Mr. Boyd was 
married December 8, 1870, to Miss Mary E. Kirby, a native of Boone 
county, Missouri. They have one child, Ora W. He is a Knight 
Templar in the Masonic order. As a business man he is regarded as 
a capable and successful merchant, and as a citizen, honorable and 


pastor of the Baptist church of Fayette, one of the really able and 
thoroughly educated clergymen of this state, and a minister as emi- 
nent for his Christian piety and his zeal in the nulpit as for his ability 


and attainments, was reared in South Carolina, but was partly edu- 
cated in this state, and here, principally, he has been engaged in his 
life-work since he entered the ministry. His father, Rev. J. M. C. 
Breaker, was a native of South Carolina, and he is at this time a 
prominent Baptist clergyman of Texas. His mother, however, whose 
.maiden name was Emma Juhan, was originally of Milledgeville, Geor- 
gia. They were married in Greenville, South Carolina, in 1849. Rev. 
M. J. Breaker was born in Newberne, North Carolina, March 9, 1850. 
He was educated in Wofford college, South Carolina ; in Washington 
university, St. Louis, Missouri, and in William Jewell, Liberty, Mis- 
souri. He studied theology in the Southern Baptist college, now 
Theological seminary, of Louisville, Kentucky, from which he was 
graduated in 1873. In 1869 he was licensed to preach, and in 1872 
was ordained a minister. He has since received the degree of master 
of arts from the LaGrange college of this state. His first charge as 
a minister was in South Carolina. Then, in 1873, he accepted a call 
from Glasgow, Missouri. In 1876, he was elected president of Mt. 
Pleasant college, at Huntsville, Missouri, which position he filled until 
1879, when he came to Fayette as pastor of the Baptist church of 
this city. Mr. Breaker is a minister of superior ability, both natural 
and acquired, and, above all, he is a sincere, faithful and zealous 
Christian. On the 13th of May, 1873, he was married to Miss Mary 
Timms, of Clay county, Missouri, a young lady oi'iginally from West 
Virginia. They have three children, Mary, Paul T. and Emma. 


of Brooks & Morrison, livery business. Mr. Brook's life divides 
itself into three periods — his 3'outh, his experience in the war and his 
career since as a citizen and business man. But a sketch of no man's 
life is justly considered complete without a reference to his ancestry. 
His father, Ira S. Brooks, was born in Madison county, Kentucky, 
May 1, 1808. He was married three times ; first to Sarah Brooking, 
September 2, 1830, also a native of Kentucky; after her death to 
Louisa Owens, in this state, October 20, 1840, and again, she also 
having died, to Elizabeth Bosy, who still survives him. He died 
June 20, 1871. He came to Missouri about 1834, and came to this 
county in 1844. James B. Brooks, the subject of this sketch, and 
son by his father's first marriage, was born in Boone county, Mis- 
souri, October 21, 1839, but was brought with his father's family five 
years afterwards to this county, where he was reared and educated. 
In 1861, at the age of twenty-four years, he enlisted in the "Rich- 
mond Grays," the company of which General John B. Clark, Jr., was 
the captain, at the commencement of the war. After the expiration of 
this term of service he joined the celebrated "Bledsoe Battery," with 
which he served until the surrender, in 1865. Returning home after 
the surrender, in 1866 he engaged in the livery business, which he 
has since followed. As a business man he has been successful, and 
as a citizen he is well respected. He is a Knight Templar in the 
Masonic order. 



Bennett C. Brown, the father of George C. and Bennett W., was 
a son of James Brown, who, with his family, settled in Howard county 
from Kentucky in 1818. Bennett C. was then butthree years old, hav- 
ing been born in Madison county, Kentucky, January 7, 1815. His 
father, James Brown, was one of the early settlers of Kentucky, and 
coming here as early as 1818, he, of course, also became one of the 
pioneers of Howard county. He died in this county in 1842. One 
year after his father's death, Bennett C, then in his twenty-ninth year, 
was married, November 28, 1843, to Miss Mary Cason, a native of 
Virginia, and by this union two children were reared — George C. and 
Bennett W. Both were born in this county — George C. on January 
5, 1845. Bennett C, the father, was a farmer by occupation, as his 
father before him had been, and in 1847 he opened the farm where 
his sons now reside. There he lived until his death, which occurred 
October 2, 1882. Prior to this, however, on the 29th of 
March, 1873, a heavy shadow fell across his declining years. His 
wife, the object of his early and life-long love — she who had shared 
all his hopes and disappointments and had borne a brave and noble 
part by his side in the struggle of life — passed away forever. Bennett 
W., the younger brother, was reared to habits of industry, and in a 
family where everything but honor and purity of thought was a 
stranger ; and, favored with a substantial education, he may confident- 
ly hope to make his way in the world as successfully and honorably as 
his father lived, and with infinitely less difficulty and hardship. 
George C. has always followed the occupation in which his father 
brought him up — farming. Nevertheless, he was given a good oppor- 
tunity to acquire an education, which he did not fail to improve. He 
had the advantage of the common schools and also a course in Central 
college. In 1870 he went to Louisiana to engage in cotton-growing. 
He remained away one year, and while his success was not discourag- 
ing, he saw that a man who owns a farm of Howard county land and 
is willing to work it, has but little reason to wish for a change. Since 
then he has lived in this county, and since his father's death he and 
his brother have had charge of the home farm, which contains nine 
hundred acres. Besides this, he has a two-hundred acre farm of his 
own, which he also superintends. He was married March 7, 1865, to 
Miss Mary E. , a daughter of James Richardson , of this county. They 
have one daughter — Mabel. 


dentist, is now engaged in the practice of his profession with Dr. Fen- 
ton in Fayette. He was a son of Thomas P. Burrus, an old and life- 
long citizen of Howard county, now deceased. L. P. Burrus' father 
was a native of this county and was born December 24, 1811. Hav- 
ing been reared on the farm he adopted farming as his occupation, 
which he followed through life. On the 18th of April, 1839, he was 


married to Miss Susan E. Blythe, daughter of an old resident family 
of this county. She was born March 28, 1820. Eight children were 
reared of the union, of whom L. P. was the youngest, as follows: 
Thomas B., Montgomery S., Davenport, Mary J., Aphollonia, Or- 
leans, Corrella and Lavosker P. The father died August 3, 1870, and 
Mrs. Burrus, eight years afterwards, July 8, 1878. Thomas P. Bur- 
rus was an upright and honorable man, an excellent farmer, and was 
highly respected as a citizen and neighbor. L. P. was educated in 
the common schools and in Central college. He was born July 14, 
1861. He studied dentistry under C. K. Fenton, of Fayette, with 
whom he is now practising. 


farmer, section 22, the owner of a well improved farm of 111 
acres, came originally from Jefferson county, Ohio, where he was 
born, April 16, 1838. His father was born in Maryland, and his 
mother was a native of New Jersey. C. R. learned the trade of 
blacksmithing in Ohio, following it as his occupation for thirty years. 
May 30, 1850, Miss Electra A. Chapman, of Erie county, Pennsyl- 
vania, became his wife. To them were born five children, three of 
whom survive: William S., George W. and Henry S. Mrs. C. 
died November 25, 1865, and on November 25, 1870, he married Miss 
Nancy Boyd, of Jefferson county, Ohio. March 14, 1874, Mr. 
Cashell came to Howard county, Missouri, and has since resided here. 
He belongs to the Masonic lodge, at Fayette. His wife is a mem- 
ber of the M. E. church. He served for three and one-half years during 
the late war. 


James M. Chorn, the father of James D., one of the most highly 
respected citizens and farmers of Howard county, was killed during 
the late war, leaving his wife a widow and his children orphans. 
James D. was then (1865) but eleven years of age, so that with the 
love and encouragement of a tender and devoted mother as his only 
help, he has had to make his own way in the world from early youth. 
And how he has succeeded, is strikingly shown by the high esteem in 
which he is held, and the fact that now, at the age of twenty- 
nine, he owns a handsome farm containing three hundred and thirty 
acres. His father was an early settler in this county, from Clark 
county, Kentucky, and his mother, who before her marriage, was a Miss 
Nancy J. Rollins, was a native of this couuty. They reared five chil- 
dren besides James D., four of whom, including jas. D., are still 
living. Mrs. Chorn died in 1873. James D. has combined stock 
dealing with farming and has been successful in both occupations. 
He remained on the homestead farm until 1869, and then for two 
years afterwards he farmed and traded in connection with Robert 
Estill. March, 1881, he settled on his present farm. He was mar- 


ried October 3, 1878, to Miss Mattie Maupin, of Kentucky. They 
have one child, Lewis M. Mr. Chorn is a member of the A. O. U. 


was born in Howard county, Missouri, January 1, 1846. His father, 
General John B. Clark, a sketch of whose life appears elsewhere, was 
a native of Madison county, Kentucky, but came to Missouri when 
quite young, and afterwards became one of the most prominent men 
in the history of the state. His mother, whose maiden name was 
Eleanor Turner, was also born in Kentucky. Mrs. Clark died in 1873, 
General Clark still surviving her. Reared by such parents, young 
Robert C, as would be expected, enjoyed exceptional advantages for 
the improvement of the many strong and excellent traits of his charac- 
ter. After a thorough preparatory course in the primary and inter- 
mediate schools, he attended the graded school of Glasgow, Missouri, 
under Professor W. S. Davis, an educator of great zeal and abilitv. 
In 1865 he attended Stewart's commercial college, in St. Louis, and 
there familiarized himself with the principles and details of commer- 
cial business. After his course at commercial college he accepted a 
position as clerk of a steamboat, which he held for two years. He was 
now twenty years of age, and the realization forced itself upon him 
that he was not intended for a commercial life. Accordingly, in the 
fall of 1866, he returned to Fayette and at once entered vigorously upon 
the study of law. For two years he applied himself with great energy 
and resolution, and, enjoying the advantage of the constant instruction 
of his father, at the expiration of that time was admitted to the bar. 
Commencing at once the active practice of his profession, his success 
soon qualified his own hopes and fulfilled the expectation of his friends. 
He was twice chosen municipal attorney of the city of Fayette, and in 
1880 was elected prosecuting attorney of the county, being re-elected 
to that office in 1882, his present term to expire in 1884. In 1879 he 
was married to Miss Bettie Howard, a daughter of Benjamin Howard, 
one of the pioneer settlers and substantial citizens of Howard county. 
Two children, Robert C. and Benjamin H., have been born of this 
marriage, Mr. Clark is a; Knight Templar in the Masonic order and a 
leading member of the A. O. IT. W. 


Mr. Condron is of Pennsylvania parentage, his father and mother 
having both been natives of that state. His father, Peter Condron, 
was a man of great energy and of an enterprising spirit. At an early 
day in the history of Missouri, he emigrated to this state and here 
opened a farm which became his permanent home. His wife was a 
Miss Elizabeth Bryant before their marriage, and they had ten child- 
ren, of whom James was the second. Mrs. Condron died in 1859. 
Her husband survived her nearly twenty years, following her in death 
in 1878. James, the subject of this sketch, was born in Carroll 


county, Missouri, September 14, 1841. He had the advantages, of 
good schools in his youth and received a substantia], practical educa- 
tion. He followed farming where he was brought up until 1865, when 
he removed to Howard county, settliag on the place where he now 
lives. He has a farm of 280 acres of excellent land, and it is one 
of the best improved and best kept farms in the county. As a 
farmer, Mr. Condron is a representative of the best class, and most 
progressive and enterprising agriculturalists we have. He was married 
November 10, 1864, to Miss Lizzie Todd, daughter of P. Todd, an 
old pioneer of Howard county. They have five children, Mary F., 
William J., Florence J., Alice B., and Olivia. 


Among the few old landmarks of the early settlement of Howard 
county that remain among us to remind us, by their white hairs and 
bent forms of the debt of gratitude we owe to that noble race of brave- 
hearted pioneers who found this county a wilderness, and gave it to us 
one of the fairest and most prosperous parts of a great commonwealth, 
is the venerable old patriarch whose name heads this sketch. Dr. 
Crews is now far advanced into his eighty-fourth year, and for nearly 
sixty years from early manhood, his life has been prominently and 
usefully identified with the history of Howard county. Himself a man 
whose citizenship has been an honor and a blessing to the county, he 
comes of an ancestry in every way worthy to have had such a descendant. 
His grandfather on his father's side, David Crews, was a sturdy, 
strong-minded Englishman, well-educated, and courageous in thought 
and deed, who immigrated to Virginia with his family some time prior 
to the revolution. When the war for independence broke out, he was 
,one of the first to rally to the defence of the colonies. He followed 
the flag of the young republic through all the hardship and suffering 
of that memorable struggle, and until it floated in final triumph over 
Yorktown. The country he had shown the valor to defend, he had 
the courage, fortitude and industry to open up to civilization. He 
became a pioneer settler in Kentucky shortly after the close of the 
war. Leaving his family in Virginia, he first came out to what is now 
known as the Blue Grass regions, where he built a fort and raised a 
crop. Returning then to Virginia he brought out his family to his 
new home in the fall of 1780, and lived there until his death. He be- 
came a highly successful farmer and owned large bodies of land in 
what are now Bourbon, Clark and Madison counties. His wife, to 
whom he was married before leaving England, was formerly a Miss 
Annie Magee. They reared nine children, four daughters and five 
sons. David, the doctor's father, was the youngest of the sons. 
David Crews inherited all the strong and better qualities of his father's 
character, and became one of the most substantial and highly esteemed 
citizens of Madison county. He was a farmer by occupation and was 
abundantly successful in his chosen calling. In about 1799 he was 
married to Miss Sallie Tribble, daughter of Andrew and Sallie Trib- 


ble, who were also early settlers in Kentucky, from Virginia. Mrs. 
Crews' father was a pioneer Baptist minister in Kentucky, and became 
widely known in those early days as one of the ablest preachers of his 
time. Her brother, Peter Tribble and brother-in-law David Chinault, 
also became distinguished Baptist clergymen. Of the family of chil- 
dren of David, fils, and Sallie Crews, the doctor was the eldest and 
was born in Madison county, Kentucky, May 1, 1800. His father 
being a man in easy circumstances and of liberal ideas with regard to 
education, young Samuel T. was given good school advantages, and 
acquired an excellent English education. After completing his gen- 
eral course, he entered upon the study of medicine and in due time 
became a matriculate in the medical department of the Transylvania 
university, of Kentucky, from which he was graduated with high 
honor in 1824. Naturally of a self-reliant, independent disposition, 
and spurred on by the laudable ambition to rise in the world by his 
own merits and exertions, the year after his graduation he resolved to 
quit the home of his birth where he was favored by family influence 
and friends, and to cast his fortunes with the new Boone's Lick 
country in Missouri, then the centre of attraction to westward emi- 
gration. Accordingly he came to Howard county. Here, as the 
sequel shows, he realized all the hopes with which he started out in 
the world. As years passed by, he steadily rose in his profession, 
and the accumulation of property resulting from an extensive and suc- 
cessful practice kept pace with the progress of his reputation as a 
physician. Before the meridian of life was reached he had become 
one of the well-to-do citizens and most prominent practitioners in the 
county. In 1828 he was married to Miss Elizabeth, a daughter of 
William Ward, Esq., now deceased, for many years one of the most 
respectable citizens of the county. After practising a number of 
years in Fayette he removed to a handsome farm in the country, 
where he lived and pursued the practice of his profession until the 
close of the civil war. Returning then to Fayette, he has continued 
here since. While Dr. Crews has been thoroughly devoted to his 
profession, which he has ornamented with his learning, will and ability, 
his usefulness has not been wholly confined to his chosen calling in 
life, for as a citizen he has always taken an active and important part 
in all movements designed for the advancement of the material and 
social interests of the community. He has long been an earnest and 
exemplary member of the Christian church, and one of the most active 
and generous of that denomination in promoting the cause of religion 
in this portion of the county. As a physician, citizen and neighbor, 
and in every relation of life, he has ever borne a name without reproach, 
and now, in the twilight of old age, he enjoys the highest reward this 
world can offer for a worthy and successful life — the respect and con- 
fidence of his neighbors and acquaintances, and the affection and ven- 
eration of family and friends. Dr. and Mrs. Crews have reared a 
family of worthy and accomplished children, and several of them are 
now themselves heads of families. 



In sketching the lives of the men who have made Howard county 
what it is — one of the foremost comities in the state — the name of 
Hamilton Crews could not be passed without injustice both to him and to 
the county itself. He has lived in this county fifty years, and every 
year of this half century has been a year of honest industry, contribut- 
ing to the development and prosperity of the county. He was born 
in Madison county, Ky., April 8, 1818; sixteen years afterwards he 
came to Howard county, and the balance of his life, the best energies 
of a strong and vigorous manhood, have been spent in this county. 
He was married, August 15, 1842, to Miss Elizabeth Withers, daugh- 
ter of James Withers, an old settler of the county, and of this union, 
six children have been reared — Nannie J., John P., Paul T. S., Mol- 
lie E., James E. and Lou. Mr. Withers is a farmer and is classed 
among the best citizens of the county. 

Paul S. Crews, son of Hamilton Crews, was born in this county, 
April 4, 1852, and was reared on the farm. Having been brought up 
on a farm, he adopted that as his regular calling in life, and he has 
since followed it. In 1876, he located on the farm which, in connec- 
tion with his brother, he now cultivates. He is a member of the Christ- 
ian church. 

James E. Crews, a younger son of Hamilton Crews, is also a 
native of Howard county, and was born August 8, 1857. He took the 
usual course in the common schools, and after qualifying himself for 
a higher course of study, entered the commercial college at Boonville, 
Mo., where he acquired an excellent education. After his college 
course, in 1879, he went to Texas, where he was engaged with Capt. 
Hayes, of Ft. Smith, in surveying land in that state. In 1881, he re- 
turned to Missouri, and, in 1883, settled on the place where he now 
lives. He has one hundred and fifteen acres of improved land, belong- 
ing to a tract of two hundred and thirty acres. 


Mr. Davis is one of a class of which there are now a great many 
in Howard county — thoroughly educated farmers. Besides a com- 
plete course in the common schools, he also attended Central college 
in Fayette, and Mt. Pleasant college in Huntsville, and so far from 
harboring the thought that the more advanced education he thus ac- 
quired raised him above the occupation of a farmer, he recognizes the 
fact in all its force that he was thereby only that much better qualified 
for his chosen pursuit. His father, Joseph Davis, a well-known law- 
yer of Fayette, Mo., was of Christian county, Ky., and came to How- 
ard county in or about 1818. Mrs. Davis, the mother of the subject 
of this sketch, was a Miss Sarah E. Green before her marriage, and 
was a native of Tennessee. They had four children, of whom Win- 
chester was the second. Winchester was born in Fayette, Mo., June 21, 
1844, but was principally reared on his father's farm, where he formed 


that predilection for agricultural pursuits that afterwards determined 
his calling in life. In the heated and excited state of the war feeling 
in this county it was practically impossible for young men to remain 
at home in safety, and whatever their inclinations might be, they 
were compelled to take the side of one party or the other. Young 
Davis' connections and sense of duty inclined" him to the cause of the 
Union, hence, in 1863, when nineteen years of age, he joined the 
Union army, entering the pay department with the rank of lieutenant, 
where he remained nine months and then resigned. In the fall of 
1864, he went to Minnesota and was engaged in the fur trade, buying 
all over the far northwest, including the western Canadian provinces, 
In 1865, he returned to Howard county, and, in the spring of 1866, 
began farming on the home place, where he continued until 1878. He 
then settled on his present place, where he owns two hundred and 
fifty acres of land. He was married November 29, 1865, to Miss 
Estelle Prewitt, of Fayette, Mo., an accomplished lady, daughter of 
R. F. Prewitt, a present member of the Fayette bar. They have four 
children living — Prewitt, Martha, Wendell and an infant. Mr. Davis 
is a member of A. O. U. W., and of the M. E. church. 


James Davis, the great grandfather of James B., was born in 
Wales and emigrated to the United State in 1727, and settled in Penn- 
sylvania. He had a family of ten sons and one daughter. Jonathan 
Davis, his grandfather, was born in Pennsylvania and removed to 
Virginia. John Davis, the father of James B. and son of Jonathan Davis, 
was born in Pennsylvania, April 4, 1781. In 1804 he came to St. Charles 
county, Missouri, and lived there until his death which occurred in 
1846. His mother's maiden name was Susan Bryan ; she was a native 
of North Carolina, and her family came to Kentucky with Daniel 
Boone. She lived in Kentucky until 1807 and then came to St. 
Charles county, Missouri, where she was married. She died October 
18th, 1854. James B. was born in what is now Warren county, August 
31, 1811. He was reared on a farm in his native county and remained 
there until 1866, and then removed to Franklin county and was engaged 
in farming and milling until 1881, when he came to Howard county and 
purchased 310 acres in section 2, known as the Governor Reynolds 
farm. He was married March 1st, 1840, to Miss Lydia A. Wheeler, 
a native of Missouri. • To them were born three children, of whom only 
one, John C, is now living. Mrs. Davis died August 5th, 1845. His 
second marriage occurred June 30th, 1850, to Miss Permelia Bryan, a 
native of this state. There are by this marriage six children living, H. 
Bascom, Joshua C, Charles E., William A., Mary G. now Mrs. David- 
son, Martha E. now Mrs.Goode. Their eldest son, Henry C. , was aphy- 
sician and had charge of the quarantine in St. Louis in 1878 during 
the yellow fever scourge, and died October 15th, of that year. Mr. 
and Mrs. Davis are members of the M. E. church. Mr. Davis while 
living in Warren county held the office of assessor twelve years. 



The farmers of Howard county, and particularly the young 
farmers, are justly classed among the most intelligent, progressive 
and successful in the state. This is undoubtedly due namely to two 
things — a good land and liberal education, and the last is by no 
means the least. Mr. Deatherage was educated at Central college 
and he is one of the educated, progressive young farmers of the coun- 
ty. He was born in this county October 24th, 1856, and is a son of 
Bird Deatherage, whose sketch will be found on these pages. He 
farmed at home with his father until the spring of 1882, when he came 
to the place where he now lives. He has three hundred and thirty- 
nine acres of land and his improvements are of a good quality. He 
was married December 20th, 1882, to Miss Octavia Rooker, a daugh- 
ter of John A. J. Rooker, an old resident of the county. 


twice a member of the legislature from Howard county, and 
former sheriff of the county for four years, was the second of a family 
of eight, the children of Amos Deatherage and his wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Benjamin Howard, both parents having been natives of 
Kentucky, and afterwards among the first settlers of Howard county, 
this State. Amos Deatherage, the father, was born in March, 1782, 
and his wife, Elizabeth, in March, 1790. In 1817, they immigrated to 
Howard county, Colonel Bird Deatherage, the subject of this sketch, 
then being but six years old. In 1820 the family settled in section 
5, of this township, where they lived until 1824, when they settled 
in section 7, on the farm now known as " Elkin place." Subse- 
quently, in 1836, they settled permanently on the farm where the 
parents continued to live until their deaths, which occurred, the father's 
September 24, 1840, and the mother's November 24, 1858. Amos 
Deatherage, the father, was prominently identified with the early im- 
provement of the county, and was looked upon as among the first of 
the brave-hearted, enterprising pioneers who cleared away the wilder- 
ness and made the country a fitting home for an intelligent and pros- 
perous people. Mrs. Deatherage was a Howard — need more be said? 
In her were the gentleness and nobility of nature that have distin- 
guished that family from the time of Thomas the hero of Flodden to 
the present day. As a wife and mother, she was tender and devoted; 
and as a lady she was the soul of gentleness and refinement. Colonel 
Bird Deatherage was born in Madison county, Kentucky, December 
26, 1811, but was reared and educated in Howard county, Missouri. 
The first official position he ever held was in 1846, when he was 
elected to and afterwards filled the office of constable, serving until 
the summer of 1852. He was then elected sheriff of Howard county, 
and served in that office until 1856. In the fall of 1856 he was chosen 
representative from this county to the legislature, and in 1858 re- 
chosen for the same position, his two terms of service filling a period 


of four hundred days of actual duty in that body. He was married 
December 21, 1854, to Miss Elizabeth, a daughter of James Shepherd 
and Barbara, his wife, who were both early settlers in this county. Mr. 
and Mrs. Deatherage have had five children, James, John R., Magda 
line, Edward L., and Augustus B. His farm consists of three hundred 
and twenty acres of land, well improved, and as a farmer he is consid- 
ered one of the most energetic and enterprising in the county. 


one of the leading farmers of Howard county, although now past 
fifty-five years of age, is a native of this county, having been born 
here June 13, 1828. Mr. Denny's father, Charles Denny, came to 
Howard county with his family in 1816. He was born in Garrett 
county, Kentucky, and was there married to Miss Jane Walker, of 
which union John C, the subject of this sketch, was born. In 1850 
John C. went to California, where he was engaged in mining and 
trading until 1856, when he returned to Missouri, settling in Grundy 
county. There he followed farming until 1868, when he came back to 
this county and settled permanently on his present farm. He has 
a place of 360 acres, all well improved. In 1862 he was married, 
December 18, to Miss Martha, daughter of John Tolson and his 
wife, Rebecca, of this county, and of this union he has seven chil- 
dren — James R., Sarah J., Cora L., Mary F., John C, Jr., Bessie 
and Martha M. 


On his father's side, the ancestors of Mr. Dodd came from 
England to this country, and his mother was of Scotch origin. His 
mother, before her marriage, was a Miss Rachel Young, and both the 
Youngs and the Dodds, on coming to America, settled first in Virginia. 
His father, John W. Dodd, was born in that state February 1, 1814, 
and there, a few weeks before he was twenty-one years of age, — De- 
cember 9, 1834, — he was married to Miss Young, a native of the 
same state. They reared seven children, of whom Frank, the subject 
of this sketch, was the eldest. He was born in Loudoun county, Vir- 
ginia, April 27, 1837, and was educated at the Dover (Virginia) high 
school, in which he was also an assistant teacher during his scholastic 
course. A short time after completing his course at the high school, 
in the spring of 1858, he came west and stopped in Marion county, 
Missouri, where he taught school near Hannibal until the outbreak of 
the war. He then, in the spring of 1861, enlisted in the state 
guards service for six months, and during that time was on detailed 
duty in company D, 6th Missouri regiment. In the fall of 1861, he was 
appointed captain in the commissary department, where he served until 
taken prisoner in 1864, in St. Louis, while getting arms for the army. 
He was then confined in the military prisons of St. Louis and Alton 
until May, 1865. After his release he went to Leavenworth, Kansas, 


and there, shortly afterwards, entered the quartermaster's service of 
the government and took a train of wagons to Fort Eiley. He was 
in the quartermaster's service eighteen months, being sent to and sta- 
tioned at different points. Finally, in January, 1867, he came from 
Fort Kearney to Howard county, Missouri, driving the whole distance 
in a buggy. He then went to Saline county aud farmed there eight 
years. From Saline county he returned to this county, and located 
permanently on the farm where he now resides. His farm com- 
prises 303 acres of the best quality of land, and his place is excellently 
improved. It is classed among the best farms in the county. In 
1867 — February 7 — he was married to Miss Mary E., daughter of 
Thomas Tindall. She is a most worthy and excellent lady, and is 
highly esteemed by all who know her. They have two children — Em- 
ily V. and Rachel C. 


of Dudgeon & Sweetland, druggists, at Fayette, one of the leading 
business men of Fayette, and present county treasurer, was born in 
Howard county, Missouri, March 30, 1840. His parents were 
from Kentucky and settled in this county in 1836. Captain Dudgeon, 
his father, was born in Madison county of that state, August 27, 1803, 
and was married December 13, 1825, to Miss Matilda Franklin. 
Seven children were born, five of whom reside in this county : Bernard 
F., Mrs. J. L. Settles, Alexander, William A., and John A. Captain 
Dudgeon died on his farm near Fayette in 1882, his wife having pre- 
ceded him about six years. He was one of the tried and true men of 
Howard county. After a life of nearly half a century in one neighbor- 
hood he was borne to his grave, leaving none but sad hearts behind. 
To have lived and died as he did, respected by all while living and 
mourned by all when dead, is a nobler tribute to his memory than 
sculptured marble or monumental brass could pay. William A. 
Dudgeon, the subject of this sketch, was reared on his father's farm, 
and there he formed the habits of industry aud of close application to 
the work in hand that have contributed largely to his success in life. 
In early youth he had the advantage of the common schools of the 
neighborhood which he attended, and there he qualified himself to enter 
upon a higher course of study. Subsequently he entered Central col- 
lege, which he attended two years, thus acquiring an excellent educa- 
tion. After his course in college he returned to the farm, where he 
remained until 1864, when he engaged in the drug business at Fayette, 
but shortly afterwards went to New York state. Returning from New 
York after a year's absence, he again engaged in the drug business, 
which he still follows. The house in which he is a partner, carries a 
large stock and is one of the principal drug stores in the county. In 
1882 he was elected treasurer of Howard county, which position he 
now holds. He is also a prominent member of the Masonic order. 
In 1872 he was married to Miss Mary P. Patrick, daughter of Robert 
Patrick, one of the early settlers of the county. 



of Duncan & Howard, grocers, etc. .Samuel J. Duncan, the father 
of John B., was a native of Amherst county, Virginia. He came to 
Missouri at an early date and settled in Howard county. He was here 
married to Miss Elizabeth Price, of this county, and here he lived until 
his death, which occurred in 1868. He was for many years a merchant 
in Fayette, and in this business John B., the son, was brought up, and 
afterwards became his father's partner. Samuel J. Duncan was a man 
of many excellencies of character, a progressive, enterprising business 
man and citizen, and his loss was deplored by all. His wife, the 
mother of John B., the subject of this sketch, died in 1852, a noble, gen- 
tle-hearted woman. John B. Duncan was born August 4th, 1850, and 
was reared and educated in this county. After a long business experience 
in different stores, including those of Boone, Duncan & Smith, Duncan 
& Aterbery, Duncan & Son — of which he was the junior partner — 
W. H. Smith, and others, in 1868 he engaged in the grocery business 
on his own account, and two years afterwards the firm became Duncan 
& Co. Continuing in this for eighteen months, at the expira- 
tion of that time he accepted a clerkship with J. B. Bell, with whom 
he remained until 1882, when he again began business on his own 
account, becominga member of the present firm. Mr. Duncan's educa- 
tion and experience have been such as to make him a capable and 
successful business man, and with these he combines integrity and 


Nicholas Dysart, the father of William, was born in Tennessee, 
November 18, 1800, and emigrated to Howard county, Missouri, in 
1818. After a residence in this county of two years he removed to 
Eandolph county, where he now lives at the advanced age of 83. 
The mother's maiden name was Euphemia Givens. She was born in 
Kentucky. William was the fifth of nine children, and he was born 
in Eandolph county, Missouri, December 28, 1835. He was reared 
in his native county and educated at McGee college, of College 
Mound, Missouri. After a thorough preparation, at the age of twenty- 
four he commenced teaching school, and continued this occupation 
eight years, and then engaged in farming. In 1873, he settled on 
section 32, and owns a fine farm of 280 acres. He was married April 
23, 1870, to Mrs. Dora Patterson whose maiden name was Brown ; 
she was a daughter of Samuel Brown, one of Howard county's early 
pioneers. They have one daughter, Mary E. Mr. and Mrs. Dysart 
are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian church. 


section 23, is one of the prominent farmers and stock raisers of 
Howard county, and a man well known in this vicinity, having been 


born here February 27, 1821. His father, George Eaton, a native 
of Clark county, Kentucky, came to this county in 1820. The sub- 
ject of this sketch married Miss Mary J. Patrick, of Howard county, 
and their union has been blessed with eight children : Zipporah, 
Alice, John M., Mary, Ella, Benjamin F., Charles S., and Claiborne 
B. Mrs. Eaton is a member of the Christian church. Mr. Eaton's 
fine farm of 218 acres is well improved and is located about two miles 
from Fayette. 


The father of the subject of this sketch, John G. Elkin, was born in 
Kentucky, in 1799, and came to Howard county, Missouri, in 1825. 
He lived here until his death, which occurred in 1874. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Vina B. Erabree, was also a native of Ken- 
tucky, and was born in 1804. C. J. Elkin, their son, was the fifth of 
a family of eight children ; ho was reared and educated in this county. 
In 1854, he crossed the plains to the mining districts of California, 
and lived there until the summer of 1868, and then returned to his 
former home. In the spring of 1869, he settled on his present farm 
in section 7. He owns 228 acres of good land, well improved. He 
was married May 19, 1864, to Miss Lizzie E. Stinseyer, of Germany. 
They have six children — Joseph J., Laura B., Willis E., Romy L., 
and Nettie C. and Anna O., twins. 


was the eighth of a family of nine children, born to and reared by 
Stephen and Nancy Eubank, of Clark county, Kentucky. Stephen 
Eubank was born January 9, 1790, and died May 9, 1869, aged 
seventy-nine years and four months. Mrs. Eubank, whose maiden 
name was Berkley, was born July 31, 1819, and died March 26, 1872. 
Charles L. Eubank, the subject of this sketch, came to Howard 
county from Kentucky, in 1859, when twenty-two years of age, 
having been born March 8, 1837. Since his emigration to Missouri 
in 1859, he has lived continuously in this county, and has followed 
farming. He now lives in Fayette. He was married November 20, 
1862, to Miss Nancy, daughter of the late David H. Witt, and they 
have six children — Anna S., Leslie B., Mary E., Katie B., Witt D. 
H., and Charles L. Mr. Eubank is a member of the A. O. U. W. 
and of the Baptist church. 


farmer and stock raiser. In scanning these sketches biograph- 
igue of Howard county, one fact must strike the reader with peculiar 
force — the high order of culture attained by its farming community. 
There is probably not a county in the state not containing a large 
city, nor in the whole west that has so many farmers who would grace 


a college professorship, as has Howard county. And the sketch of 
Mr. Ferguson offers an additional and marked illustration of this 
fact. One of the leading farmers of central Missouri, and a farmer 
according to modern ideas and methods, he is at the same time one of 
the best educated men in the state, a fact which a diploma from each 
of two distinguished state universities attests. The influence of a 
high order of mental culture upon agricultural life is plainly visible 
all over the county — in the neatness and good taste displayed in the 
appearance of the farms, and in the intelligent, business-like manner 
in which they are conducted ; and nowhere is this more marked than 
on the handsome estate of which the subject of this sketch is the 
owner and proprietor. It is no disparagement to any farm through- 
out the surrounding country to say that Mr. Ferguson has one of the 
handsomest and best places in the county. And while personally he 
has been more than ordinarily successful in his chosen calling, now 
ranking among the largest tax-payers of the county, he has done a 
great deal to promote its agricultural intersts — not only in encourag- 
ing by example the most approved and profitable methods of farming, 
but in introducing the best grades of stock and inducing others to 
improve the breeds of stock raised by them. Mr. Ferguson is a na- 
tive of the county of which he is now a prominent and, useful citizen, 
and was born on the 14th of December 1836. His father, James 
Ferguson, born in Fairfax county, Virginia, October 11th, 1798, was 
reared in Jefferson county of that state, and as early as 1818 came 
out to Kentucky, making his home for a time in Woodford county. 
There he met Miss Kittie Singerfelter, to whom he was united in 
marriage in 1823. She was four years his junior, having been born 
in 1802. Two years after their marriage they came to Missouri and 
settled in Howard county. Here Mr. Ferguson, pere, became a lead- 
ing farmer and an influential citizen, and is remembered by all who 
knew him as a man of superior intelligence, upright character and 
generous impulses. He died September 29th, 1880. His wife still 
survives him. They reared but two children the subject of the pres- 
ent sketch being the younger. J. C.'s early youth was spent 
mainly on the farm and in the neighborhood school , but when he had 
reached the age to enter upon a higher course of studies, he became 
a student in the Howard high school, now Central college, where he 
continued until he was prepared for the university course. He then 
became a matriculate in the university of Missouri, from which he 
was afterwards graduated with marked honor. From Missouri he 
went to Virginia and entered the famous university of that state, re- 
ceiving, after a due course of study, a diploma from that time-hon- 
ored and distinguished institution. His education thus completed and 
thorough, he returned to his old home in Howard county, and at once 
became actively and prominently identified with the agricultural in- 
terests of the county. His subsequent career as an agriculturalist has 
already been outlined. On the 24th of August, 1858, Mr. Ferguson 
was married to Miss Margaret W., an accomplished daughter of Dr. 
S. T. Crews, an early settler and prominent physician of the county. 


Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson have a family of three interesting children, 
William W., James C. and Mary. The mother of Mr. Ferguson 
finds a pleasant and welcome home with her son. He is a Knight 
Templar of the Masonic order. 


was born in Pennsylvania, of English parentage, January 12, 1845. His 
father, Rev. George Fentem, was a native of England and a clergyman 
of the primitive Methodist church. His mother, whose maiden name 
was Ann Raines, was also born in England. In 1846 the family came 
to Pike county, Missouri, and lived in the state until 1858. After 
living two years each in Hannibal and St. Charles they, in 1862, came 
to Fulton, Callaway county, where Charles was partially reared and 
educated. In 1868 he began the study of dentistry with Dr. S. 0. 
Fentem, of Jefferson City. After two years' diligent study he became 
a partner of his preceptor for one year and then practised his profes- 
sion at New Bloomfield, Missouri, until 1879, when he came to this 
city, where he has secured a large patronage and a well earned reputa- 
tion in his profession. He was married September 15, 1871, to Miss 
Cynthia J. Longley, of Missouri. They have had a family of three 
children, Alfred L., Mary R., Earl R. Mr. F. is a member of the A. 
O. U. W., and he and his wife are members of the M. E. church, 


Mr. Fisher is of German descent. His grandfather, Daniel 
Fisher, was a native of Pennsylvania and was a soldier in the colonial 
army during the war for independence. After the close of the war he 
went to Augusta county, Virginia, where he settled and reared a family, 
and in that county, Jacob, his grandson, was afterwards born. Daniel 
Fisher, the grandfather, married a Miss Jones, a young lady of Welch 
extraction, and they reared a numerous family, of which Daniel Fisher 
Jr., was a member. Daniel, Jr., was a soldier in the war of 1812, and 
served in the American army throughout that struggle. He was mar- 
ried in Virginia to Miss Elizabeth Cornell, also a native of Augusta 
county, and of this union ten children were reared to majority, viz. : 
John and Robert came to this county in 1853, where they still 
reside ; Jane died here in 1842 ; Mehala is the wife of Wm Stipe of 
this county ; Dorcas married Wm. Phillips, and Mary married John 
Wiseman, and each with her family and husband live in this county; 
George is a resident of Greene county, Indiana ; Addison died in Illi- 
nois ; Payton died in this county ; Daniel now lives in Oregon, and 
Jacob, the subject of this sketch, is a citizen of Fayette. Jacob 
Fisher was born in Augusta county, Virginia, October 14, 1819. 
Having learned the tanner's trade in 1838, he came to Howard county 
and here entered into the tanning business with Rudolph Haupe & 
Sons, in which he continued about seven years. In 1845, he conducted 


a tannery in Cooper county, and in 1846 established a tannery between 
Boonsboro and Boone's Lick in this county, which he managed until 
1854. From that date until 1830, he was engaged in farming and the 
saw-mill business, and he still owns several excellent farms. In the 
meantime in 1869, he had moved to Fayette for the purpose of edu- 
cating his children, and here he bought a hardware establishment to 
which he added a stock of family groceries, and at once secured a large 
trade. Before coming to Fayette, however, in 1852, he was elected jus- 
tice of the peace of Boone's Lick township, which office he filled nearly 
consecutively for fourteen years. After he came to Fayette, he was 
elected to the responsible office of treasurer of the county, and the 
duties of this position he discharged with honesty and ability. He is 
now, and for two years has been, a member of the city council of 
Fayette, which he was induced to enter by the earnest solicitation of 
the citizens of the place. He now gives his whole attention to the 
management of his real estate interests, consisting of farms and town 
property, and to the care of his family and the education of his chil- 
dren. On the 18th of March, 1849, he was married to Miss Jane Allen 
and they now have five children living, James D., Elizabeth J., Emma 
S., Ellen E. and Rosalie V. The career of Jacob Fisher, from the 
apprentice boy at the tanner's trade to the position in life he now oc- 
cupies — that of an honest and honorable citizen, is an enviable one. 


jeweler, silverware, etc. Mr. Fuchs is a native of Cooper county, 
Missouri, and was born February 23, 1854. He was educated in the 
local schools of Boonville, and when quite a young man engaged in 
clerking with J. P. Neef, of that city, which he continued until 1868. 
He then went to St. Louis, where he learned the jeweler's trade, and 
returned to Boonville in 1875. Remaining there until 1878, he that 
year came to Fayette, and here he has lived ever since. The same 
year he established his present business in this city, and his career 
thus far has been a very successful one. He carries an unusually 
large stock of goods in his line for a city the size of Fayette. He 
makes a specialty of the celebrated Rockford watches, and in addition 
to jewelry and silverware, he also makes a specialty of sportsmen's 
goods and of musical instruments. He has just completed a fine bus- 
iness house on the southeast corner of the public square, in which is 
constructed one of the best vaults in the interior of the state. Mr. 
Fuchs was married November 1, 1882, to Miss Mary H., daughter of 
Wm. F. Tieman, of Fayette. Mr. Tieman is a native of Hanover, 
Germany, and was born April 15, 1829. He remained in his native 
country until he was nineteen years of age, and then immigrated to 
the United States and settled in St. Louis. He resided there only 
a short time, and in March, 1849, came to Howard county and began 
working in the trade of wagon making, which he has since followed. 
He was married June 17, 1858, to Miss Helena Ruffel, a native of 
Germany. They have three children, Mary H., wife of C. W. Fuchs, 
Eddy and Charley. 



of the firm of Wright & Givens, physicians, is a young man who has 
grown up in this county since the war, having been a small boy, hardly 
five years old, at the commencement of hostilities. He is nowtwenty- 
seveu years of age, and is well established in his profession. He was 
born in Howard county, July 17, 1856, and after attending the com- 
mon schools, entered Central college, where he completed his educa- 
tion. In 1874, then only eighteen }'ears old, he began the study of 
medicine in Fayette, under Drs. Watts and Pile, and continued with 
them until 1875, when he went to St. Louis, and there studied under 
the celebrated Dr. J. T. Hogden four years, attending three terms of 
the St. Louis medical college, and graduating in 1879. In the spring 
of 1879, he returned to Fayette and commenced the practice of medi- 
cine, and, in 1880, formed his present partnership with Dr. Wright. 
He is a young physician of thorough training, and of great natural 
adaptability to his calling, and has already taken high rank in the 
medical profession of the county. He was married, April 26, 1881, 
to Miss Nannie Duncan, a lady of culture and many attractions, and 
they have two children — Mary L. and Charles E. Dr. Giveus was 
elected coroner of Howard county, in 1878, which position he now fills. 


In 1819, there was perhaps a larger immigration to Howard county, 
than in any other year of its early history. In the almost endless 
train of wagons that poured into this county from Kentucky, in the 
year 1819, were those of William Grimes, the father of the subject 
of this sketch. He was born in Scott county, Ky., March 29, 1797, 
and, when a young man, married Miss Rebecca, daughter of William 
Snell, also a Kentuckian, but an early settler in this county. She was 
born in 1795. Francis M. Grimes was born of this marriage, March 
30, 1829. Mr. Grimes, the father, first settled in this county near 
the place known as the " Salt Springs," but, in 1825, settled where 
Francis, his sou, now lives. His wife died May 3, 1867, and four 
months afterwards, September 7, 1867, he also passed away. He was 
an honest, intelligent and successful farmer, and as a neighbor and 
citizen, he was without reproach. Francis M. was reared on his 
father's farm, and received a good practical education from the neigh- 
borhood schools of the time. In 1856, then twenty-seven years of 
age, he was married, February 12, to Miss Addie, a daughter of Judge 
P. H. McBride, of the Missouri supreme court. They have ten chil- 
dren — Mary E., Emma, Addie M., Fannie B., Priestly H., William H., 
Ann E., Laura P., Lizzie T. and Francis M. Mr. Grimes owns an ex- 
cellent farm of 322^- acres, where he now lives, besides 107 acres in 
Boone county, and another tract in this county of fifty-two and a-half 
acres. In 1852, he was elected county surveyor, which position he 
continued to fill sixteen years. Mr. G. is a member of the Christian 
church. As a farmer he is one of the most successful and enterprising 


in the county, and as a neighbor and citizen no one is more highly re- 
spected and esteemed. 


livery and sale stables. Mr. Guss was brought up on a farm, which 
occupation he followed until he came to Fayette in 1882 and engaged 
in his present business. He was born in Pike county, 111., August 
2,3, 1851, where he was reared and lived until he came to Missouri. 
A year ago he engaged in his present business, buying out at that 
time the stables, etc., of Mr. S. Smith. He has a large amount of 
capital invested and is doing an excellent business. His barn is 64 by 
118 feet in dimensions, and he has nine " rigs " and fourteen horses. 
Mr. Guss was married February 7, 1877, to Miss Rebecca Lea ton, of 
Illinois, and they have one child — Lelah M. 


Thomas Harris, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was a 
pioneer in Kentucky with Daniel Boone. William Harris, the father 
of Claiborne B., was born in Kentucky, May 15, 1793, and came to 
Howard county, Mo., in 1821. He married Miss Margaret Downing, 
who was born December 15, 1792. They reared a family of eleven 
children, of whom C. B. was the tenth child. He was born March 17, 
1836. He was reared and educated in this county and remained with 
his father on the farm until 1861, when he enlisted in company A, 
Captain B. Cunningham's company of Missouri state guards, and 
served until October, 1862, and then re-enlisted in General Clark's regi- 
ment and served until the surrender at Shreveport, La., in June,. 
1865. He returned home and resumed farming with his father until 
1875, when he located on his present farm, which in- 
cludes 138i acres of well improved land. He married 
.Miss Susan E. Shores, September 19, 1872. She is a 
daughter of Rev. Wm. Shores, who come to Missouri in 1827. He 
died June 8, 1872. The mother of Mrs. Harris was Susan R. John- 
son ; she died June 24, 1872. Mr. Harris' mother died May 30, 
1867, and his father died May 15, 1876. Mr. Harris' brother, Har- 
din, who was a soldier, died at Little Rock, Ark., February 1, 1863, 
and his brother William served in Johnson's army and participated in 
many of the most important battles of the campaign. He returned 
to the old homestead in 1877 to remain permanently, and died April 
21, 1879. 


Prominent ampng the men whose names have long been identified 
with the history of Howard county is Andrew J. Herndon. He came 
to this county with his father's family in 1835, when but eighteen years 
(26) " 

382 HISTORY or HOWARD and cooper counties. 

of age, and has therefore been a resident of the county nearly fifty 
years. In public affairs and in the social life of the people, his name 
occupies a conspicuous position. For many years he has been in pub- 
lic life, either as a county officer or as a prominent attorney ; and, so- 
cially, he is connected with some of the leading families of the county — 
indeed, he is the founder of some of them — being connected with 
the Clarks, the Browns and others, and having now eleven children 
living and nineteen grandchildren, a number of whom are prominent 
citizens. Andrew J. Herndon was bora in Orange county, Virginia, 
July 23, 1817. His father, George Herndon, was also a Virginian by 
birth, but died in this state, where he had removed in 1847, in his 
seventy-fourth year. His mother, Sarah Herndon, whose maiden 
name was Teel, a native of Pennsylvania, but of German parentage, 
died in this county in 1855, at the age of sixty-eight years. Shortly 
after arriving in Fayette, in 1835, Andrew J., the subject of this 
sketch, having in the meantime acquired the elements of an education 
from the common schools of his native county in Virginia, entered 
here the Fayette academy, a school of advanced studies, in which he 
remained as a student about two years. He then taught school one 
year in the country, and afterwards three and a half years in Fayette, 
and during the same time studied law, utilizing his otherwise unoccu- 
pied time in that way ; and in 1841 he was admitted to the bar of the 
county, entering thereupon the active practice of his profession. In 
1842 he formed a partnership in the law practice with General John 
B. Clark, in which he contiued until 1857. He then entered into 
partnership with General JohnnB. Clark, Jr., and this firm was not 
dissolved until the outbreak of the war, in 1861. Twelve years later, 
in 1873, he became associated with Eobert T. Prewitt in the legal bus- 
iness, and two years afterwards, his son, John C. Herndon, became 
his partner. In 1846 Mr. Herndon was elected clerk of the county 
court of Howard county, and was re-elected in 1853 and again in 1859. 
In 1865 he was appointed clerk of the court by Governor Fletcher, 
and in 1866 elected to the office, and was the fourth time elected to 
the same position in 1870, serving until 1874. Prior to 1847, however, 
he had been once elected and once appointed to the office of justice of 
the peace, his terms extending from 1841 to 1846. » In 1838, on the 
21st of June, Mr. H. was married to Miss Emily F. Brown, 
daughter of Major Brown and his wife, Ann B., both natives of Ken- 
tucky, who came to Missouri while it was a territory — about 1816. 
Mrs. Brown was a sister to General John B. Clark. By this union Mr. 
Herndon now has living eleven children — Portia A., wife of Thomas 
Owings; Mary V., wife of Dr. F. B. Philpott, of Salisbury; Martha 
H., wife of Dr. L.P. Tooley, of Colusa, California; CameliaB., wife 
of Joseph H. Withers; Emily M., wife of Dr. F. C. Collier, of Saline 
county, Missouri; Dasie H., wife of A. C. Davis, of Salisbury, Mis- 
souri; and John C, Justine, Lizette, Addie L. and Andrew J. 


ADAM HENDRIX (deceased), 

educator, financier aud philanthropist. Among those whose names 
like stars brighten and beautify the past of Howard county, there is 
none whose name shines with a purer and more enduring light than 
that of the subject of these memoirs. A nobleman of nature in both 
mind and heart, his whole life was an unbroken chapter of duty faith- 
fully and well performed. Starting out into the world at an early 
age, with but little education and no means, by the exercise of the 
virtues of his own character he became a more than ordinarily suc- 
cessful man, and rounded oif a career, adorned with Christian graces 
from the beginning, by works of generous philanthrophy that will 
perpetuate his memory as long as the better qualities of human 
nature are esteemed among men. He came of eminently respectable 
families on both sides, and was brought up in a manner to strengthen 
a character naturally vigorous and upright. His grandfather, Colonel 
Adam Hendrix, was a prominent citizen of Pennsylvania, and repre- 
sented 'the people a number of times in the state legislature. His 
father, Joseph M. Hendrix, was a man of sterling integrity, superior 
intelligence, and of great energy and resolution. His mother, for- 
merly Miss Nancy McDonald, was of a worthy family of the old 
Keystone state. Mr. Hendrix's parents reared a family of nine 
children, only two of whom are now living — John M., of Ohio, and 
Joseph W., of Pennsylvania. Adam Hendrix, the subject of this 
sketch, was born in York county, Pennsylvania, August 21, 1813, and 
was reared in his native county up to the age of twenty. In boyhood 
and youth he had attended the ordinary schools, but had acquired 
only a limited education. Of an energetic disposition and an aspiring 
mind, 'and believing that he could better his fortunes in Maryland, he 
accordingly went to that state and located in Frederick county, in 
about 1833. There he was in close proximity to Long Green acad- 
emy, a prominent institution of learning, and he determined to enter 
that school for the completion of his education. In pursuance of 
this resolution he spent three years within its walls, and rose from a 
junior to the position of a teacher. Quitting his alma mater at the 
expiration of this time, equipped with a thorough education and 
qualified to teach by practical experience, he then took charge of 
Middletown academy, in the same county, which he cone icted with 
singular success and ability for five years. By this time the trans- 
Mississippi west had begun to attract flood-tides of immigration, 
and informing himself thoroughly as to the natural advantages of the 
new country, he became convinced that it was destined to become the 
abode of vast and prosperous communities, and that no other country 
then known offered opportunities for industry, intelligence and enter- 
prise, in almost every walk of life, equal to this. Accordingly, leaving 
his school in Maryland, he set out for the new country and landed 
at Quincy, Illinois, in the fall of 1838, coming thence by way of 
Palmyra, Hannibal, Paris, Huntsville, Keytesville and Brunswick, to 
Fayette, Howard county. This was more a prospecting journey than 


otherwise, but on reaching Fayette he was so pleased with the place 
and the beauty and fertility of the surrounding country, that he 
determined to make this locality his permanent home. He spent 
some six years in teaching in Fayette and vicinity. While thus occu- 
pied, there was one he had left behind who was taking a deep interest 
in his welfare and success, and she was kept faithfully informed of his 
progress and of all his hopes and objects. His wife she had promised 
to be, and in 1844 he was in a situation to return to Maryland and 
claim the fulfilment of that promise. It was happily redeemed upon 
his return, and with his young wife, formerly Miss Isabella J. Murray, 
he returned to his home in the west, where he spent the remainder 
of a long, useful and happy life. Here his progress was steadily up- 
ward and onward until at last his spirit passed beyond the skies. 
Among his fellow-men he rose higher and higher in their esteem, and in 
the pursuit of fortune he was not less favored. He became by pure 
methods and worthy enterprises a comparatively wealthy man. For two 
years after his marriage he taught school. So favorably had his char- 
acter and qualifications recommended him to those around him that at 
the expiration of this time, he was appointed to the responsible office of 
county treasurer, a position he filled by subsequent re-elections for 
twelve consecutive years. This fact alone is an eloquent testimonial 
to his purity, intelligence, and personal worth. While treasurer of 
the county, he also held the office of government pension agent, and 
discharged the duties of this position with the same fidelity and ability 
that characterized his performance of every trust. At the close of 
his county official term, he became cashier of the branch bank of the 
state of Missouri, at Fayette, and so continued until it was closed in 
1866. He then bought the banking building of that company and 
established a private bank, which he conducted until the time of his 
death^ While Mr. Heudrix was engaged in securing for himself and 
family a handsome fortune, he was also fully alive to all the benevo- 
lent and religious interests around him. He gave five hundred dollars 
towards the erection of Central college building, and five thousand 
dollars additional toward the endowment of the college. His interest 
in this noble institution of learning did not stop there. He became 
the treasurer of its board of regents, and discharged the duties of 
this office, free of charge, until the day of his death. He also gave 
liberally to the female college of Fayette, and ever proved himself a 
steadfast and active friend to education. For a great many years he 
was an earnest, exemplary member of the church, and was always 
generous of his means and active in his zeal for the cause of 
religion ; and it is but just to add in this connection, that in all good 
works, both benevolent and religious, his efforts were readily and 
hotly seconded by his excellent Christian wife, who still survives him, 
and who ever performed faithfully and with modest delicacy the duties 
of her relation in life. Nor can we forbear directing the attention of 
the young ladies of the present day to those good old mothers who 
stand among us as bright examples of an age gone by, and whose 
excellencies have been only brightened by the trials and vicissitudes 


of life. Five children were given Mr. and Mrs. Hendrix as Heaven's 
best benediction upon the marriage tie: Fremont M., the eldest, is 
now connected with the bank ; he was educated at the United States 
naval school at Annapolis, after which he spent four years in Europe 
engaged in naval service on the western coasts of the continent, and 
in parts of the Mediterranean sea. He was also often on the 
coasts of Africa. While in Europe he travelled extensively and visited 
most of the places of historic and landscape interest. He was pro- 
moted at various times and now holds the position of master on the 
retired list, under act of congress approved August 3, 1861 ; Dr. 
Eugene R., the second son, now president of Central college ; Joseph 
C, now the Brooklyn manager of the New York Sun, with which 
paper he has been connected since 1873 ; William F., and Mary B., the 
only daughter, now the wife of A. F. Davis, Esq. After a residence in 
Howard county of a long period, Mr. Hendrix died at his home in Fay- 
ette, May 31, 1876. In his death Howard county lost one of its most 
valued citizens, and the community in which he lived, one of its most 
worthy members. His life had been useful and just, and his death 
was deeply mourned by those among whom he had lived for so many 
years. In every relation of life he had performed faithfully and well 
the full measure of his duty, and when the time came for him to quit 
this tenement of clay, and enter into that abode eternal in the heavens 
not made of hands, he was prepared for the change, and fell to sleep 
in death as one who wraps his mantle about him and lies down to 
pleasant dreams. In token ot respect, every business house was 
closed during the funeral service, and students and citizens in a body 
followed his remains to the cemetery. 


president of Central college at Fayette. Dr. Hendrix was born in 
Fayette, Missouri, May 17, 1847. His father, Adam Hendrix, was a 
banker, and during twenty-five years treasurer of the board of cura- 
tors of Central college. Religiously trained, Dr. Hendrix, when a lad 
of less than twelve years of age, made a profession of religion and 
became a member of the Methodist church south. Feeling called of 
God to preach, he determined, when sixteen years of age, to equip 
himself thoroughly for the work. During the suspension of Central 
college on account of the war, Dr. Hendrix entered the Wesleyan 
university, Middletown, Connecticut, where he graduated with high 
honor in 1867. Later he pursued his theological studies at the Union 
theological seminary, New York city, receiving its diploma in 1869. 
Having enjoyed the best facilities for education the country could 
give, Dr. Hendrix at once began his ministry at the bottom, prefer- 
ring to have a mission church, that he might become fully familiar 
with the poorer classes. His first appointment, accordingly, in 1869, 
was at Leavenworth mission, Kansas. After the general conference 
of 1870 divided the Missouri conference, so as to make the western 
conference include Kansas and Nebraska, he joined his fortunes with 


the Missouri conference proper, where he has since labored. In 
1870-72 he was pastor of the Macon City station. In 1872-76 he 
was pastor of the Francis street church, St. Joseph, Missouri. While 
there he awakened a deep interest in missions throughout the church 
by becoming personally responsible for two years for the support of 
the Rev. A. P. Parker, missionary to China, the first missionary who 
had been sent to China for seventeen years. The Francis street 
church, during his four years' pastorate, gave $2,000 for missions. 
In 1876-77 he accompanied Bishop Marvin on his missionary tour. 
His letters during that time attracted such attention that he was re- 
quested to publish them in a permanent form. This volume, 
"Around the World," has run through a number of editions, and 
has received the highest compliment for its literary qualities, as well 
as for its statement of facts. In 1877, while pastor at Glasgow, Mis- 
souri, Dr. Hendrix was unanimously elected president of Central col- 
lege, to succeed Dr. Wills, who had recently died. The degree of 

D. D. was conferred on him by Emory college, Georgia, at the early 
age of thirty-one, being, perhaps, the youngest divine on whom that 
degree has ever been conferred by any leading college in the United 
States. He is also one of the few American scholars who have been 
elected to membership in the Victoria institute, the philosophical 
society of Great Britain. Dr. Hendrix has been eminently successful 
as president of Central college, the endowment having been more 
than doubled during his administration and the number of students 
increased over a third. June 20, 1872, he was married to Miss, Annie 

E. Scarritt, daughter of Rev. Nathan Scarritt, D. D., of Kansas City. 
Four children have blessed this union : Evangeline, Mary, Nathan 
and Helen. 


It has been truthfully and aptly said that " Some men honor 
their occupations ; others are honored by them." Mr. Hickerson is a 
striking example of the former class. He is a farmer, and is an orna- 
ment to his calling. He came to this county in 1849, with but little 
means, and by industry and intelligent management has placed him- 
self in the front rank of the progressive and enterprising farmers of 
the country. He has a farm of four hundred and ninety-seven acres, 
and the appearance it presents shows at a glance the character of 
man he is. He was born in Fauquier county, Virginia, December 
2d, 1820. His father, Hiram Hickerson, and mother, whose mime 
before her marriage was Mary O. Smith, were also natives of the 
Old Dominion. He was the second of eleven children, and in com- 
pany with his father's family came to Missouri in 1849. His father 
died in Carroll county, this state, January 13, 1877, his mother hav- 
ing preceded her husband in death about seventeen years. Mr; Hick- 
erson settled at once in Howard county on reaching this state, and 
has lived here ever since. He first located on a farm near Glasgow, 
but three years afterwards settled where he now resides. He was 


married December 29, 1850, to Mrs. Emily George, a widow lady of 
the most excellent worth (her maiden name having been Hickerson), 
and they have four children : Alfred P., Eveland D., William R. and 
Bettie M. During the war in 1862, Mr. Hickerson enlisted in Captain 
Cunningham's company of General Clark's command, but served only 
eight months on account of physical disability, having been honora- 
bly discharged at the expiration of that time. In 1872, he was elected 
one of the members of the county court, which position he filled with 
marked ability and fidelity to the interests of the county. He is a 
man universally respected, and as a neighbor and a friend none are 
more highly esteemed by those who enjoy his confidence. 


Mr. Houck is the proprietor and editor of the Missouri Independ- 
ent, one of the most substantial and best edited county papers in cen- 
tral Missouri. Like most successful newspaper men, he is what may 
not improperly be called a self-made man. He commenced in the 
newspaper business at the bottom of the ladder, first learning to set 
type when a mere boy. From there he has come steadily up, notwith- 
standing the set-backs experienced during the war and other misfor- 
tunes, until now he occupies a practically independent position in his 
business. Isaac Newton Houck was born in Palmyra, Missouri, October 
2, 1834. His father, Devault Houck, was a native of Ohio, and his 
mother, whose maiden name was Mary Hawkins, was born in West 
Virginia. His parents came to Missouri in an early day and settled 
in Palmyra, where Isaac N., as stated above, was born. From Pal- 
myra they went to Van Buren, Arkansas, and there the subject of this 
sketch was principally reared and educated. When quite a youth he 
commenced to learn the printer's trade, which became his regular oc- 
cupation, and with this and his books in school and at home, his boy- 
hood days were closely and profitably occupied. In 1856, then in his 
twenty-second year, he came to Missouri and worked in his brother's 
office until his death, in June of 1857. He then foremanized the 
Statesman for Colonel Svvitzler, in Boone county, for nearly one year. 
He afterwards returned to Van Buren. However, he remained in Ar- 
kansas but one year after his i-eturn and then again came to Missouri, 
this time to Fayette. He followed his occupation here until 1860, 
when he purchased the Howard county Banner and became the pub- 
lisher and editor of that paper. In this he continued through the 
three most exciting and perilous years of the war, and until 1864, when 
his office was destroyed by Federal soldiery. After the close of the 
war, in 1865, he reorganized the Banner office and General John B. 
Clark became his partner, but one year later he sold out to General 
Clark and went to Eocheport, Missouri, where he became identified 
with the Times of that place. Subsequently he went to Cooper county 
and started the Boonville Democrat, and afterwards, in 1879, re- 
turned to Howard county and established the Missouri Independent, 
which he has since published. In 1857, Mr. Houck was united in mar- 


riage to Miss Susan McClanahan, daughter of Win. Eobinson and niece 
of the late Gerard Robinson, of Howard county Missouri. They have 
three children, Minnie A., Jennie S., wife of Joseph Forbis, and William 
R. Mr. Houck is a strong independent thinker and writer, and as an 
editor he strives faithfully to keep the people informed in all matters 
of public concern, regardless of fear or favor from any quarter. 


The Howard family, of Howard county, as its name indicates, is 
of English descent. Its ancestry leads back to Thomas Howard, 
earl of Surry, and third duke of Norfolk, an eminent statesman and 
soldier of the time of Henry VIII, who distinguished himself in the 
battle of Flodden. Benjamin Howard, a descendant of his, who set- 
tled in Virginia, in about 1660, was the founder of the family in this 
countiy. He left two sons — Thomas and Henry. Henry went to 
Baltimore, Md., and from him descended John Eager Howard, a dis- 
tinguished soldier in the revolutionary war, and afterwards governor 
of Maryland, and United States senator from that state. Thomas 
Howard remained in Virginia, and of his family came Gen. Benjamin 
Howard, of Kentucky, a member of congress, governor of the terri- 
tory of Louisiana, and a brigadier-general in the United States army. 
Branches of the Virginia Howards also settled in South Carolina and 
Ohio. Tilghman A. Howard, a member of congress from the former 
state, and William Howard, a member from the latter, were represent- 
atives of these branches. Thomas Howard, the subject of this sketch, 
a leading citizen of Howard county, comes of the Kentucky branch. 
His father, Matthew Howard, who served in the war of 1812, son of 
Benjamin Howard, and brother to the mother of Judge Tolsou, of this 
county, was born in Madison county, Ky., February 16, 1794. In 
1816, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Tolson, then a young lady of 
Kentucky, but born in Virginia, in 1796. They had five children, of 
whom Thomas Howard, of this county, was the eldest. In 1819, the 
parents with their children immigrated to Howard county, and here, 
thirty-two years afterwards, in October, 1851, the father died, the 
mother following her husband in death in 1862. Matthew Howard 
was a man of strong character and superior intelligence, and although 
averse to public life, he was a recognized leader of the men among 
whom he lived ; and when he died he left an honorable name behind 
him. Thomas Howard was born November 16, 1817, also in Madison 
county, Ky. He was, therefore, but one year old when his father 
came to this county. His father being a farmer, he was brought up 
to that occupation, which he has ever since followed. In 1844, he 
settled on the place where he now lives, which embraces a tract of 
sixteen hundred acres of the best quality of land. His farm is one of 
the well improved farms of the county. Mr. Howard was married 
January 11, 1844, to Miss Elizabeth Shields, who was born and brought 
up in this county, a daughter of Frank Shields, who came to Howard 
county in 1819. Nine children are now living of this union — Mary 


E., Benjamin, Matthew, Sallie, James, Joseph, Thomas, Nellie and 
Paul. He has been a member of the Baptist church for many years, 
and not only as a church member, but as a neighbor and citizen he 
stands as well as any man in the county. Mr. Howard, although well 
qualified for any public position where sober good sense and sound 
judgment are required, has no political ambition, being content to 
live a quiet, honorable and Christian life, surrounded by a family 
where his whole heart abides, enjoying the friendship of neighbors 
and the confidence of all who know him. 


Mr. Hudson's grandfather was a Virginian and was one of the 
pioneer settlers of Woodford county, Ky. He came to that county 
when Thomas Hudson, the father of Robuck, was a small boy, and 
there he reared his family. Thomas, on attaining to manhood, was 
married in his native county to Miss Jemima Cavender, and of this 
union eight children grew up, of whom Robuck was the second. He 
was born in Woodford county, Ky., October 2, 1817. In 1826, the 
subject of this sketch then being but nine years old, the family came 
to Missouri and settled in Boone county and there the father died in 
1844. Mrs. Hudson died twelve years afterwards in 1856. Robuck 
lived in Boone county until 1850, when he came to Howard county. 
Since his immigration to this county he has lived on three different 
farms including the one where he now resides. His present place 
consists of one hundred and four acres of good land. On the 17th of 
March, 1842, he was married to Miss Mary W. Preston, a young lady 
of Kentucky, fourth daughter of John Preston, of Clark county, 
that state." They have had seven children, four of whom are now 
living — Mary C, Cassander, Joeller and Ida L. 


was born in Howard county, Mo., March 11, 1822. His parents were 
both natives of Kentucky. His father, William Hughes, came to this 
county in 1820 ; and his mother, whose maiden name was Anna M. 
Morrison, was a sister to Judge Alfred Morrison of this county. 
John L, was reared here on his father's farm, but his father being a 
tanner by trade he also learned that business, and followed it in con- 
nection with his father until the latter' s death, after which he contin- 
ued it with J. Roper until 1850. He then went to California and 
engaged in saw-milling in Shasta City of that state, until 1852. Re- 
turning to this county, he settled on a farm near New Franklin, 
where he lived ten years. In 1862, he located on a part of the old 
home farm and followed farming there until in 1875, when he settled 
on the place where he now lives. He has an excellent farm of 220 
acres. On the 22d of May, 1856, he was married to Miss Marcella 
Leland, a native of Virginia, and a most worthy and excellent lady. 
They have four children now living — Lawrence, John L., Virginia J. 
and Nena L. Mr. Hughes is a member of the Episcopal church. 



It is now nearly sixty-five years since the father of Mr. Hurt, 
PaytonL., came to Howard county from Kentucky. Like most of 
the early settlers in this county from the Blue Grass state, he, too, 
was originally from Virginia. He first emigrated from the Old Do- 
minion to Madison county, Ky., and, having lived there some years 
and hearing of the better country along the fertile banks of the Mis- 
souri, he pushed on to this county in 1819. In the mean time he had 
married, Miss Jemima Winn, of Kentucky, having become his wife. 
On first coming to this county he settled near Glasgow, but in 1851 
opened the farm now known as the " home farm," at present owned 
by G. Wilcoxson. Payton L. Hurt reared a family of ten children 
and Erasmus F. M., the subject of this sketch, was the ninth. He 
was brought up to the occupation of a farmer, which he has ever since 
followed. In 1860 he settled on the farm where he now lives, which 
contains eighty acres of good, rich land and is substantially improved. 
He was married February 17, 1859, to Miss Margaret E. Markland, of 
this county. They have four children living — Ollie C, Wm. H., 
John B. and Ellina E. Mr. Hurt is an exemplary member of the M. 
E. church south. 


ranks among the oldest residents as well as most respected citizens of 
Howard county. He is now seventy years of age, and sixty-five years 
of his life have been spent in this county. His father, William, a na- 
tive of South Carolina, was one of the early settlers here, having come 
to Howard county in 1818, and in this county he made the first salt 
ever made from Bass & Shackelford's lick. He — the father — was 
born December 29, 1775, and emigrated from South Carolina to Ken- 
tucky at an early day. There he lived until he came to Missouri, and 
there he married, September 16, 1802, Miss Catherine Barnes, who 
was born May 30, 1782. They had ten children, of whom Talton, 
the subject of this sketch, was the sixth. William Johnson, the 
father, served in the war of 1812 as a volunteer from Kentucky, 
and subsequently came with his family to this state, where he lived , 
until his death. His wife died January 15, 1852, and he followed her 
about five years afterwards — May 10, 1857. Talton Johnson was 
reared on his father's farm, in this county, having been born in Madi- 
son county, Kentucky, March 26, 1813. He was married March 27, 
1842, to Miss Amanda Caspar, born in October, 1824, daughter of 
John Caspar, who settled in this county at an early day. They have 
reared seven children — Mary, William, Mattie, James", Kate, Walter 
and Emma, and they have six dead. Mr. Johnson has an excel- 
lent farm of 560 acres, and much of it is in a good state of 
cultivation and improvement. For several years he held the office 
of bridge commissioner of the county and, subsequently was elected 
county judge, which office he held two years. He is a member of 


the Christian church, and was ordained an elder and preacher in 1860, 
hut has never received anything for his services in the ministry. He 
is one of the best and truest of a noble generation of men, now rapid- 
ly passing away, whose name and memory it is well to transmit to 


son of James D. and Melissa (Barnes) Jordan, was born in Howard 
county March 28, 1847. He was reared on a farm, and followed it as 
an occupation until 1864, when he enlisted in the Confederate army, 
in Colonel Slayback's regiment, where he remained a short time and 
then joined Colonel Searcey's battalion and remained until the sur- 
render at Shreveport, Louisiana, in June, 1865. He soon returned to 
his home and- resumed farming with his father until 1869, and 
then settled on his present farm, in section 36, which includes 
210 acres, well improved. He was married August 20, 1867, to 
Miss Mary Patterson, daughter of J. W. A. Patterson. Their 
family consists of four children — James D., Laura R., Sophia and 
Allie J. Mr. J. is a member of -the I. O. O. F. 


who was one of the early settlers and substantial citizens of Howard 
county, Missouri, was born in Pennsylvania October 9, 1808. His 
father, Henry Knaus, and mother, Catherine Walters, were also 
natives of Pennsylvania, and were born, the father, October 22, 
1771, and the mother November 7, 1773. They were married April 
5, 1791, and in 1817 emigrated to Missouri, settling in Old Franklin, 
in this county, where they made their permanent home. Henry Knaus 
was a blacksmith by trade, and the maker of the celebrated' " Knaus 
axe," by which his name became a household word all over this sec- 
tion of the state. He was a man of sturdy worth and strict integrity, 
and enjoyed the confidence and esteem of all who knew him. Mrs. 
Knaus came of an excellent family, and to the elevating influence of 
her character upon her children is due not a little of the success in 
life they afterwards achieved. John Knaus, the subject of this 
memoir, was brought up to the blacksmith trade, and succeeded his 
father in the business, continuing the manufacture of the " Knaus 
axe," which had now come into almost universal use. Inheriting his 
father's qualities of integrity, industry and perseverance, and enjoy- 
ing the advantages of a practical education, in securing which his 
mother had greatly interested herself, he succeeded from the first in 
the business his father had left him, and, giving his attention also to 
farming and other interests, soon accumulated a handsome compe- 
tence. He was married, April 5, 1841, to Miss Mary A. Crews, a 
lady of intelligence and refinement, born October 16, 1822. Of this 
union six children were born — Nannie A., wife of Reuben Long; 
Walter C, Joseph H., Albert G., Ella and Alsis — all of whom are 
now living. Mr. Knaus died March 6, 1878, and his wife, who sur- 
vived him about three years, August 2, 1881. 



now serving his second term as clerk of the circuit court of Howard 
county, was born in this county September 23, 1843. He was second 
of a family of six, the children of John Knaus, a sketch of whose life 
has just been given. He was reared on his father's farm, near New 
Franklin, and in youth had the advantage of good schools, where he 
acquired the more practical parts of an English education. When 
about twenty-one years of age he engaged as clerk in a general store 
at Boonesboro, this county, and there continued until he entered upon 
the duties of circuit clerk in 1879. Having discharged the duties of 
that office to the satisfaction of the people, in 1882 he was elected 
for a further term of four years, to expire in 1886. Mr. Knaus is not 
an accident in public life. He is a man of excellent business quali- 
ties, and he is respected by all with whom he comes in contact. 


pastor M. E. church south, is a native of South Carolina, having 
been born Majch 13, 1846. When twelve years of age-, his parents 
went to Alabama, and in the military institute of that state he was 
educated. In 1867 he was licensed to preach, and two years after- 
wards was duly ordained. His first charge was in Montgomery, 
Alabama, after which he was stationed at Monticello, in the same 
state. In 1870 he came to Missouri, and in 1871 had charge of the 
church in this city. In 1872 he was stationed at Wright City, Mis- 
souri, and the following year went to Jonesburg, where he remained 
'two years. In 1875 he took charge of the church in Clarksville, 
Missouri,' and in 1878 was sent to Louisiana. There he remained 
four years, and in 1882 came to Fayette, where he is now stationed. 
Rev. Mr. Leadbetter is a faithful, earnest minister of the gospel, and 
is a man of more than ordinary natural ability. He has been a close 
student, and as a thinker and speaker is cultured and vigorous. His 
father, Henry W. Leadbetter, was a native of North Carolina, and 
his mother, whose maiden name was Belinda Herndon, was also orig- 
inally of the same state. On the 25th of November, 1869, Rev. Mr. 
Leadbetter was married to Miss Sue M. Meredith, a native of Ala- 
bama. They have three children — Jodie, Willie and Alice. 


who for nearly sixty years has been a resident of Howard county, ' 
is a son of Joseph and Mary (Shields) Leveridge, both of whom were 
born in Kentucky, the former in 1797, and the latter in 1799. James, 
the eldest of four living children by the marriage, was born in Madi- 
son county, Kentucky, February 10, 1818, and came with his parents 
to this county in 1824. He was early deprived of the care of a father 
in consequence of his being killed by the kick of a horse in 1828. 
He was reared a farmer and has since followed this vocation. Dur- 


ing the late war he served in the Missouri state guards for six 
months. Mr. L. has been twice married, first, February 10, 1842, 
to Miss Jane McCully, a daughter of William McCully. Mrs. Lev- 
eridge died, September 3, 1874. His second marriage occurred Feb- 
ruary 19, 1878, to Mrs. Martha A. Harris, widow of Ezekiel Harris. 
Her maiden name was Shores. The mother of Mr. Leveridge was 
married a second time to Jacob Ditzler. To them were born eight 
children, two of whom are now living. Mrs. Ditzler died in 1876. 




of Megraw & Son, contractors, builders and dealers in lumber. 
In 1847, Mr. Megraw, then a youth seventeen years of age, came 
from Ireland to this country and settled in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
There he learned the carpenter's trade and remained until 1852, 
when he came on to Fayette, where he has since lived. His parents 
were both natives of Ireland, and there both lived and died. His 
mother, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Adair, died in 1849, two 
years before he sailed for America, and his father, Joseph Megraw, 
in 1866. Joseph, the subject of this sketch, was born, February 28, 
1830. On the 17th of August, 1858, he was married here to Miss 
Martha Tindall, daughter of T. Tindall, an old and highly-respected 
citizen of this county. They now have five children living: 
JosephE., Emma, William J., Thomas T. and Bob J. When Mr. 
Megraw landed in this country he was a stranger in a strange land 
and' without means. But the material was in him out of which suc- 
cessful men are made. He could work, and he was not ashamed or 
afraid to do it. For many years he has been one of the leading con- 
tractors and builders of Howard county, and there is hardly an im- 
portant edifice in Fayette or the surrounding country that he has not 
constructed or been consulted in regard to its construction. The 
court-house, the school-house and other buildings almost innumerable, 
attest the fact that he has not led an idle life. He has been one of 
the school directors since 1868 — for fifteen years — and he has 
been twice called to serve as a member of the city council. 


of Maisburger & Smith, blacksmiths. Mr. Maisburger was hardly 
a year old when he was brought with his father's family to this 
country from Germany, in 1848, having been born in that country 
October 19th, 1847. The family first settled in St. Louis and in a 
few years afterwards came to B6onville, Missouri, where they re- 
mained several years and then returned to St. Louis. Returning to 
Boonville they made that their permanent home, and there Joseph, 
the subject of this sketch, was principally reared. In 1860 he began 
the blacksmith trade which he learned and has ever since followed. 
In April, 1882, he came to Fayette and established his present busi- 
ness, forming a partnership with Mr. Smith. He has a family consist- 


ing of his wife and four children. His wife, before her marriage, 
which was solemnized June 29th, 1872, was a Miss Laura Huber, and 
his children are John, Albert T., Mary and Willie. He is a member 
of the Catholic church. 


proprietor of the Hotel Howard and present mayor of Fayette, 
was born in Glasgow, Missouri, October 2, 1844. His father, Alex- 
ander Mitchell, an old and prominent citizen of Howard county, is a 
native of Virginia, and was born in Gloucester county, April 23d, 
1807. He was reared in his native state, where in early youth he ac- 
quired a good practical education, and afterwards learned the carriage 
maker's business, which he followed there and subsequently a number 
of years in this state. In 1835 he was married to Miss Julia C, 
daughter of Daniel Brown, of Essex county. Four years afterwards 
he came with his family to this state, first locating in Boone county 
where he remained eighteen months. In 1841 he moved to Glasgow, 
in Howard county, and engaged in carriage making, which he followed 
in that place until 1846, when he came to Fayette, where he has since 
lived. Here he pursued his regular occupation for twenty years. In 
1866 he was elected to the office of mayor — the position his son now 
holds — to which he was annually re-elected for fifteen years, his last 
term expiring in 1881. He is now a venerable old gentleman, six 
years beyond the allotted age of three score and ten and is still well 
preserved in mind and body. His life has been an active and useful 
one, and above all, it has been honorable and upright, and he has an 
enviable position in the social and public life of the community in 
which he lives. His good wife has been spared, a motherly and noble- 
hearted woman, to accompany him and comfort him in his old age. 
Ten children have blessed this union, eight of whom are still living: 
Richard and Edward O. are engaged in the drug business in Linn 
county; Alexander, Jr., and David L. live in Cole county; Julia C. 
is the wife of Charles Lee, of this county ; Misses Maria and Laura 
are with their parents, and Captain William F. is the mayor of Fay- 
ette, and the subject of this sketch. William F.'s youth was not 
wasted in idleness, but was closely occupied and to good 1 advantage, 
either by attendance in school or by work ; for the disposition of his 
father to industry was transmitted to the son, and, besides this, his 
father was not the man to bring his sons up in idleness. He had the 
advantages afforded by the common schools of Fayette and later on 
entered Central college, but his college course was cut off before 
graduation by the breaking out o'f the war. However, he had suc- 
ceeded in acquiring a good practical education before the war began, 
notwithstanding he was then but seventeen years of age. Like most 
of the young men of southern parentage and sympathies in central 
Missouri, he identified himself with the south in the struggle between 
the sections, and in August, 1861, enlisted in Captain Major's com- 
pany of General Clark's division, Missouri state guards, where he 


served three months. He was then transferred to Wade's battery in 
the regular Confederate service, in which he followed the three-barred 
flag of the south through victory and defeat until he was captured in 
1862. He was then confined in the military prisons of St. Louis and 
Alton until the summer of 1863. In Alton he was prostrated with the 
small-pox and, his health breaking completely d